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Secretary of State, W. W. Screws, 87,673; for The biennial session of the Legislature comAuditor, Willis Brewer, 87,315 ; for Treasurer, menced at Montgomery on November 12th. 1. H. Vincent, 88,231; for Attorney-General
, The Senate was organized by the choice of W. HI. O. Tompkins, 88,204. In the Senate fifteen G. Little as President, and the House by the members held over and eighteen were elected choice of David Clapton as Speaker. The Gov-all being Democrats but two. In the lIouse ernor (Houston), in his message previous to the there was a large majority of Democratic mem- inauguration of his successor, thus described the bers. The election of members of Congress, internal condition of the State: under the act of Congress, was held on November 5th, and resulted in the choice of the ments, it is with pleasure I note the fact that never
Peace being of the first importance to all governDemocratic candidates in every district except in its history has Alabama been freer from strifes the Eighth, where the Independent candidate and bloodshed, nor her citizens more orderly and was chosen,
law-abiding, than at the present time. The long Previous to this election, and on October their elections without Federal interference, and
and anxiously looked for day when States can hold 3d, the following letter was sent by United regulate and control their internal affairs, has at last States Attorney-General Devens to the Unit- dawned upon us. The entire country is to be coned States attorneys in Alabama, Louisiana, and gratulated upon the fact that “ goverument bacon" South Carolina :
will no longer carry elections in Alabama, nor the DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE,
arrests or threats of government officials deter voters WASHINGTON, D. C., October 3d. 5
ünd keep them from the polls; that the time has To Charles E. Mayor, Esq., United States Attorney,
passed when armed soldiers of the Federal Govern
inent can enter and eject from the legislative halls Montyomery, dlu.
of a State the legally elected representatives of the Sir : Information has been given me of certain people; that Federal bayonets will never again keep outrages alleged to have been committed and threat The members of a Legislature out of the Capitol of ened to be committed in northern and middle dis their State. These are causes for congratulation. tricts of Alabama, in connection with the approaching Ilow these changes and grand retorms were accomCongressional election. This information is of such polished, it is needless to say. a character that I deem it proper to call your attention to the laws of Congress intended to protect the
The embarrassments resulting from the depurity of such elections. Proper steps must be taken pression of industrial and financial affairs have to punish those who offend against them, and to reached a large number of counties and cities secure to all citizens, without distinction of party; in all parts of the l'nited States. In Alabama statement of crimes against the elective franchise is many counties and cities failed to pay princicondensed in chapter 7, title 70, of the Revised Stat- pal or interest on the bonds which they had utes, and your attention is especially called to section issued for local improvements. The bonds be5520, which enacts : “ If two or more persons in ing held outside the State, the bondholders any State or Territory conspire to prevent, by force, commenced suits in the Federal Courts and entitled to vote from giving his support or advocacy obtained judgments. These were followed by in a lawful manner toward or in favor of the election a mandamus from the Court commanding a of any lawfully qualified person as elector for Presi tax to be levied to pay the judgment. Various dent or Vice-President, or as member of Congress of measures were adopted to escape the tax, and the United States, or to injure any citizen in person
The case of the or property on account of such support or advocacy,
generally without success. each of such persons shall be punished by a fine of city of Montgomery will serve as an illustranot less than $50 nor more than $500, or by impris- tion. A compromise of the city debt was proonment, with or without hard labor, not less than posed at a discount of one fouth. It amountsix months nor more than six years, or by both fine
id to $800,000. All the lcndholders accepted and imprisonment." The enforcement of this provision is essential to proper discussion of the merits except one, who obtained a judgment in the of citizens who come forward as candidates for ('on- Federal Court. A mandamus was issued comgress. When, therefore, it is invaded by combina- manding the City ('ouncil to levy a tax to pay lions or conspiracies, by force or threats, to prevent the judgment. A majority of the Council reany lawfully qualified person as member of Congress, signed, and were then fined by the Court for and sufficient evidence of this is brought to your contempt. In Mobile, a proposition to ask the attention, you will act energetically in bringing those Legislature to repeal the city charter and place entering into such conspiracies to justico, by causing the city in the hands of a receiver was diswarrants to be issued against them by some firm and cussed. Numerous cases occurred in Arkansas. impartial United States Commissioner, and by having such parties promptly brought before him to be (See ARKANSAS.) Immediately after the opendealt with according to law. Such warrants should ing of the legislative session, the sentiment of be mado returnable when you or your assistant can the people of the State was expressed in the folattend at tho hearing. On accoun: of the importance lowing joint resolutions, offered in the Senate, of the matter, 1 deem it proper also to add that in instructing their Senators and Representatives such cases you should endeavor to select those who in Congress to urge the enactment of such lows you are satisfied aro leaders in such conspiracies, rather than the mero followers. In no case will you as may be necessary to prevent the exercise of permit any warrants to be wantonly or causelessly jurisdiction by the Courts of the United States issued. The laws are to be executed firmly, but al- in suits against municipal corporations in the ways fairly and impartially. You will show this let
several States: ter to the Marshal, if you should have occasion to place warrants in his hands relating to this subject. Ilhereas, Municipal corporations, namely, counties, Very respectfully,
CIIARLES DEVENS, cities, and towns, as organized in Alabama and other TxU
Attorney-General. States, are integral parts of the State itself, and of
the government thereof, and in so far as such cor the grandson of the Grand Duke Ludwig II. porations exercise power, particularly the power to and nephew of the Grand Duke Ludwig III. levy taxes, such power is part and parcel of the sovereign authority of the State in its highest preroga
As the position of her husband was not such tive; and
as to compel his residence in his paternal doWhereas, The jurisdiction asserted by the Courts minions, the young couple remained more than of the United States over suits against such corpora a year in England, and their eldest daughter, tions, and particularly the jurisdiction by writ of
Princess Victoria, was born at Windsor Castle, mandamus to compel such corporations to exercise sovereign power of levying taxes, in the opinion of April 5, 1863. The married life of the Printhe General Assembly, is an encroachment upon the
cess was very happy, and blessed with seven rights of the States, preserved in the Constitution children, five girls and two boys. The eldest of the United States, and a plain violation of that son, Prince Ernst Ludwig Karl Albrecht, was clause of the Constitution which declares that the
born November 25, 1868, and was consequently judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, com
ten years old at the death of his mother. The menced or prosecuted against one of the United youngest son, Prince Friedrich Wilhelm AuStates, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or gust Victor Leopold Ludwig, born October 7, subjects of any foreign state,” because a suit or pro- 1870, was accidentally killed by falling from a ceeding which compels the exercise of the highest window, May 27, 1873. The youngest Prinattribute of sovereignty reserved to the State, namely, the power to levy taxes upon its citizens, is in sub- cess, Marie Victoria Feodore Leopoldine, born stance and effect a suit or proceeding against the May 24, 1874, died a few days before her mothState, binding and controlling its action in the mat er, of diphtheria, the same disease to which ter most vital to its existence; and
her mother succumbed. Princess Alice made Whereas, The continued exercise of such jurisdic- herself very popular in Germany by her action will doubtless lead in the future, as in the past, to unseemly conflict between Federal and Stato au- tivity in promoting hospital arrangements durthority, detrimental to that respect for law and es- ing the Franco-German war, when she was a tablished authority which is the foundation of soci- constant visitor at the “ Alice Hospital” in ety and free government; and
Whereas, The General Assembly observes with Darınstadt and President of the Alice Frauengreat joy the increasing respect and reverenco
verein or women's association for charitable throughout the land for the form of government es purposes, affiliated to the Berlin Vaterländische tablished by the fathers, and believes that is the Verein. She was also an earnest patron of paramount will of all the people that this form of
education and literature, and zealously intergovernment shall be maintained in its true spirit intact for ever, and to accomplish this purpose the har: ested herself in many movements for liberal monious coóperation of State and Federal authority reform. She sent her oldest son for education under the Constitution of the United States is indis- to a kindergarten in Darmstadt, where at her pensable: therefore,
express demand no distinction whatever was Resolved by the General Assembly of Alabama, That made between him and the other children. On our Senators in Congress bo instructed, and our Ropresentatives be requested, to urge the enactment
June 13, 1877, her husband succeeded his childof such laws as may be necessary to prevent the ex
less uncle, Ludwig III., as Grand Duke of ercise of jurisdiction by tho Courts of the United Hesse. Her death occurred on the anniverStates of suits or proceedings against municipal cor sary of the death of her father, Prince Albert, porations in the several States. Resolved, That the Governor be requested to for
when most of the royal family were assembled ward a copy of the foregoing preamble and resolu- at Windsor Castle for the customary memorial tion to Hon. John T. Morgan, of the Senato, and to
services. each of the Representatives from this State in Con AMAT DI SAN FILIPPO E SORSO, LUIgress.
GI, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri, Dean Referred to the Committee on Federal Re- of the Sacred College, and Vice-Chancellor of lations.
the Holy Roman Church, born June 21, 1796, On November 27th Governor Cobb was in- died March 30, 1878. After receiving his eduaugurated, and delivered an address to the cation in the ecclesiastical Academy of NobleLegislature. The retiring Governor, George men, he was at the age of twenty-three appointS. Houston, was subsequently elected Senator ed domestic prelate. On April 9, 1827, Leo XII. to represent the State in the Federal Congress, named him Archbishop of Nicca in partibus, in the place of George E. Spencer. Mr. IIous- and sent him as. Apostolical Nuncio to Naples. ton was elected in 1865, but not allowed to take Subsequently this position was changed for
that of Nuncio in Spain, where, in consequence ALICE MAUD_MARY, Grand Duchess of of the will of Ferdinand VII., a civil war had Hesse-Darmstadt, Princess of England, second broken out. At both courts he was quite sucdaughter of Queen Victoria, born at Windsor cessful, and the succeeding Popes, l'ius VIII. Castle, April 25, 1843, died December 14, and Gregory XVI., held him in high honor. 1878. Princess Alice was perhaps the best In 1837 he was created Cardinal. In the folknown and the best loved of all the daughters lowing year he was sent as Apostolical Legate of Queen Victoria. She became especially en to Ravenna, where he remained six years, and deared to the English people during her father's became an intimate friend of Cardinal Mastailast illness, when her name becamo " synony- Ferretti, who was then Archbishop of Imola mous with a father's farewell and a mother's (subsequently Pope Pius IX.). Ilaving been consolation.” On July 1, 1862, she was mar recalled to Rome, he was made prefect of the ried to Prince Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt, economical department of the Propaganda and
president of the so-called “camera dei spogli.” and property has been estimated at two hunWhen Pius IX. ascended the throne, the lega- dred million dollars. Prompt contributions tion at Bologna was intrusted to him. The for the benefit of the suffering, and for defrayrevolutionary movements of 1848 having forced ing the expenses incident to the calamity, him to leave Bologna, he joined Pius IX. at poured forth from every part of the country. Gaëta, and was in 1852 appointed to the two The harvests of the year have been unusumost lucrative positions at the Papal_court, ally abundant, and the exports far exceed the those of Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman imports. Church and archivist of the apostolic letters. The year just past was marked by no inHe retained both offices until his death, adding ternational strife among the South and Central to them many others in the course of time. American states or Mexico; nor has internal During the latter part of his life he twice had dissension been frequent or of an alarming an apoplectic stroke, in consequence of which character in any of them.
There was a mohe was unable to leave his arm-chair ; but the mentary suspension of diplomatic relations clearness of his mind remained unimpaired between Chili and the Argentine Republic, the until his death. L. Teste, in his work, “ Pré- Santiago Government having repudiated the face au Conclave” (Paris, 1877), says of his treaty of limits signed by the Chilian plenipocharacter, “lle has always been looked upon tentiary, whose conduct was unanimously cenas an able, amiable, and obliging man, of very sured by the Legislature. Toward the end of independent character.”
the year, however, friendly negotiations were AMERICA. In the part of North America resumed. called the Dominion of Canada the year seems Chili, so uniformly prosperous for a number to have passed in a more quiet manner than of years, was plunged into financial troubles usual. Some local excitements in July, which of no ordinary character, the full extent of threatened for a moment something serious, which was realized in the second half of the happily passed away. The elections resulted year. Several unavoidable and a few avoidain à Conservative victory, and the return of ble causes contributed to bring about that state Sir John MacDonald to power. The principal of things: failure of the wheat crop, fall in the issue advocated by the Conservatives was the price of copper, and decrease in the quantity protection of home industry. The administra- of silver produced by the mines, construction tion of Lord Dufferin completed its sixth year, of unproductive railways, maintenance of a and he retired from the office of Governor- useless pavy, and extravagant expenditures in General, and was succeeded by Sir John Doug- the various departments of the Government. las Sutherland Campbell, usually called the In Colombia, public affairs had been graduMarquis of Lorne. He is the husband of Louise, ally returning to their former satisfactory conone of the daughters of Queen Victoria. Their dition, overturned for a while by the late disarrival in December was an event of unusual astrous revolution. interest throughout the Dominion.
In the United States, the depression in commercial affairs continued throughout the year. It was mitigated somewhat by an increased feeling of confidence toward the close, and by an improvement in many branches of industry. Prices of necessaries were greatly reduced, and the expenses of living diminished.
The returns of the State elections were less favorable to the Democratic party than in the previous year; but the latter still retained its strength in the Federal Legislature. Complaints were made by both the Republican and Democratic parties of local interference with electors, and measures were adopted by Congress for an investigation. The affairs in the Southern States have resumed a peaceful and industrious aspect.
Some Indian disturbances occurred among The political and commercial situations of the remnants of the Western tribes, but of less Peru have experienced no change warranting importance than in previous years.
bright hopes for the immediate future; bor A very serious and afHictive visitation of the has violent party spirit been as yet completely yellow fever occurred in the Southern States. divested of its lawlessness, as attested by the It appeared in New Orleans about May 23d, assassination of ex-President Señor Don Maand spread over a large section of country. nuel Pardo in November, he being then PresiThe States of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Ten- dent of the Senate. nessee were the greatest sufferers. Nearly
unition of the iaz dministration Hundred thousand cases occurred, and about in Mexico by the United States took place in twenty thousand deaths. The loss to industry March.
ANGLICAN CHURCHES. The Convoca- and rearranged.” Further, the Convocation tion of Canterbury met on February 12th. A resolved that " some regulating power is nepetition was presented, signed by 15,008 of the cessary by means of which, while the faith and clergy and 30,140 of the laity of the Church doctrine of the Church remain unaltered, sho of England, declaring that “ we consider the may be enabled to adapt her ceremonies to the churchyards, subject to the legal right of the changing circumstances of the time,” and reparishioners to interment, to be the property quested the Bishop of Carlisle to embody the of the Church of England ; that we are op- provisions of the scheme which he proposed in, posed to any legislation which shall permit the form of a draft bill, to be submitted tol persons, not being ministers of that Church, Convocation, and if approved by it introduced to claim as a right to officiate in our church- into Parliament. yards, and to use forms and ceremonies there The seventy-ninth annual meeting of the in which are not sanctioned by the English Church Missionary Society was held in LonChurch.” A committee which had been ap- don, April 30th. The Earl of Chichester prepointed in the Lower House in June preceding, sided. The general receipts of the Society for on the subject of the “burials question,” made the year had been £207,053; adding what had a report holding that the present law was the been received for the India and China famine only security against the making of the grave- funds, and for special missions, the whole yards the scene of strife and unchristian con amount intrusted to the Society had been troversy. A resolution was adopted asserting £223,038. The total expenditures had been that the Church can not, without a breach of £208,346. The total number of clergymen faith, permit in its own burial grounds services employed by the Society was 385, of whom not its own, but suggesting that the difficulties 203 were Europeans, and 182 native clergy. of nonconformists might be met by an alterna- Fifty-seven European laymen were also at work tive service. A report on ecclesiastical law under the direction of the Society. A report was adopted in the Lower House, providing was made of the condition of the missions in that the Convocation might frame canons to West and East Africa, Turkey, Persia, northbe, by permission of the Queen in Privy Coun- ern, southern, and western India, Ceylon, Maucil, laid before Parliament, when, if not ob- ritius, the Seychelles islands, China, Japan, jected to, they might by royal license become New Zealand, and northwest America. Some à law. The Upper House approved the re- steps had been taken toward completing the port, and recommended that a draft of a bill independence of the church in Sierra Leone. be made in accordance with its suggestions, Converts from Islam had publicly professed and submitted to Parliament. A committee Christianity at Lagos. Measures had been was appointed to prepare forms of family and taken for consolidating and extending the Niprivate prayer, to be considered, and if thought ger mission. Two of the agents connected fit authorized, by Convocation. The Convo- with the mission on the Victoria Nyanza Lake cation met again May 14th. The Lower IIouse had been killed in an affray with which the adopted recommendations for the amendment mission had no direct connection, but men of the Lectionary, to the effect that in the were to be sent immediately to take their course of the lessons the Gospel should bo places. The troubles which had interrupted read thrice in the year instead of twice as at the progress of the work at the Tamil Coopresent, and the whole of the Apocalypse ly mission in Ceylon during the past two should be read. It also requested the Upper years had been settled, and the Bishop of CoIIouse to take means to obtain an improved lombo had consented to give to the mission the form of baptismal register. In the Upper same recognition as had been accorded to it by House, a report was presented whichi recom- his predecessors, upon a guarantee being giver mended an increase in the amount of stipends that it should be conducted consistently with to curates in parishes where the incumbent is the principles of the Church of England. non-resident, and that in no case should it be The total receipts of the Society for the Proless than £120, or the amount of the income pagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts for of the incumbent. Some attention was given the year ending in Níay, 1878, were £148,438, to the proceedings of the Reformed Episcopal of which £17,000 were given for distribution Church, which had been recently organized in by missionaries of the Society to sufferers the kingdom, under the superintendence of from the Indian famine. There were 517 Bishop Gregg, and a committeo was appointed missionaries and about 1,100 catechists and lay to consider the matter.
teachers employed by the Society during tho The Convocation of York met February 19th. year. Of the missionaries, one was engagerl The Bishop of Carlisle introduced resolutions in Europe, 64 labored in Australia and the Paproposing a scheme of changes in legislation, cific, 120 in Africa, 13.3 in Asia, and 227 in of which the first was amended and adopted, America and the West Indies. The Society declaring that “in the judgment of this con- had also 25.5 students in colleges abroad. llinvocation the time has arrived when it has be- doo students of Bishop's College, Calcutta, come necessary that the mode of legislation lund begun to pass the preliminary theological apon matters affecting the spiritual affairs of examination of the University of Cambridge. the Church of England should be reviewed The ordination of Peter Vasiza as a priest in
Caffraria was mentioned as the first instance Bishop of Lichfield, died in April. The Rev. of a Caff're adınitted to the priesthood. The William Dalrymple Maclagan, vicar of Kenwork of the missionaries in China had suffered sington, prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral, from the famine, that in South Africa from the chaplain to the Bishop of London, and honCaffre insurrection, and that in the West Indies orary chaplain to the Queen, was appointed from the struggle with the difficulties of dis- to succeed him as Bishop of Lichfield, and endowment. Favorable reports were made of was consecrated to that office on the 21th of the condition of missions in Australia, New June. Zealand, and Japan. The anniversary meeting A final decision was given by the Queen's of the Society, which is usually held in April, Bench Division of the Iligh Court of Justice in was postponed till the last of June, so that the the case of Martin vs. Mackonochie, which has colonial and American bishops who were then been in the ecclesiastical courts of England for to be present at the Pan-Anglican Synod might several years. The original suit in this case attend it.
was begun in June, 1874, in the shape of a The Home Reunion Society is the name of prosecution under the Church Discipline act an organization which has been formed for the (3 and 4 Vict., c. 86), against the Rev. Mr. purpose of presenting the Church of England Mackonochie, of St. Alban's
, Holborn, for in a conciliatory aspect toward those who re breaches of the ecclesiastical law, principally gard themselves as outside of its pale, and of in the use of ornaments by the minister and promoting the corporate reunion of all Chris- in the church. The case was heard in Decemtians holding the doctrines of the Trinity and ber of the same year, and the defendant was the Incarnation and Atonement. The Bishop suspended from his office for six weeks. Conof Winchester is president, and several other tinuing his alleged breaches of the law after bishops are members of the council. The his return to liis church, he was served in Society professes that, although it can not sup- March, 1878, with a notice to appear before port any scheme of comprehension which Lord Penzance in the Court of Arches; and compromises the three creeds or the Episcopal paying no attention to this, he was served in Constitution of the Church, it “is prepared to the same month with a second monition, warnadvocate all reasonable liberty in matters ing him to abstain from the practices mentionnot contravening the Church's faith, order, ed in the former notice. He was also served or discipline.” The annual meeting of the with a further notice to appear in the Court Society was held in London, July 10th, when of Arches on the 11th of May, but did not apa report was presented of its progress during pear. Lord Penzance thereupon proceeded to the year, and addresses were made by the deal with the case in his absence, and in time Bishop of Winchester, the Bishop of Louisiana, issued a decree suspending him ab officio et a and others.
beneficio for three years, as a punishment for The annual meeting of the Society for the his contempt of the decree of the Dean of Liberation of Religion from State Control was Arches and the monition of Lord Penzance, held in London, May 15th. Mr. IIenry Lee of warning him to pay obedience to the previous Manchester presided, in the absence of Sir monition. Mr. Mackonochie then applied to Wilfred Lawson, Bart., the actual president. the Queen's Bench Division for a writ of proThe income of the Society for the year had hibition to restrain Lord Penzance from pubbeen £16,000. Nine hundred and thirty meet- lishing and proceeding with the decree of susings and lectures had been held under its pension. The decree of the Court was given direction during the year, and 2,320,000 copies by a majority of one of the judges, and was of publications had been issued, of which a based upon technical grounds having no refconsiderable number had been circulated in the erence to the merits of the case. The Lord agricultural districts. Suggestions had been Chief Justice and Chief Justice Mellor, formpublished as to the mode in which disestablish- ing the majority of the Court, and whose opinment could be effected. The organization for ion carried the decision, held that the monition promoting the objects of the Society had been issued to Mr. Mackonochie in the first instance advanced in London by the formation of a was in the nature of a penalty, and ended the council in each of the inetropolitan constituen- proceeding against him; and that, therefore, cies. The movement for disestablishment in no further penalty could be inflicted upon him Scotland had mado great progress, notice of without beginning a new suit. The sentence which was taken in one of the resolutions of three years' suspension, being in form a conadopted at the meeting. Another resolution, tinuance of a suit that had been closed, was referring to the repeal of the Corporation and upon this view void. Test acts, whose fiftieth anniversary was near, A general conference of the bishops of the expressed thanks to Earl Russell and “tó Church of England, and of the American and others associated with him in that great strug- colonial churches affiliated, with the missiongle who still survive,” for their successful ex- ary bishops, currently spoken of as the Panertions “to diminishi the civil disabilities in- anglican Synol, or ('onference, met upon inflicted or maintained in the interest of the vitation of the Archbishop of Canterbury at Church Establishment."
Lambeth Palace, July 2d. The council had no The Right Rev. George Augustus Selwyn, authority, but was a purely voluntary meeting