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Per cent.

Grent Southern.


9 31


The pre





40 112


against the incursions of the hostile Indians, Capital

the law of 1867, establishing the Indian fron£2,250,000 £120,250

tier on the Rio Negro, the enforcement of Northern... 1,200,000

which had been hindered by the Paraguayan 800,000 Campaña.. 877,000 4,900

war, was revived on the recommendation of Ensenada.. 700,000 8,000

General Roca, the Minister of War.

liminary military operations were successful, Here follow the salient clauses of a con- and the savage Indians driven from the territract with Messrs. John and Matthew Clark tory chosen for settlement, though the uncalledfor the construction of the Transandine Rail- for violence exhibited by the national troops way:

on the occasion was such as to merit sharp cen1. A line of railway from Mercedes (Rio sure on the part of the Buenos Ayres press. Quinto), the present western termipus of the The provincial Legislature of Buenos Ayres Argentine Railway system, to Mendoza, 200 bad granted to Colonel Plaza Montero 1,200 miles, for which the Argentine Government square miles of public lands on the Rio Negro gives' a 7 per cent. guarantee, at the rate of frontier, whereon to establish an extensive £6,300 per mile; say £1,260,000.

model farm for the raising of horses for ex2. A line over the Andes, 152 miles, in portation to Europe. A colony is also to be which the guarantee is shared between the established in the Territory, the four sides of two Governments in this ratio:

which are to be apportioned off in free farm lots to colonists. President Avellaneda sent the following message on the subject to Con

gress on August 14, 1878, and the Minister of Chilian side..

£750,000 Finance has since called for an appropriation Argentine


of $2,000,000 to carry the law of 1867 into Total..

£1,810,000 effect, and provide for the defense of the new

frontier : Thus the total cost of connecting the pres The Executive considers the time has arrived to ent railway system with that of the Pacific carry out the law of August, 1867, for making the seaboard will be about £3,000,000. The sec

Rio Negro our southern Indian frontier. The old tion from Mercedes to Mendoza passes over

system of scattered outposts and forts in the Pam

pas, protected by ditches, is found insufficient to level pampas. That of the Andes is described

keep back the Indians. We must now make our as follows:

basis upon the deep and navigable Rio Negro, from 1. The steepest incline on the Argentine the Andes to the Atlantic seaboard. Had we spent side is 1 in 40 (say 21 per cent.) for a stretch

half as much on such a basis as we have done on of six miles.

scattered inland frontiers, the result would be dif

ferent. 2. The steepest incline on the Chilian side is

In the last century, when Father Faulkner's book 1 in 25 (say 4 per cent.) for a stretch of seven on the unprotected state of this country startled the miles.

King of Spain, the Cabinet of Madrid sent Biedma 3. The tunnel at the summit will be 37

and Villarino to explore the Rio Negro and the coast

of Patagonia. Accordingly, in March, 1774, the Marmiles long.

quis of Loreto proposed to establish the frontier on This railway will open for settlement the the Rio Negro. The idea was taken up by F. Azara vast extent of cultivable lands of the provinces in 1796, and at various times revived and forgotten, of Mendoza, San Juan, and San Luis, with a until finally adopted by Congress in 1867, but again

A present population of 175,000, and insure the postponed on account of thie Paraguayan war. development of the mineral resources of those public shows that the Rio Negro is the natural south

glance at the southern portion of the map of the reprovinces. When it is completed, travelers ern boundary of the settled part of our territory, alfrom Chili can obtain passage to Europe and though our jurisdiction extends to Cape Ilorn. back for less than is now paid for a single fare

At present our Indian frontier extends 460 leagues, from Valparaiso to England (£45), with a cor

or 1,550 miles, in length: responding economy of time.

Patagones to Fort San Martin.... An Argentine engineer, Señor Juergo, had Buenos Ayres and Córdoba... revived the project of a port for the city of

Total....... Buenos Ayres at the Boca, and such progress had been achieved in the work that early in doza frontier. The two lines above mentioned are

From San Martin is the eastern point of the MenJuly two sea-going vessels, drawing each more

garrisoned by 6,616 men, with 50 commanders and than twelve feet, entered the new port at low 372 subaltern officers. The annual support of this water. Señor IIuergo asserts that with £200,- force costs $2,361,199, exclusive of extras for ditches, 000 a port can be provided for Buenos Ayres forts, or earth works. But as these men are only four to rivaì that of the Clyde. IIis plans and es

to a mile, we might doublo the number and still be

unable to prevent Indian forays. Meantime, if we timates had been approved by the Govern- adopt the Rio Negro, we can defend it with 1,500 or 'ment, and an adequate appropriation would at most 2,000 men, by forming four sections or head probably be placed at his disposal for the com centers, viz. : 1. From Patagones to Choelechoel;

2. From Choelechoel to Chichinal ; 3. From Chichinal pletion of that much-needed improvement. In view of increasing European immigration, quen to foot of the Andes. The desert lying between

to Limay Neuquen confluence; 4. From Limay Neuand to insure greater security to colonists the Rio Negro and tho Colorado, as well as the deep


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stream of the Negro, will form a double barrier The republic has not been entirely free from against the Indians of Patagonia. On the first sec

disturbances in its distant provinces. On the tion, Patagones to Choelechoel, no troops will be required, as the Indians are tame and friendly on

14th of April an insurrection broko out at the southern bank of the Negro hereabouts, say a Santa Fé, the capital of the province of that stretch of 40 leagues, leaving a distance of only 70 name. The barracks were attacked by the inleagues to be garrisoned, from Choelechoel to the surgents armed with revolvers and poniards, Andes. Colonel Guerrico's

surveys (1872) show that but they were easily repulsed by the national the Negro has a depth of from 16 to 32 feet all the way between Choelechoel and the meeting of the troops, who have been lately provided with waters at Limay Neuquen ; in fact, that the Rio Ne- Remington rifles, which gives them such supegro is navigable from Patagones up to the foot of the riority over revolutionists that hereafter peace Andes at Lake Nahuel Huapi, for vessels of 10 feet will be more easily maintained in the provinces. in dry seasons, and of 15 feet drauglit in wet seasons. Supposing, therefore, a force of 2,000 men for this Other insurrections in the provinces of Salta new frontier line, the cost would be barely one third and Corrientes were also put down without of what our present frontier costs :

much loss of life or property. Present cost ..

$2.361,199 per annum. Rio Negro..

692,394 Saving.

Not only shall we save over $1,500,000 yearly, but
we shall also by this measure annex 15,000 square
leagues, say 150,000 square miles, of valuable terri-
tory. Moreover, the navigation of the Rio Negro
will enable us to establish agricultural and industrial
colonies in the fertile valley of Linay Neuquen, fa-
mous for its rich deposits of copper and coal. The
present Indian population is about 20,000 souls, of
The Araucanian Tribe, who are semi-civilized and will
soon fall into the habits of our gauchos; they can
muster at present about 2,000 lances, and live by
plunder. As for the Ranqueles, they are barely able
to count 600 fighting men, so many of their people
having accepted land grants and settled down peace-
ably on the frontiers of Córdoba and San Luis. Gen-
eral Roca has ridden over most of the country, and
found everywhere fine pasturages and plenty of good
water. Cacique Namuncura has now only 100 war-
riors left, at Marco Grande. Pinzen, the lion of the
Pampas,'has about the same number at Malalico, 10
leagues outside of Colonel Alsina's frontier. All
these can make little opposition to our occupation of
the Rio Negro, the richness of which country was
described in England by the Jesuit Father Faulkner
more than a hundred years ago. Those Indians who
will not accept land grants must be driven over the
Rio Negro to Patagonia. Those who submit will re-
ceive kind treatient and protection.

AVELLANEDA. The Argentine Commissioner-General in Eu-

rope reports that emigration to the Argentine

Republic is approximating that of the most Art. 1. The Rio Negro is to be made the southern prosperous years preceding the financial crisis frontier.

from which the country is now recovering, and ART. 2. The Government is authorized to spend that he has succeeded in obtaining a reduction $1,500,000 for this end.

of 40 per cent. from the ordinary fare, and a ART. 3. The lands acquired shall be duly measured

saving of six months' interest on the amount Art. 4. These reservations are set apart for In- paid by the Commissioner of Immigration at dians :

Buenos Ayres to the steamship companies. 50 squara leagues outside Alsina's frontier at Gua- Near Oblaria 170 square miles of good agrinimi,

cultural land have been set apart for Mennonite 50 square longues on the south bank of Rio Quinto. 30 squaro leagues between Rio Grande and Neu- diffused through the various provinces, with

colonies; and the current of immigration is quên.

due regard to the extension of railways and President Avellaneda has also issued a mes- internal navigation. The agricultural districts sage with reference to a new census of the have enjoyed a season of unexampled prosrepublic—the cost not to exceed $200,000— perity, and the policy of retrenchment inautu be perfected and published within three gurated by the Minister of Finance, Dr. De la years. The Constitution will be reforined be Plaza, has imparted more confidence to foreign fore 1884, and the present number of Deputies bondholders and to financial and commercial to the National Congress reduced. This last circles in the republic. measure is dictated by motives of economy, as Mr. Vaillant, in statistics compiled for the Argentine representatives are paid out of the Paris Exposition, gives the number of cattle national Treasury.

and sheep in several countries, and shows that,







compared with population, the Argentine Re- plenipotentiary, which provided for foreign public possesses the largest number:

arbitration, and apprehensions were felt that,

notwithstanding the obvious anxiety of ArgenSheep. tine statesmen to avoid a rupture of friendly

relations, this unexpected action and subseEurope..

89,678,248 194,026,236

26,923,400 United States.


quent hostile measures of the Chirian GovernAustralia

5,759,672 58,052,150 ment might culminate in a deplorable war Canada..

2,624,290 8,155,509

between the neighboring republics. The ArUruguay

6,092,488 12,159,511 Argentine Republic...

13,493,099 57,516,413 gentine Government have entered an energetic

protest against the seizure, by a Chilian manWine, sugar, aguardiente, and flour, bitherto of-war, of the American bark Devonshire, to imported, are produced in yearly increasing which they had granted a permit to load gnano quantities, and it is confidently expected that at the Isla de Leona; and it was thought that they will soon become articles of export. The the United States would not tolerate this act wheat crop of the current year is the largest of doubtful jurisdiction affecting the commerce ever harvested, and in excess of the require- and property of its

citizens. ments of the country.

ARKANSAS. The Democratic State ConThe Government have issued the follow- vention assembled at Little Rock on July 4th, ing:

to nominate candidates for State officers. The Immigrants, on arrival, are landed at the expense

Convention was organized by the appointment of Government, and boarded and lodged free for of T. B. IIanley as chairman. The nominafive days, assisted to pass the custom-bouze, afford- tions were as follows: for Governor, William ed every information to enable them to find employ- R. Miller; for Secretary of State, Jacob Froment, and finally sent free to wherever they elect to lich ; for Auditor, John Crawford; for Treasettle. All this is done by national Government employees, who speak all languages, the immigrant

surer, Thomas J. Churchill; for Attorney-Genbeing free to take or reject any advice given to him; eral, W. F. Henderson; for Land Commissioner, 80 that all intending immigrants can come to the Ar- 1). W. Lever; for Justice of Supreme Court, gentine Republic with perfect confidence, although John R. Eakin; for Superintendent of Public they may have no relatives here, as they will meet Instruction, J. L. Denton; for Chancellor, in all quarters of the republic public employees 1). W. Carroll. The following platforin was specially bound to watch over them till they learn the customs of the country.

adopted : The wages during the harvest, which lasts four months, are from 30 to 45 hard dollars (£6 to £8) gated Convention assembled, adhering to the prin

We, the Demnocratic party of Arkansas in deleper month, with board and lodging (the hard dollar ciples of the party, in loyalty to and love of the is worth five francs in French money). The best time for farmers, agricultural laborers, rights of the States and local seit-government, do

General Government, but equally dei oted to the indeed, for all immigrants, to arrive here, is from Oc- make these our declarations of party principles: tober to January. Farmers with a capital of from

1. We are in favor of making l'nited States Trea£80 to £120 may come at any season of tho year.

No country in the world offers greater advantages sury notes a full legal tender for all dues where the to the farmer and stock-breeder. The climate is

terms of the original debt or contract are not extemperate and healthy; land is cheap and fertile, ceivable for all duties and interest on the public debt.

pressly to the contrary, and that they shall be reand can be worked all the year round, as snow is

2. That national-bank notes should be retired, unknown.

There are immense tracts of pasture their further issue prohibited, and United States land, and boundless forests; every kind of stock can be had at lower prices than in any other coun

Treasury notes substituted therefor. try; there are numerous tronk railway lines, deep legal tender is only vested in the National Govern

3. The power to issue paper money and coin as a stitutions similar to those of the United States, and ment; and this posier should be exercised from time even more liberal for foreigners, who can acquire labɔr, and the general wants of the people of a grow

to time so as to accommodate the necessities of trade, land in fee without sacrificing their nationality.

ing country. There is no difficulty or delay in obtaining land at 28. 6d. per acre, payable in ten years without inter

4. We are opposed to any plan of funding the debt

of the country by which an unjust contraction of the est, and eich family may purchase from 65 to 1,000 acres. The first hundred families in each settlement curreney below the necessities of the whole people will receive 250 acres gratis. Each of the fourteen

can be established, and which has not for its object provinces of the republic has passed special laws

the funding of the debt at home. for the donation or sale of chacra (small farm) lots benring part of the public debt for any purpose.

5. We are opposed to any increase of the interestnear the towns, which can be purchased at equally

6. We believe the right of the State to tax propmoderate prices, and are given gratis in some prov- erty in the State is inviolable, and tliat United States inces. In the colonies (settlements) alreacly estab

bonds should bear the burden of government equally lished, families of agricultural laborers who work hard can easily obtain land and ailvances from the

with all other property; and any legislation that proprietors, who have more land than they can cul- attempts the contrary is unjust and oppressive.

7. We are in favor of the remonetization of silver tivate. Price of Stock.-Horned cattle for breeding, £1

and giving it the same legal-tender qualities as golů,

and that its coinage shall be free and unliniitid. 108. per head. Sheep), 3s. 6ıl. per head. Mares, 11s.

8. We favor the equalization of the value of the

greenback, silver, and gold dollar for all purposes, The long-pending question of boundaries so that a national delar shall be a dollar among all between the Argentino Republic and Chili re

our people and in every department of our Governmains undecided. The Chilian (ongress re 9. We demand the unqualified and unconditional fused to ratify a treaty signed by the Chilian repeal of the odious resumption act.

per head.


10. We demand by Congress such legislation as day in January following. The election for shall prevent the interposition of the Federal courts, members of Congress in November resulted by mandamus or otherwise, between the courts of in the choice of four Democrats. The previthe States and the counties and cities of the States. Such interference, being hostile to the theory of our

ous State election resulted in the success of Government, leads to centralization, and also de. the entire Democratic ticket. prives the State of a free and rightful exercise of its No reports have been made of the condition sovereignty.

of the institutions of the State since January, 11. We favor money aid on the part of the General Government, on full security, for the construc

1877. tion of the Southern Pacific Railroad.

On July 7th an important decision was ren12. We favor an appropriation by the General dered by the Supreme Court of the State Government to aid in the constructions of levees upon the Mississippi and its tributaries.

on the constitutionality of three millions of

bonds, known as “ Levee bonds." Chief 13. We are opposed to any tariff except for purposes of revenue alone, believing that the same tends Justice English delivered the opinion of the to build up particular industries at the expense of all Court, declaring the bonds unconstitutional others.

and void. It seems that the Court rested 14. We are opposed to any settlement of our State debt which would involve a compromise of any porn riding for the issue of these bonds was not en,

upon the simple objection that the act of protion of that which is just

, in order to pay anything acted in accordance with the provisions and upon that which is unjust or fraudulent.

15. We are in favor of the next Legislature sub- requirements of the Constitution of 1868, and mitting to the people a proposed constitutional was therefore null and void. The Constituamendment for ever prohibiting the levying of any tax or the appropriation of any inoney to pay the

tion of 1868 provided that on the final passage levee bonds, railroad-aid bonds, the unjust and ille- of every act a vote of the members should be gal part of the Holford bonds, or any other fraudu- taken by yeas and nays. In respect to this lent claim against the State.

act, the vote was not so taken, and therefore 16. We demand of the Attorney-General that he lacked an essential ingredient required by the investigate our State scrip, and ascertain if any of it Constitution as a fundamental condition to its now outstanding has been issued contrary, to law, and, if so, that he instituto proceedings to have the completion. It was only in its legal and techsame declared void by the proper judicial tribunals nical aspects that the question of the legality of the country: 17. We are in favor of such a radical revision of and they decided it according to the provisions

of these bonds was presented to the Court, the criminal laws of the State as will reduce the expense of their enforcement.

of the Constitution of 1868, under which the 18. We demand such legislation as will carry into act was supposed to have been enacted. Judge effect the spirit, object, and intent of section 3, Article Harrison delivered a cumulative opinion to the XVII. of the Constitution of the State, in regard to effect that the bonds were also illegal and discrimination by railroads in the rates of treight void, because the act under which they were upon transportation of persons and property within the State.

issued authorized a loan of State credit, which 19. We favor a wholesome system of public schools, was forbidden by the Constitution, but the to the end that every facility may be afforded for majority stood upon the grounds first above education consistent with the ability of the peo- mentioned. This decision was severely critiple.

20. We favor and invite immigration to our State cised outside the limits of the State, where from any and all quarters, provided that it is of the many of the bonds were held. It was charged honest and industrious class. We want capital, mus that the decision was based on a mere technicle, and brain: capital to be invested in our lands cality. To this it was replied that the courts and used in the developing of our mineral resources; of Arkansas could not be any more exempt muscle to fell our vast forests and till our fertilé fields; and brains to direct, energize, and utilizo both from technicalities than those of other States. capital and labor. We further declare that we know The constitutionality of the act was put in no North, no South, no East, and no West in the mat- question immediately after its supposed paster of immigration, provided it comes to build up our

sage. It was further charged that the deciState and advance its material prosperity.

21. That it is the sense of this Convention that sion was a great outrage on the rights of innothe colored population of the State of Arkansas are

cent purchasers. To this it was replied that identified in interest with the great Democratic party the Legislature that enacted or attempted to of the State, and, fully recognizing the importance enact this law was not regarded by the people of a more harmonious feeling between them, embrace who are now called upon to pay these bonds this opportunity of inviting them--the colored people of the State—to an active coöperation with us in tur

as the legitimate government of Arkansas. thering our common interests.

It was a Legislature foisted into power under We fully endorse the action of a majority of the the despotic and fraudulent system of reconIIouse of Representatives in the investigation of struction that virtually took all political power the frauds by which men not elected to office wero instituted in the offices of President and Vice-Presi- out of the hands of the property-owners and dent of the United States; and we insist that the tas-payers, and placed it in the hands of adcrimes be exposed and the criminals punished, to venturers who had no other interest in the the end that such crimes may never be attempted country but to rob it. This levee-bond law hereafter.

was generally understood at the time to be a No other party nominations were made. The put-up job and steal, and so denounced by the State election is held biennially on the first Democratic and Conservative press of the Monday in September, and the Legislature as- State. They were not sold in the market, sembles on the Tuesday after the second Mon- and held as investments by all classes of

people. The bonds were squandered in the million dollars' worth of bonds is to-day perhaps not most reckless and inexcusable manner for use

worth one thousand dollars. Now, it any of these less or unlawful works, and paid out at the chasers, it was only through the contractors, who were

bonds ever got into the hands of innocent purrate of about ten to one for what the same particeps criminis to the fraud of their issuance, and work could have been done by private con not through any direct agency of the State. The tract. These contractors then took the bonds fact that these bonds never sold on the market

for to New York and other cities and sold them

more than twenty cents on the dollar, and for a long

time before the decision of the Supreme Court were for a song to capitalists who were buying at held on the market as being worth only about five greatly reduced rates Southern securities, cents on the dollar, is conclusive proof that there knowingly and deliberately taking the chances was a settled conviction in the public wind that of a desperate speculation. To say that the they were illegal and worthless. There never was a purchasers of these bonds were innocent pur- government in the name of any people than these

more fraudulent and unjust debt contracted by a chasers is a travesty on that term. They levee bonds. They were a fraud and a swindle in knew that all Southern securities, issued under their inception-one of the most contemptible swinthe carpet-bag governments, were risky; and dles in the wide range of villainies that characterized especially did they know that these levee bonds the corrupt rule of carpet-baggers ; issued without were extraordinarily risky. They knew it hands were at the time tied; disposed of without

the sanction or the authority of the people, whose from the fact that the press of Arkansas from anything like an adequate consideration, and for the very start had denounced them as a fraud works of no practical or permanent utility ; a shame and a swindle; and they knew it from the ex and disgrace to the party that controlled the governtraordinary low price at which they were

ment of the State ; and for which the tax-payers of offered. At all events, all these facts were equity than the people of Illinois or New York. We

Arkansas are no more responsible in law, justice, or sufficient to put a prudent man on his guard, should never pay one cent of these worthless, bogus and they should not have invested their money obligations; and we don't intend to do it, regardin thein at all, or certainly not without first less of what our enemies may say or think on the

subject. closely inquiring into their legality.

It was charged more seriously that the people The case of Hot Springs, as it is called, exof the State, in repudiating these levee bonds, cited unusual interest, and became of serious were acting dishonestly and in bad faith. It importance to its inhabitants. The town of was urged that the bonds were issued with all Hot Springs is located in the southwestern part the proper formalities of law, and sold in the of Arkansas, about fifty miles from Little Rock. open market to bona fide purchasers. The It is located in a wild and picturesque country, funds received were not stolen or squandered nestling in a series of short and parrow valleys by carpet-baggers, but honestly applied to inclosed by lofty and irregular hills, constitutworks of great public utility to the State. ing a branch of the great Ozark Mountains that There was no trickery of any sort pretended, divide the waters of the Ouachita and Saline and there is no pretense that such is the fact. Rivers. It lies mainly in a narrow valley, familThe State got the money from the purchasers, iarly known as “the Valley," running north and spent it for public purposes. To these as and south between two short and precipitous sertions on the part of the bondholders it was mountains, from the sides of one of which, replied on the part of the State thus:

and on an average height of about eighty feet These bonds were never sold by the State in open from the little creek that ripples at its base, market or any other way. The State never realized flow the famous hot springs that give to the one cent of money out of them, and never handled town its name and celebrity. In this narrow a dollar in connection with them. They were issued valley, through which runs only one and the out directly to contractors, by a ('ommissioner of Public Works appointed for that purpose, who made main street of the town, called Valley Street, such contracts as he saw fit with his own pets and

are located the principal hotels, bath-houses, favorites, and paid therefor in bonds the prico stores, shops, and offices. At the lower end agreed on. The contracts let out by the Commis- of the Valley, the two mountains inclosing it sioner (who was a carpet-bagger) were of the most abruptly break off to the east and west, expospractical utility, and paid for at the most enormous ing a comparatively level country, broken only rates. It is supposed that the Commissioner made by gentle and undulating hills, over which the a percentage on every contract; and the fact that town spreads out to a considerable extent. In nobody would take a contract except at the most extravagant rates is proof that the contractors them- chants who do business in the Valley, besides

this part are located the residences of the merselves regarded tho legality of the bonds as of exceedingly doubtful character. Again, railroad com- many hotels and boarding-houses, shops, mills, panies, that under another law were receiving a the gas-works, and railroad depot. The resiStato bonus of $15,000 per mile for building their dent population of the town is about 4,000, roads, would make a contract for building lovees, with a transient population, consisting princiwere nothing more nor less than the embankments cipally of invalids who come for the benefit of necessary for their road-beds, for which they re their health, ranging from one to three thouceived enormous sums. All manner of contracts sand. It is estimated that as many as 20,000 were let out without any regard to their necessity or people annually visit the Springs in pursuit of utility, and at the most enormous and extravagant pleasure or for the benefit of their health; and was a perfect carnival of peculation, speculation, and the number is yearly increasing. This town fraud.' The entire work done for the whole three was built up on what was supposed to be pri

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