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of bishops from various quarters of the earth, and calling upon the Conference to “issue a for discussion and consultation on inatters of solemn and consentient declaration that it is common interest. On the 28th of June, at a the first duty of all Christians to labor and pray meeting held in connection with the Society for the uniting into one body of all those who for the Propagation of the Gospel, previous to call upon the name of Christ and agree in the the formal opening of the Conference, several divine authority of Holy Scripture, in the of the foreign bishops gave accounts of the creeds, and in the decrees of the Church, so condition of their churches in their several that there be no more divisions among us”; countries. The Bishop of Madras told of the and, further, asking it “to recommend some conversion during the year of more than twen- practical means and mode of action whereby ty thousand inhabitants of the district of Tin a consummation so devoutly to be wished for nevelly within his diocese; the Bishop of Bom- may, in God's good time, be accomplished.” bay read a paper on associated missions; the The discussions of the questions which were Bishop of Colombo gave an account of the considered at the earlier sessions were continvarious tribes of Ceylon ; papers were read on ued until the day of adjournment, July 27th. mission work in China by the American Bishop The reports adopted by the Conference were of Shanghai, on foreign missions by the Bishop published after the adjournment. The first reof Ohio, and woman's work in his diocese by port deals with the best mode of maintaining the Bishop of Bloemfontein; the Bishop of union among the various churches of the AnMaritzburg spoke on the Church in Africa ; a glican communion. It admitted that the aspaper by a woman was read on the value of sembling of a true general council, to which the female education undertaken by women in the Church of England has always declared its India; and the condition of the Church in readiness to resort, is, in the present condition Australia and America was reviewed. One of Christendom, unbappily but obviously imhundred bishops were in attendance during possible; and that the difficulties attending the sessions of the Conference. An opening the assembling of a synod of all the Anglican declaration was adopted: first, giving thanks churches, though different in character and to Almighty God for having brought the mein less serious in nature, are too great to allow bers together for common council and united of its being recommended for present adopworship; second, expressing sorrow at the di- tion; but suggested that such conferences as vided condition of the flock of Christ through- the present one and the one which was held out the world, and an ardent longing for unity; in 1867, called by the Archbishop of Canterand lastly, recording the conviction that unity bury at the request of or in consultation will be more effectually promoted by inaintain- with the other bishops, might with advaning the faith in its purity and integrity as tage be invested in future with somewhat taught in the Iloly Scriptures, held by the larger liberty as to the initiation and selecprimitive church, summed up in the creeds, tion of subjects for discussion, concerning and affirmed by the undisputed general coun- which the report mentioned a few particucils, and by drawing each of us closer to our liars. Nevertheless, although there was no common Lord by giving ourselves to much hope of a general council, the reunion of Chrisprayer and intercession, by the cultivation of tendom should be kept in view; and it was suga spirit of charity and a love of the Lord's ap- gested that the Tuesday before Ascension Day pearing.” During the earlier sessions of the be set apart as a day of intercession for that Conference the followirg subjects were dis- object. Concerning ritualisin, the report afcussed and referred to committees, viz. : “The firmed the principio that “no alteration from best mode of maintaining union among the va- long-accustomed ritual should be made contrarious churches of the Anglican communion"; ry to the admonition of the bishop of the dio“ Voluntary boards of arbitration for churches cese.” Concerning confession, it affirmed that to which such an arrangement may be applica "the churches of the Anglican communion ble”; “The relation to each other of mission- hold first those principles which are set forth ary bishops and of missionaries in various in the Holy Scriptures, which were professed branches of the Anglican communion acting by the primitive church, and which were rein the same country”; “The position of An- afirmed at the English Reformation"; that glican chaplains and chaplaincies on the conti- “no minister of the church is authorized to nent of Europe and elsewhere”; “Modern require from those who may resort to him to forms of infidelity, and the best means of deal- open their grief in particular or detailed enuing with them "; and “The condition, prog- meration of all their sins; or to require private ress, and needs of the various churches of confession previous to receiving the holy comthe Anglican communion.” The Conterence munion; or to enjoin or even encourage the then adjourned, July 5th, till July 22d, to give practice of habitual confession to a priest; or the committees time to consider the subjects to teach that such practice of habitual confeswhich had been referred to them. On reas- sion, or the being subject to what is termed sembling an address was presented from tho the direction of a priest, is a condition of atAssociation for the Promotion of the Unity of taining to the highest spiritual life.” At the Obristendom, urging that the present time was same time, the committee would not be underfavorable to the purpose of the Association, stood as desiring “to limit in any way the pro
vision made in the Book of Common Prayer ered the opening address, in which he defend for the relief of troubled consciences.” The ed the Congresses as a useful medium for the report “On the Relation to each other of Mis- exchange of thought, and pointed out the good sionary Bishops and of Missionaries" involved results which he anticipated would follow the the consideration of some of the questions meeting of the Pan-Anglican Conference at which have been in dispute between agents of Lambeth. Papers were read on “ Foreign and the Church Missionary Society in Ceylon and Colonial Missions, their Condition, Organizathe Bishop of Colombo. The report recom- tion, and Prosperity,” by the Bishop of Pennmended that books of common prayer should sylvania, the Rev. Mr. Maclear, and the Rev. be framed suitable to the needs of native con Thomas Green; “ Modern Doubts and Diffigregations in heathen countries; that they culties in relation to Revealed Religion,” by the should be based upon the “ Book of Gommon Rev. Prof. Wilkins, the Rev. Stanley Leathes, Prayer,” with only such deviations in point of and Dr. Thornton ; 6 The Just Limits of Comform as should be required by the circum- prehensiveness in the National Church,” by stances of particular churches; and that such the Hon. Charles L. Wood, President of the books when prepared should be submitted to English National (Ritualistic) Church Union, the approval of boards regularly endowed with the Rev. Llewellyn Davis (Low Churchman), authority for that purpose; that every mis- the Rev. Canon Ryle (classed as a Broad sionary clergyman, whether appointed by a so- Churchman), and others; “The Church's ciety or otherwise, should receive the license Work among the Rural, Urban, and Commerof the bishop in whose diocese he is to labor; cial Populations ”; “The Attitude of the Church that in case of refusal to give a license to á toward Popular Literature and Recreation,” in clergyman, the bishop should, if desired, state connection with which head the moral aspects the reason of his refusal, transmit them to the of the theatre were discussed by the Earl of metropolitan, or to the Archbishop of Canter- Musgrave, the Bisbop of Manchester, and other bury, if there is no metropolitan, and make speakers; “ Woman's Work in the Church,” them accessible to the person whose license is by the Bishop of Ohio, Miss Whateley of the in question; and it recommended a similar mission at Alexandria, Egypt, and the Rev. F. course of procedure in the case of revoca- Pigou; “Church Property and Endowments”; tion of license, which it advised should not take " Ecclesiastical Patronage”; “ The Marriage place except for grave ecclesiastical offenses.” Law as affecting the Church"; “ l'arochial Further, it suggested: “The bishop would prob- Councils”; “ Cathedrals and Cathedral Instiably find it desirable, where the clergyman is tutions, how to increase their Influence"; connected with one of the great missionary so “The Supply, Training, and Examination of cieties, to communicate with the society or its Candidates for Holy Orders.” The question, local representatives before taking steps for re “What definite results as to the interpretation vocation of a license.” It held that lay agents of Scripture have been produced by the disemployed in more important spiritual func- coveries in Egypt, Nineveh, and the Catacombs tions should have the license or other express of Rome?” was discussed by Canon Rawlinsanction of the bishop, and other lay agents son and Canon Tristram. i “Workingmen's should be considered to have lis implied sanc- Meeting” was hield in connection with the tion ; that the authority of the bishop in ap- Congress. pointing places for public worship had been APPLETON, GEORGE Swett, member of the always admitted in the Church; and that every publishing firm of Daniel Appleton and Complace in which the holy communion is regularly pany, died July 7th, at the age of fifty-seven celebrated should have his sanction. Another years. Ile was born at Andover, Massachusetts, report expressed the sympathy of the Confer- August 11, 1821. Both by his inherited tastes ence toward the Old Catholics, and the churches and by education he was eminently well fitted and individuals protesting against the claim of for the vocation in life which occupied all his the Papal Court to supremacy over all men in manhood's years—that of a publisher. Ilaving matters of faith and morals on the ground of its studied for some time in the Phillips Academy infallibility. The report" (n Voluntary Boards —à noted educational institution in l:is native of Arbitration " indicated the principles which village-he, at the age of about nineteen, went might be applied in cases where an appeal is abroad for the sake of study and travel, and sought from the decisions of the tribunals of passed four years at the l'niversity of Leipsic. the several ecclesiastical provinces, and under These student years were devoted especially to similar circumstances in the case of the trial literary and historical research, and in tho of a bishop). The “ ('ommittee on Infidelity mean time he gained an intimate acquaintanco and the best Mode of meeting it” reported with the languages of Germany, France, and that it was impossible to give adequate con- Italy. With the literatures of these countries, sideration to that wide subject within the lim- as also with that of England, he was fully conited time allowed for their deliberation. versant. But whilo literature was for him an
The cigliteenth Church Congress met at object of close and systematic study, fine art Sheffield, October 1st. The introductory ser- oco ied his leisure moments, and he culti-. mon was preached by the Bishop of Ripon. vated it with distinguished success. In particThe Arclibishop of York presided, and deliv- ular he was il connoisseur of painting, and at
Minister of Finance....
F. L. Barbin.
Dr. R. Febre.
the time of his death had accumulated a rich R. García, and the Secretary of Legation (who collection of masterpieces of art. During the is also Chargé d'Affaires during the absence of vacations of the university, and after the com- the Minister), Sr. Carrié. The Argentine Conpletion of his studies, Mr. Appleton traveled sul-General at New York is Mr. Edward F. extensively in Europe, studying the people and Davison. The Governors of the several Provthe treasures art and literature. Having inces, etc., are: returned home, he embarked in business, that Buenos Ayres.. .Dr. C. Tejedor (May, 1878). of a publisher, on his own account, at Phila Minister of the Interior..J. Alcorta. delphia. In 1847 he married Miss Caroline
Catamarca.. Archer Osgood, who survives him. Later, he joined his three brothers, John and William, liis seniors, and Sidney, his junior, in conduct
Jujuy... ing the establishment founded in New York La Rioja..
V. A. Almonacid.
.J. Villanueva. by their father, Daniel Appleton, who died
.J, Solá. in 1849. Here his eminent attainments as a scholar and as a connoisseur of art found
Santa Fé... abundant opportunity for their display. His
Santiago.. counsel as a literary critic was of the highest
.F. Helguera, value to the firm. Ile rapidly developed the
Gran Chaco Territory..... Lieut.-Col. P. Gómoz. business of the house in various directions, The provincial Governors are elected by the especially in the publications designed to facili- people, and their period of office is three years. tate the study of languages, and to familiarize
A comprehensive view of the general condithe American public with the classics of the tion of affairs in the republic may be had from various European literatures, both in transla- the following message delivered by President tions and in their original forms. Intimate Avellaneda, on opening Congress, May 6, 1877: relations were also established with the Spanish-American states, and large editions of Span- Messrs. Senators and DEPUTIES : ish works were published by the Appletons. that every year our constitutional principles are pro
I salute you on this auspicious day and assure you To Mr. George Appleton is in great measure gressively striking their roots deeper and deeper. due the origination and successful completion of Your presence was much needed, owing to the inthe work entitled “Picturesque America,” the tense activity of political life. The forum is full. noblest illustrated work published in America. Rival parties and opinions seek in this arena to venHe also steadily encouraged that other great discussion that the country becomes enlightened.
tilate their views, for it is from opposing points of enterprise of the house, the “ American Cyclo- Let me sketch for you the condition of affairs. pædia.” When attacked by his last illness, Many European and American statesmen were Mr. Appleton was about to go abroad for an so impressed with the conciliation policy at Buenos extended tour of travel. His unremitted at- Ayres that they asked themselves if such were not tention for years to his pursuits made an in- preferable to the system
of repression used in Eu
, which perpetuates violent rancor. The examtermission necessary for him. But disease ple we have given does honor to the human race. intervened, and he died at a comparatively At present some may begin to doubt about the con
Five children survive him, ail ciliation policy, but I tell you my programme is ungrown up, viz., three
sons and two daughters. altered: It is one of the privileges of my office to ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (República Ar- and this is essential to enable me to govern with,
appoint ministers according to my own good will, GENTINA), an independent state of South Amer- firmness. As a proof of conciliation I may remind ica, lying between latitndes 200 and 41° south, you that 3,000,000 Argentines joyfully celebrated and longitudes 53° and 70° 17' west. It is General San Martin's
centenary. bounded north by Bolivia ; east by Paraguay, Governor Iriondo has put down a revolution in Santa
Two or three provinces are in a disturbed state. Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic; south by Fé, and it is to be hoped that he will now try conPatagonia ; and west by Bolivia and Chili. ciliation. The state of Corrientes is more critical. The population was returned at 1,768,681 in Minister Plaza was sent, not simply to support Govthe census of 1869, but in 1876 it was estimated victorious rebels laid down their arms and submitat 2,400,000, exclusive of 93,291 Indians in the ted. It is now best to order new elections in CorriTerritory of Gran Chaco, the Pampas, and Patagonia. The population of the capital,
The accounts of 1877 show as follows: Buenos Ayres, was estimated at 230,000.
.$27,967,736 The President of the Republic is Dr. Don
Actual expenditures... Nicolás Avellaneda, who succeeded Señor Sar
5,100,874 miento, October 12, 1874; and the Vice-President is Dr. Don Mariano Acosta. The ('abinet
Thus we spent eight millions less than Congress is composed of the following ministers: Inte- authorized, and, although the revenue did not come
up to our expectations, still the economy of our Firior, Dr. Laspiur; Foreign Affairs, Dr. Montes nanco Department saved the situation. The expende Oca; Finance, Dr. Victorino de la Plaza; ditures of the last six years were : 1872, $26,462.-85 ; Justice, Public Worship, and Public Instruc- 1873, $31,025,070 ; 1874, 829,784,196 ; 1875, $28,567,tion, Dr. Lastra; War and Marine, General 861: 1876, 822,153,048; 1877, $19,924,960. In last Roca. The Argentine Minister Plenipoten- export duties, $2,324,491. The returns of our imtiary to the United States is Sr. Don Manuel port and export trade show:
VOL. XVIII.—2 A
Exports. and schools are all in good working order, and the 1876
$34,910,290 $16,535,705 number of scholars has increased. It will be ncces1877.. 39,309,141 43,393,609
sary to resume the official inspection of schools all This apparent decline of 7 per cent, in our exports over the country, and foster a spirit of learning in is due to the fact of reduced valuation on wool,
hides, each locality, The Minister's report shows that etc., as we find the quantities exported in 1877 ex there is a slight increase in the number of scholars; ceed those for the previous year; but the valuation there are at present 6,900 students enrolled in the was reduced 15 per cent. Meantime it is desirable national colleges and schools.* The Observatory at to invent new sources of revenue, since customs du Córdoba bas now in print the “Uranometría Argenties are too liable to fluctuation. We must imitate tina,” which is likely to prove the most valuable the United States in this regard.
scientific work of its kind ever published. The The money for the coming coupons is already in Meteorological Department bas published its first London. We have been no less punctual in paying volume, a work also due to the zeal of the Director the home debt, and in a few days we will pay to the of the Observatory, and which is of vast scientific Provincial Bank the quarter's installment due last importance, as it proves, what has long been susFebruary on account of loan of September, 1876. pected, the relation between changes of temperature Our stocks have risen in London, but some of the and those in the spots on the sun's disk. Dr. BurEnglish papers continue to question our solvency, meister's great work on the physical geography of although we honorably pay our way. As we have the republic is also progressing. safely gone over the crisis, there is no reason now to In May, 1877, the new frontier line was defended propose any alteration of the terms with bondhold- by a ditchí 20 leagues long, and several forts. The ers. English capital will steadily flow into this ditch is now 80 leagues long, and there are 423 kilocountry, bucause Englishmen know that by spend- metres of telegraph, uniting Paun and Trenquelaning millions in America, India, and Australia to quell. Along the new line have been built 150 grow cotton, sugar, and wool, they have enriched brick houses, 200 ranchos, two hospitals, and seven England more than if they had kept the money in schools, attended by 200 children ; 400,000 trees have London. During the last three trying years, we been planted along the line; 1,600 national guards have notably reduced our national debt, which is have been released from service, and there are now now as follows:
only 200 national guards on the frontier, who will London loans.
also be sent home immediately. Home debt...
Recent expeditions against the Indians have been Floating debt.
1,998,233 successful, the savages surrendering, since they can
no longer make raids as before. Total..
$61,277,802 * Messrs. Senators and Deputies, there is a vacant Equal about £12,000,000 sterling, including £1,- ficially the death of Dr. Adolfo Alsina, the late Min
seat here to-day. It is my sad duty to annouuce of190,400 not emitted (of the Varela loan) but ruserved to make a port at Buenos Ayres.
ister of War. IIe died in harness, and on his deathThe number of immigrants last year was 29,000; expedition. The Argentine people and Govern
bed drew the plan for Colonel Levalle's victorious being nearly the same as the previous year, and more than the aggregate of arrivals from Europe in all the
ment have paid well-deserved honors to his memory. other countries of South America. The colonization
The present Minister of War will continue the work and homestead law of 1876 is carried out in the most
of his predecessor. Fresh efforts are necessary. We generous manner, and we can boast of the following can not reduce the army till we push on to a frontier colonies established since the passing of said law :
that can be defended by 3,000 men. Libertad (Entre Rios), 672 inhabitants; Gen. Al
An act was passed last year for a station at Córvoar (Entre-Rios), 850 ;' Reconquista (Chaco), 1,200; doba, to join the Central ånd Tucuman Railways, Resistencia (Chaco), 500 ; Iriondo (Chaco), 214; San
and the work is in progress. The Primer EntreJavier (Chaco), 169; Olabarria (Buenos Ayres), 305;
Riano line is now Government property, and althoughi Caroya (Córdoba), 615; Santa Cruz (Patagonia), 47.
it is short it will do good service. The most imporMoreover, the Welsh colony of Chubut has doubled.
tant item, however, is the contract for the construcThanks to Senor Carlos Calvo's efforts in Europe, the
tion of the Transandirie Railway. The works will steamships allow us a reduction of 40 per cent. for begin in 1879, and be finished in five years. immigrants' passages. It is necessary to be more
The republic will be represented at the Paris Exliberal in providing funds for new colonies, as Mr.
bibition quite as well as it was at Philadelphia, yet Dillon's task is to imitate the homestead law of the
we have not exceeded the small sum voted for the United States, and prevent the working classes from
purpose. crowding into towns.
The National Bank has been reorganized. I must The republic joined the Beane postal league on
repeat what I said last year of the necessity for a April 1st. The Argentine postage stamp will now
uniform currency throughout the country. Mints be known and respected from Japan to Greenland, would cost too much to establish here, but we can and thence to India and Polynesia. The post-of- get money coined for us abroad. It is impossible to fice returns for the years 1873 and 1877 were as fol- cariy on business with such a fluctuating coin as the lows: Receipts—1873, $158,906; 1877. $273,801. The Bolivian; and Bolivian notes must be got rid of for latter figures show an increase of 70 per cent. Expenditures—1873, $430,715; 1877, $328,804, showing will hear with pleasure that protocols of a treaty put
Our relations with all countries are friendly. You a decrease of 25 per cent. The t'legraphı returns for the same years were: Receipts-1873, $55,273 ; 1877, ting, an end to the long and vexed questions with $79,812. Expenditures—1873, $171,172 ; 1877, $171,
(hili have been signed and approved by both Gor172. Repairs become costly after five years' service.
ernments; they will be laid before you at once. The In spite of the state of the public exchequer, we have questions at issue will be left to arbitration. If the þuilt a new post-office, the handsomest of our public Congresses of both countries approve the treaty, my buildings, and extended our telegraph lines to tko promise on assuming office will be fulfilled. Drs. frontier towns of Bolivia. The number of miles of
Tejedor and Elizalele merit public gratitude for their new telegraph was 380.
parts in this negotiation. The estimates in the department of Public Instruc
We have concluded an extradition treaty with tion bave been reduced by one half. The colleges Uruguay, and a protocol about river navigation.
Ratifications of the treaty with Paraguay have been * For detailed statements of the national debt, referenco exchanged, and a treaty of extradition with France may be made to the volumes of the “ Annual Cyclopædia" for
* Sce" Annual Cyclopædia " for 1877, p. 33.
1-74 and 1875.
has been arranged. Our limits question with Para-
Duties. Holinese Pius IX. is dead. During å troubled reign he never lost his saintly character or the re 1875.
$55,765,627 $50,331,400 $12,893,533 spect of mankind. The Argentine Government and 1976.
34,910,290 46,535,705 9,577,728 the Church are now in relation with his successor,
39,309,141 43,393,609 10,8-13,360 Leo XIII,
Total. Messrs. Senators and Deputies, I am about to con
$129,955,059 $140,260,714 $33,314,621 clude. The conciliation of parties, the centenary of San Martin, the treaty with Chili, the entrance of This shows in three years a balance of trale the republic into the Berne league, the frontiers, and in favor of the country of $10,275,656. a reduction in the national expenditure are the chief points in this message. But I must likewise note
There has been an almost uninterrupted the revival of business, and the increase of revenue improvement in the balance of trade ever since and immigration; yet these will prove illusory 1870. unless public opinion uproot abuses, promote useful The exports in 1877 consisted principally of reforms, and, within legal limits, show Governments wool, tallow, hides, etc., in quantity and value the path they must take. I shall act impartially, without fear or favor, in any
as follows: party conflicts that may arise. It is my duty to do so. I implore the help of Providence for your de
Quantity. liberations, and declare the session opened.
214,083,018 $18,103,723 Tallow, tons..
27,431 4,031,404 The following table presents the estimated Ox-hides
2,256,739 6,989,689 expenditure and revenue for the fiscal year Sheepskins.
27,819 3,933,625 1878–79:
278,990 3,585,886 Sundries.
3,734,627 Estimated Expenditure : Ministry of the Interior..
$43,393,609 Ministry of Foreign Affairs..
105,430 Ministry of Finance..
914, 707 Ministry of Justice and Public Instruction 1,150,428
The following table exhibits the imports Ministry of War and Marino..
5,103,629 from and exports to the United States for Interest on debt..
7,979,613 the twenty-one years 1857–77: Total..
.$17,193,284 The revenue is estimated at.
$1,313,807 $2,783,473 $1,098,280
1858. The national revenue and expenditure for 1959.
904,594 2,725,218 3,629,812
1,438,235 4,070.033 5,508,268 the eight years 1872–79 were as follows: 1860.
999,708 4,020,818 5,020,556 1861.
1,166,625 3.200,836 4.367,461 1862.
1,084,858 1,973,852 8,058,710 Expenditure. 1863
1,101,852 4,501,822 5,906,674 1801..
1,072,031 5,971,227 7,043,258
1,798,619 $18,172,379 $26,462,785
1,801,498 6,832,266 8,633,764 20,160,330 31,025,070 1867. 1874.
2,599,514 5,842,811 8,412,325 16,526,857 29,784,196
2,507,514 5,162,966 7,670,430 13,5 3,633 22,153,013
1870. 1877. 14,521,097
2,479,437 6,414,669 19,924,960
1,373,219 7,040,575 8,413,794 16,000,000 17,068,000 * 1872.. 1879.
1,459,664 9,169,952 10,629,616 16,570,000 17,193,284 * 1873
3,234,992 7,557,513 10,822,835 1874.
2,683,963 4,537,670 7,171,633
1875. The public debt is set down, in the Presi
1,439,618 5,831,709 7,27-1,327 1876.
1,555,052 3,602,736 5,187,768 dent's message, at $61,277,802, from which 1877.
1,129,168 3,149,559 4,578,727 may be deducted the amortization fund,
$36,246,054 *103,118,135 $139,361,219 amounting to $3,333,303 in December, 1877. Average per annum 1,726,004 4,900,587 6,636,377
In view of a possible conflict between Chili and the Argentine Republic, it may be not un American manufacturers have lately shown interesting to exhibit their relatire financial a great desire to extend their trade in South positions in 1877:
America. An Argentine journal states that
an American agent who visited Buenos Ayres BRANCHES. Argentine
as the representative of a number of manu
facturing firms of Philadelphia, New York, Revenue,
$14,S24,096 $13,685,352 Expenditure..
and other American cities, has returned to
5,100,874 6,773, 132
the United States well satisfied with the reImports.
39,309,141 29,279,113 Exports
sults of his canvass. “He has been literally
43,393,609 29.715,372 National debt.
overwhelmed with orders, and looks forward Population...
2,400,000 2,039,767 with confidence to permanent and profitable
trading relations with the River Plate.” The trade retorns 7 and the duties collected The subjoined report of the cost and profits on imports in 1875, 1876, and 1877, were as of the Argentine railways for the year 1877 is follows:
from official sources : * Estimated.
tion of merchandise shipped from and to the Argontine Re+ For important remarks on the true sources and destina- public, see “ Annual Cyclopædia " for 1877, p. 33.