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quest for the transfer of the Indian Bureau seemed have not been revised since 1863, are to be to be based particularly upon the assumption, very thoroughly examined, and a new series adoptwas responsible for all the wars. It was said that ed, to become a part of the eventual work of the Indian agent steals the Indian supplies; that the reorganization. The important feature of the Indians at last grew desperate, und there were wars.
bill is the abolishment of a staff as a distincThat was not the fact at all. There was scarcely a tive corps of the army, and the interchangeasingle instance where it was the fact. The real cause bility of the line and staff for the offices in the of almost all of our Indian wars was the breaking several departments, excepting the engineer of treaties and encroachments upon the lands and rights of the Indian by the white man. Then, also, corps. Better provision is to be made for the it must be considered that the Indians themselves education of the cavalry branch of the serwere not angels, and that they had in some instances vice, giving it equality in this respect with the been guilty of outrages which had provoked the resentment of the whites.
ordnance and artillery branch, and additional
means will be secured for training officers in The report of the commission will not be the higher branches of their profession. inade until after the commencement of 1879. The action of Congress on this report will
At the same time that this joint committee take place before the close of the session, on was ordered, another was directed by Con- March 4, 1879. gress to examine and report on the reorganiza By reference to the proceedings of Congress, tion of the army. (See Congress, C. S.) This the animated debate of that body on the amendwork was completed before the opening of the ment to the army bill forbidding the use of session of 1878–79. After making very ex the army as a posse comitatus will be found. tensive investigations, the committee report a The measure was deemed worthy of notice by codification of all laws relating to the army the Secretary of War, who describes its pracinto one act. The main features kept in view tical operation : in the plan of reorganization are the disposi The fifteenth section of the act of Congress of tion and use of the army in time of peace as June 18, 1878, provides that a frontier and Indian police, and, second, its From and after the passage of this act it shall not be lawdisposition as a nucleus of offensive and de
ful to employ any part of the army of the l'nited States as
a posse comitatus or otherwise, for the purpose of executing fensive force for foreign war. The number of the laws, except in such cases and under such circumstances the rank and file is limited to 20,000 men, ex
as such employment of said force may be expressly authorized clusive of the signal corps. The system of by the Constitution or by act of Congress. organization of the artillery branch of the provision be repealed or that the number of cases in
In my judgment it is important either that this service is changed from regimental formation which the use of the army shall be "expressly auto batteries or companies. The artillery arm thorized " be very much enlarged. In many poris consolidated with the ordnance corps. The tions of our Western Territories, and even in some Quartermaster-General's and ('ommissary-Gen- Portions of the newer States, a resolute desperado, eral's staffs are consolidated under the control and any local posse that can be organized. During
with a few followers, can defy the officers of the law of the Quartermaster's Department, and the the year numerous attacks have been made upon the staff corps as a distinctive branch of the ser- mail-coaches in New Mexico and Arizona for purvice is abolished. The engineer and medical poses of robbery and plunder; and while I have corps retain their present distinctive organiza- States may be defended by the use of troops, 1 liave
been of the opinion that the mails of the United tion. The Adjutant-General's, Quartermaster- been obliged to give instructions that they can not, General's, Inspector-General's, and Paymaster- without disregarding the act of Congress, þe emGeneral's staffs are done away with, and the ployed to aid the officers of the law in capturing the system of interchangeability of line and staff robbers after they have committed the crime. In officers substituted, similar to the European doing so, they would act as a posse comitatus, and
expressly authorized." In system of organization, the object being to the new and sparsely populated regions of the West, give all the officers of the army an opportunity to say to robbers and thieves that they shall not be of perfecting themselves in a practical knowl- taken on any writ unless the sheriff' and his local edge of the several branches of service in the posse are able to capture them without aid from the army. In order to reduce the number of ofli- soldiers, is almost to grant them immunity from
arrest. In those new regions the army is the power cers, it is provided that there shall be no more
chietly relied upon by the law-abiding people for promotions or appointments until the number protection, and chiefly feared by the lawless classes. of general and line officers is reduced to a cer
Numerous instances might be cited, but the recent tain number. The offices of general and lieu
occurrences in Lincoln County, New Mexico, consti
tuto a striking example. The inability of the otficer tenant-general will cease with the decease of in command of the troops in that vicinity to aid the the present incumbents. The number of major- officers of the law in making arrests was one of the generals and brigadier-generals is to be re- principal causes which led to the most disgraceful Quced to the lowest point. No change is made archy. This state of things continued until a case in the West Point Military Academy, and the could bo made for declaring the district in insurrecgeneral provisions of the bill look to the elim- tion, after which a proclamation of warning was is, ination erentually of all officers of the army sued by the President, when the troops were called who havo not received a thorough military into action and at once restored quiet. I am clearly education. The work of surveys and triangu- of the opinion that the President should be left free lations is to be exclusively under the control of the Federal courts whenever he shall deem it
The army regulations, which necessary ; but if such use is to be limited to cases
of the ariny.
where, as declared by the act above quoted, it “is and enforce the laws in case the disturbances and expressly authorized by the Constitution or by acts unlawful combinations continue after the time named. of Congress,” then it is respectfully submitted that The President therefore directs that you instruct the Congress should give very careful attention to the proper military officer that after the time above menenumeration and specification of the cases in which tioned has expired he will proceed to disperse by such use of troops is to be permitted.
military force all such unlawful combinations or asThe proclamation of the President, spoken he will, by the use of such force, and so long as re
semblages of persons within said Territory, and that of by the Secretary of War, in which Lincoln sistance to the laws shall continue, aid the Governor County, New Mexico, was declared in a state and authorities of the Territory in keeping the peace of insurrection, and an opening thus made for and enforcing the laws.
I have the honor to remain your obedient servant, the use of the army in the suppression of civil
GEORGE W. McCR. RÝ, Secretary of War. disturbances, was as follows:
To Geueral W. T. SUERMAN. Whereas, It is provided in the laws of the United States that whenever, by reason of unlawful combi The orders were accordingly given to the nation or assembly of persons, or a rebellion against Brigadier-General commanding the Military the authority of the Government of the United States, Department of Missouri to employ, if necesit shall become impracticable, in the judgment of the President, to enforce the ordinary course of ju- sary to enforce the conditions announced by dicial proceedings the laws of the United States the President, the forces under his command within any State or Territory, it shall be lawful for at the time and for the purposes indicated. the President to call forth the militia of all the States, During the prevalence of the yellow fever in and to employ such part of the land and naval force the Southern States, the War Department sent as he may deem necessary, to enforce the execution of the laws, or to suppress such rebellion in what- forward rations, tents, and some medicines to ever State or Territory thercof the laws of the United the destitute in New Orleans, Memphis, GrenaStates may be forcibly opposed, or the execution da, and Chattanooga. thereof forcibly obstructed; and
For the improvement of rivers and harbors, Whereas, It has been made to appear to me that, for the promotion of the general commerce of by reason of unlawful combinations and assemblages the country, the sum of $5,015,000 was granted enforce, by the ordinary course of judicial proceed- for 1877, nothing for 1878, and $5,015,000 was ings, the laws of the United States within the Terri- asked for 1879. tory of New Mexico, especially within Lincoln County, and that the laws of the United States have been ring the year 79,260 passengers, 11,400 beasts,
The Quartermaster's Department moved dutherein forcibly opposed and the execution thereof forcibly resisted; and,
and 109,261 tons of military material. There Whereas, The laws of the United States require are in the office of the Quartermaster-General that whenever it may be necessary, in the judgment twenty four thousand claims and accounts unof the President, to use the militia for the purpose settled, calling for $13,090,000. of the faithful execution of the 1:ws of the United States, he shall forth with, by proclamation, com
The work upon the seacoast defenses, owing mand 'such insurgents to disperse and retire peace
to the lack of appropriations, has been limited ably to the irrespective abodes within a limited time: to the care and preservation of the works.
Now, therefore, I, Rutherford B. llaves, President The system governing the construction of the of the United States, do hereby admonish all good works of defense was elaborated and adopted citizens of the United States, and especially of the in 1869, the main features of which are the use nancing, abetting, or taking part in such unlawful of heavy earthen barbette batteries, protected proceedings; and' hereby warn all persons engaged by high traverses, and arranged for guns and in or connected with said obstruction to the laws to mortars of large caliber, to be supplemented in disperse and return peaceably to their respective the future by guns of the heaviest inodern caliabodes on or before October 13th, instant.
In witness whereof, I bavo hereunto set my hand ber, and of obstructions in the channels (mainly and caused the seal of the United States to be asfixed. electrical torpedoes) to prevent vessels from
Done at the city of Washington, this 7th day of running past the batteries. The Chief of EnOctober, in the yoar of our Lord 1878, and of the in- gineers recommends, in addition to completdependence of the United States the one hundred ing the open batteries already partially conand third.
By the President: F. W. Seward, Acting Secretary structed, the conversion of some of the caseof State.
mated forts for the reception of guns of the The following is the letter of the Secretary The trials and experiments with the torpedo
largest caliber behind arınor-plates of iron. of War addressed to General Sherman relative defense have continued at Willett's Point with to the above proclamation :
satisfactory results. The battalion of engineers, WAR DEPARTMENT, I WASIINGTON, October 8th. ;
under the law reducing the army, has been GENERAL: The President has issued a proclama- fixed at 200 enlisted men. This number is tion, declaring that by reason of unlawful obstruc- thought to be too small for the efficient pertion, combinations, and assemblages of persons, the formance of the duties required of them. laws of the United States within the Territory of New Mexico, and especially in Lincoln County there
On October 1st there were in store as a rein, can not be enforced by the ordinary course of ju- serve supply only 22,583 arms of the latest dicial proceedings, and commanding the persons model. The Hotchkiss gun has been approved comprising such combinations or assemblages to dis- by the board of officers convened by order of perso and repair penceably to their respective abodes the Secretary of War for the purpose of recproclamation is preliminary to the employment of ommending a magazine gun for the military the troops of the United States to preserve the peace service.
The number of military convicts confined in war, and a very large number has been added to the the military prison of Fort Leavenworth on
files through the medium of correspondence. There November 25th was 375. They are chiefly
are yet some important reports missing, but hopes
are entertained of procuring them. The Confederoccupied in the manufacture of shoes for the
ate records obtained in Richmond at the time of its troops.
capture were brought here in 1865, and have been An order was issued by the President on carefully arranged; . The agent recently appointed, April 12th granting to Gen. Fitz John Porter
Gen. Marcus J. Wright, bas been assiduously and a court of inquiry into such new evidence as
successfully engaged for the past five months in he might offer relative to a sentence of a court- Through a candid and liberal understanding with
procuring interesting papers relating to that side. martial in 1862 which dismissed hiin from the the Southern Ilistorical Society, as well as with sev army.
eral other possessors of such papers, this Department The condition of the Union and Confederate is daily adding to its material for a history of the war. war records is stated by the Secretary of War considerable amount of matter systematically ar
The Department is ready to transmit to Congress & to be as follows:
ranged so soon as specific action by Congress shall The records of the war of the rebellion, both Union
enable it to do so. The appropriations heretofore and Confederate, are under the charge of the Adju- made have been for preparing for publication, not for tant-General of the Army. The work of preparing
publishing. these for publication is under charge of Col. Robert
ASIA. The area and population of the difN. Scott, to whose report I invite attention. The work of collecting reports of battles by Union com
ferent divisions of Asia were given as follows manders, which were not originally forwarded, has
in 1878 (see Behm and Wagner, “Bevölkerung been unremittingly prosecuted since the close of the der Erde," v., Gotha, 1878):
Soongaria / (see China).
Russian Central Asia
Sunda and Molucca Islands.
1.45 146,613 20,413 551,186 90,100
1.96 1,437 24,702
188,421,264 48,110,200 3.800,000
271,460 444,617 2,459,542
6,800 150,000 2,747,148 126,000
180,000 4,000,000 0,750,000 21,000,000 1,600,000 290,000 209,000
808,017 26,688,000 7,450,000
672,479 114,129 2,551 723
This table does not include the territorial ces belt within which the eclipse was total passed sions made by Turkey. (See Eastern QUES- over Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, the southTION.)
west corner of Kansas, the Indian Territory, The Chinese troops completed at the begin- Texas, and Louisiana. Eminent observers ning of 1878 the conquest of Kashgaria, and were sent out at the expense of the United this country, after being for several years one States Government to several stations along of the independent states of Asia, is now again the line of totality. A number of colleges and one of the tributary states of China. (See universities were also represented by distinCANA.)
guished astronomers. Prof. Simon Newcomb, The war between Russia and Turkey prac- Commander W. T. Sampson, and Lieut. C. G. tically came to a close in Asia in 1877, few Bowman were at or near Separation, Wymovements of importance being made in 1878. oming Territory. Prof. William Harkness, The treaty of Berlin gave to Russia a large Lieut. E. W. Sturdy, A. M. Skinner, Prof. slice of Asiatic Turkey, and to Persia the town O. H. Robinson, L. E. Wallace, and A. G. of Khotur. (See EASTERN QUESTION.)
Clark were in the same neighborhood; as No sooner had the Berlin treaty been signed, were also Prof. James C. Watson of Ann Arsettling for some time to come, as was supposed, bor, and the celebrated spectroscopist M. Jansthe Eastern question in Europe, than it seemed sen of France. Besides these, Dr. Draper of as if it were to break out anew in the heart of New York, Prof. Barker of Philadelphia, Mr. Asia. The Indian Government sent.an em- Trouvelot of Cambridge, and Mr. Edison, the bassy to Shere Ali, the Ameer of Cabool, which distinguished inventor, selected their points of the latter refused to admit to his dominions. observation in Wyoining. Prof. Asaph Hall, It was supposed by many that he was insti- Prof. J. A. Rogers, A. W. Wright, H. F. Gorgated to take this course by the Russian Gov- don, A. B. Wheeler, Prof. J. K. Eastman, Lewis ernment, and it was therefore expected that, Bass, H. M. Paul, II. S. Pritchett, Prof. E. S. if war should follow between Great Britain IIolden, Lieut. T. W. Very, Dr. C. S. Ilastings, and Afghanistan, Russia, if not actively en Mr. G. W. IIill of the Nautical Almanac Office, gaged on the side of the latter, would still be Gen. Myer, Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Prof. S. P. her friend. Toward the close of the year, war Langley, Prof. C. A. Young, C. F. Brackett, was actually begun, and the Afghan territory C. J. Rockwood, W. Libbey, G. H. C'alley, c. invaded by a large English force. (See India D. Bennett, W. McDonald, C. J. Young, H. S. and AFGHANISTAN.)
S. Smith, Prof. Maria Mitchell, Prof. Thorpe, An important act was passed in India, plac- Dr. Schuster, Prof. Ormond Stone of Cincining restrictions on the native press, which had nati, C. W. Upton, Prof. G. W. Hough, Prof. become very seditious in its utterances. The E. Colbert of the Chicago Astronomical Sofamine which prevailed in India during 1877 ciety, S. W. Burnham, Dr. Swazey, A. C. continued during the early part of 1878, and Thomas, Prof. Easterday, Mr. Lewis Swift of its effects were felt during the entire year. Rochester, and Mr. J. Norman Lockyer of Eng(See INDIA.)
land, observed from stations selected in ColoNews reached Europe of a new Russian ex rado. Messrs. L. Waldo and R. W. Wilson of pedition to Central Asia, which was said to Harvard College, F. E. Sengrove of Providence, have been planned before the beginning of the J. K. Rees and W. II. Pulsifer of St. Louis, Russo-Turkish war. The expedition was re- with several assistants, observed at Fort Worth, ported to aim at the occupation of the five Texas; and Prof. D. P. Todd of Washington, minor khanates between the southern course D. O., was at Dallas in the same State. of the Amoo Darya and Hindoo Koosh-Kara Results of Observation-Discovery of Two Zin, Shugnal, Darvas, Sarikol, and Vakhan. Intra-Mercurial Planets.—Since 1859, the date Of these khanates, the first three are indo- of M. Lescarbault's observation of a supposed pendent, Sarikol belongs to Kashgar, and the transit, the existence of a planet, or more than Ameer of Vakhan is a feudatory of the Ameer one, within Mercury's orbit, has been regarded of Cabool.
by several astronomers as highly probable. The famine in the north of China continued Total eclipses of the sun afford the best opporduring 1878 in all its horrors, abating slightly tunities for the detection of such bodies; and toward the close of the year. Negotiations accordingly Prof. James C. Watson of Ann were set on foot by China to obtain the terri- Arbor, and Mr. Lewis Swift of Rochester, detory of Kulja from Russia, which power had cided to occupy themselves exclusively with occupied it for several years. (See China.) the search during the eclipse of July 29, 1878.
The King of Burmaḥ died on October 23d. The details of their observations may be found No disturbances took place, and his successor in the “American Journal of Science” for Septhe Crown Prince was quietly proclaimed tember and October, 1878. One intra-MerKing. :
curial planet was undoubtedly seen by each of ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND these observers at different stations, and Prof. PROGRESS. Total Eclipse of the Sun. -The Watson is confident that he saw a second. Ho solar eclipse of July 29th was successfully ob- says: served not only by American astronomers but
Immediately after the commencement of totality also by parties from France and England. The I began sweeps east and west extending about eight
VOL. XVIII.—3 A
App. R. A.
degrees from the sun. I had previously committed those with the polariscope, by Prof. Morton. to memory the relative places of stars near the sun
The spectrum of the corona was not that of down to the seventh magnitude, and the chart of the region was placed conveniently in front of me for
an incandescent gas; its photograph indicated ready reference whenever required. The first sweep
a height equal to two thirds of the sun's diambegan with the sun in the middle of the field, and eter, or nearly 600,000 miles; the polarization extended eastward about eight degrees and back, was shown by Prof. Morton to be such as would and I saw Delta Cancri and smaller stars marked be produced by reflected light; the Fraunhofer south, and eastward and back as before. Then dark lines were seen in the spectrum of the placing the sun in the field, I commenced a corre corona ; and finally, Mr. Edison's tasiineter sponding sweep to the westward. Between the sun was violently affected by the coronal heat. and Theta Caneri, and south of the middle of the “ The general conclusion,” says Dr. Draper, field, I came across a star, estimated at the time to be of the four and a half magnitude, which shone
" that follows from these results is, that on with a ruddy light, and certainly had a larger disk this occasion we have ascertained the true nathan the spurious disk of a star. The focus of the ture of the corona, viz.: it shines by light reeyepicce had been carefully adjusted beforehand flected from the sun by a cloud of meteors surand securely clamped, and the definition was excel- rounding that luminary; and that on former
proceeded therefore to mark its position on the paper circles, and to record the time of observa- thrown up from the chromosphere, notably
occasions it has been infiltrated with materials tion. It was designated by a. The place of the sun had been recorded a few minutes previously and with the 1474 matter and hydrogen. As the marked 8. Placing my eye again at the telescope, I chromosphere is now quiescent, this infiltraassured myself that it had not been disturbed, and tion has taken place to a scarcely perceptible proceeded with the search. I noticed particularly that the object in question did not present any elon degree recently. This explanation of the nagation, such as would be probable were it a comet in ture of the corona reconciles itself so well with that position. In the next and final sweep I brought many facts that have been difficult to explain, into the field what I supposed to be Zeta Caneri, such as the low pressure at the surface of the although it appeared very much brighter than what I expected from the appearance of Delta Cancri,
sun, that it gains thereby additional strength." which I had seen in the first sweep. I proceeded
The apparent extent of the corona as obto record its positiou on the circles with the desig- served at different stations was remarkably zation b.
various; the difference being doubtless owing The positions of these objects as finally de- in part to the relative altitudes of the points termined by Prof. Watson were as follows:
of observation. The measures of Mr. Eas
terday gave a height of 700,000 miles above Washington M. T. Object.
the sun's surface. Profs. Langley and Newcomb traced the coronal matter along the eclip
tic to a distance of more than 9,000,000 miles 1979, July 2, 5 19 37.. (a)
15° 16' N. (0)
18° 3' N. from the sun. Prof. Cleveland Abbe, who
observed with the naked eye from Pike's Peak, Prof. Watson has no doubt whaterer that the traced one coronal stream along the ecliptic to first is a planet within Mercury's orbit. a distance of six diameters of the sun, and anregard to (o),” he remarks, “it is possible, but other at right angles to the ecliptic to a disnot probable, that the pointing of the instru- tance of five diameters. The liglīt of the forment may have been disturbed by the wind. mer was “an exceedingly faint and delicate I marked the position on the hour circle first, white, apparently overlaid or intermingled and but a moment was occupied in passing from with the blue of the atmosphere. There was the eyepiece to the hour circle. I believe that no decided increase of brightness in that part this observation can be relied upon as giving of the ray near the solar limb, nor in the axis the place of a second intra-Mercurial planet.” of the beam; but the delicate light continued
Mr. Lewis Swift of Rochester, N. Y., who uniform up to the corona in whose glare it observed from a position in the vicinity of Den was lost.” Prof. Abbe regards these coronal ver, Col., saw also the planet (a), near Theta streams as collections of meteors moving in Cancri. He estimated its brightness as about cometary orbits about the sun, and rendered equal to that of a fifth-magnitude star.
visible by reflecting the solar light—the view Observations of the Corona. — Profs. Dra- now also adopted by several other astronomers. per, Barker, and Morton, together with Mr. I’rof. C. A. Young, Mr. Lockyer, and other Edison, gave special attention to the corona, observers regard the observations of 1878 as in order, if possible, to determine its true na- demonstrating an intimate relation between ture. With these observers, the main question the sun's condition as to the number of its for decision was whether the corona is an in- spots, and the constitution of the corona. The candescent, self-luminous gas, or whether, like recent eclipse was at a time of sun-spot minithe planets, it shines by reflected light. Their mum. Indeed, there has been a marked paustation was at Rawlins, in latitude 41° 48' 50", city of spots for the last two years. The longitude 30° 11' 0'' west from Washington; chromosphere has been tree from agitation ; height above the sea, 6,732 foet. The photo- the flamo-colored prominences havo been few graphic and photo-spectroscopic work was by and small; and, in short, the whole solar surDr. Draper; the observations with the analyz- face has been remarkably quiescent. Correing slit spectroscopo, by Prof. Barker; and sponding to this condition of the sun, tho
h. m. S.
b. m. 6.
5, 5 17 46...