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concerning the construction of a railroad from ono ART. VI. The entrance of the canal shall be rigor-
ocean to the other by the Isthmus of Panamá.". ously prohibited to the war-vessels of belligerent na-

ART. V. The Government of the Republic declares tions, and whose destination manifests their inten-
noutral for all time the ports at either extreme of tion to tako part in hostilities.
the canal, and tho waters of the same, from sea to Ant. VII. "The grantees will enjoy the right, dur-
sca; and consequently, in case of war between other ing all the time of the possession of the privilege, to
nations or between any nation and Colombia, the make use of the ports at tho extremities of the canal

, transit of the canal shall not be interrupted for that as well as intermodinte points, for the anchorage and reason. Any ship whatever shall be free to navigato repair of ships, and the loading, depositing, transthe canal, without distinction, exclusion, or prefer- ferring, or disembarking of merchandise. The ports ence of persons or nationalities, by virtue of paying of the canal shall be open and free for the commerce the tolls, and the observance of the rules established of all nations, and no import duties shall be recor by the company, for the use of said canal and its de cred except on merchandise destined to be intropondencies. Foreign troops are excepted, and can duced for consumption in other parts of the republic

. not pass without the permission of Congress. The said ports shall in consequence be open for im

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portations from the beginning of the work, and the free from political influences. The company shall custom-houses and guards which the Government take the name of " The Universal Interoceanic Canal may judge convenient for the collection of duties on Company" ; its residence shall be fixed in Bogotá, merchandise destined for other portions of the re New York, London, or Paris, at the election of the public shall be established, to prevent the practice grantoes; branch offices may be established wherever of smuggling:

necessary; its contracts, shares, bonds, and the titles Art. XI. The passengers, money,

recious met which belong to it, shall never bo subjected by the als, merchandise, and articles and effects of all class Government of Colombia to any charge for registry, es transported by the canal, shall also be exempt emission, stamps, nor any analogous charge, upon from all duties. The same exemption is extended the sale or transfer of these shares and bonds, or on to all articles and merchandise, for interior or exte any profits accruing on the same. . rior trade, stored according to the conditions stipu Art. XXI. The grantees, or those who in the fulated with the company, in their storehouses and ture shall succeed them in their rights, may transstations.

fer those rights to other capitalists or financial comArt. XII. The ships which wish to pass through panies; but it is absolutely prohibited to cedo or tho canal shall present in the port of the terminus hypothecate them, by any title, to any nation or forat which they arrive their respectivo registers and eign government. other sailing documents, prescribed by the law and Art. XXII. The grantees, or those who may reppublic treatios, in order that the vessel may navi resent them, may forfeit their acquired rights under gate without hindrance. The vessels which have the following circumstances : not said papers, or which shall refuse to present 1. If they do not deposit, within the term stiputhom, may be detained, and proceeded against ac lated, the amount required as security for the execording to law.

cution of the work. Art. XIV. As an indemnity to the grantees for 2. If in the first of the twelve years allowed for the cost of construction, maintenance, and opera- the construction of the canal the works are not betion, which are at their expense, they shall havo gun. In this case the company loses the sum deduring all the period of this privilege the

exclusivo posited as a guarantee, the which will remain to the right to establish, and to receive for the passage of

credit of the

republic. the canal and the ports dependent upon it, imposts 3. If at tho termination of the period fixed by for lighthouses, anchorage, transit, navigation, re paragraph 5 of Article 1. the canal is not navigable. pairs, pilotage, towing, hauling, and storage under 4. If the prescriptions of Article XXI. are not the tariff which they shall establish, and which may complied with. be modified at any time under tho following condi 5. If the service of the canal shall be interrupted tions:

for more than six inonths, except in an extreme case. 1. These imposts shall be levied without excep In cases 2, 3, 4, and 5, the Federal Supreme Court tion or favor upon all ships, in identical conditions. shall decide whether the privilege has been forfeited 2. The tariff

' shall be published four months before it is put into effect, in the “Diario Official” of ART. XXV. The enterprise of the canal shall be the Government, as well as in the capitals and prin- considered of public benefit. cipal commercial ports of the countries interested. Art. XXVI. This contract, which will serve as

3. The principal tolls which shall be collected on a substitute for the dispositions of Law 33 of May
vessels shall not exceed the rate of ten francs for 26, 1876, and the clauses of the contract celebrated
each cubic metre resulting from the multiplication on the 28th of May of the same year, shall be sub-
of the principal dimension of the submerged portion mitted to the approbation of the President of the
of the ship in transit (length, breadth, and depth). .:: Union, and the dofinite acceptance of the Congress

6. Special tolls for navigation shall be reduced in of the nation.
proportion to the excess, when the net profits de In witness whereof they sign the present in Bogo-
rived from it shall exceed twelve per cent. upon the tá on the 20th of March, 1878.
capital employed in tho enterprise.

Art. XV. As a compensation for the rights and

LUCIEN N. B. WYSE. exemptions which are conferred upon the grantees Bogotá, March 23, 1878. by this contract, the Government of the Republic Approved : The President of the Union, shall enjoy a participation equal to fivo per cent. of

AQUILEO PARRA. the gross product which shall accrue to the enter The Secretary of the Interior and of Foreign Afprise, according to the tariff which shall bo fixed fairs,

ECSTORGIO SALGAR. upon by the company.

Art. XVI. The grantees are authorized to require Toward the end of 1878 the political state payment in advance of any charges which they inay of the country was reported as exceedingly establish. Nine tenths of these charges shall be madio satisfactory. The September elections in Cunpayable in gold, and only the remaining tenth part dinamarca had resulted in a majority in the shall be payable in silver of twenty-fivo grammes of a fineness of 900.

Assembly in favor of the National GovernArt. XVII. The ships infringing the rules estab- ment; while those in Boyacá had returned but lished by the company shall be subject to a fine two members for the opposition. The elecwhich said company shall embody in its statutes, tions in Santander had been acknowledged by and of which it shall give notice to tho public simul; the doctrinarios to be an additional triumph taneously with its turiff. If they refuse to pay said fine, or furnish sufficient security, they may be dle- for the new administration. tained, and proceeded against accordiný to law. The A law was passed by the Colombian Consame proceedings may be observed for the damages gress on July 5, 1878, authorizing the approthey may have occasioned.

Art. XVIII. It the opening of a canal shall bo priation of $25,000 and $5,000 respectively to deomed financially possible, the grantees are author be applied in behalf of the developinent of the ized to form, under the immediato protection of the agricultural interests of the republic, in accordColombian Government, and in the time agreed upon, ance with sentiments expressed by President a universal joint-stock company, which shall under- Trujillo in his message of May last respecting take the execution of the work, taking charze of all the establishment of gardens for the acclifinancial arrangements which inay bo needed. As this enterprise is essentially international and eco

matization of the quina-tree in the cities of nomic, it is understood that it shall always be kept Bogotá and Popayan.

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COLORADO. The State election occurred also that the Government shall issue to the depositon the first Tuesday in ()ctober. It was for

ors of silver bullion coin certificates for circulation the choice of a member of ('ongress and State Senate amendments to the silver bill passed by Con

us money; and we denounce as a cheat and fraud the officers. The Democratic Convention for the gress, because they have enabled the Secretary of noinination of candidates was held at Pueblo the Treasury to entirely control the coinage of silver on July 17th, and was permanently organized and to hoard the same in the Treasury vaults, to the by the choice of M. B. Gerry as chairman. detriment of the business of the country. The following platform was adopted :

Resolved, That, as further measures of relief and

us acts of justice to the business and laboring classes, The Democracy of Colorado, in presenting their

we demand : candidates to the people for their suifrazes, solemnly lawful liberation of the coin hoarded iu' the Trea

1. The repeal of the resumption act, and the renew their devotion to the Constitution and the Union, and attirm the following as the carclinal prin- sury: ciples of the Democratic futh :

2. The substitution of United States legal-tender A strict construction of the Constitution with all paper for national-bank notes, and its permanent its amendments; the supremacy of the civil over the reestablishment as the sole paper money of the counmilitary power; a complete severance of church and try, to be made receivable for all dues to the GovStato ; the equality of all citizens before the law; crnment and of legal tender with coin, the amount opposition to all subsidies, monopolies, and class leg- of such issues to be so regulated by legislation or orįslation; the preservation of the public lands for the ganic law as to give the people assurance of stability, bona filé settler; the maintenance and protection of

in the volume of the currency and consequent stabilthe common-school system; and unrestricted bome ity of value. rule under the Constitution to the citizens of every

3. It is the exclusive right and duty of Congress State in the American Union.

to furnish to the people of the country their circuResolreil, That every honest voter should approve lating medium, whether the same be gold, silver, or the investigation and thorough exposure of the mon paper; and it should always maintain the value of strous frauds by which the will of the American such currency so as to meet the demands of trade. people, as expressed at the ballot-box, was set aside. The full faith and credit of the Government should and their choice for President and Vice-President be pledged to maintain whatever currency it may deprived of the high offices to which they were

furnish, of equal value and of equal power, elected; and while we disclaim any purpose of in

4. No further increase in the bonded debt, and no terfering with the title of the fraudulent' President further sale of bonds for the purchase of coin for re(madde valid by the order of Congress), to the end sumption purposes. that such grave crimes against the ('onstitution and 5. A gradual extinction of the public debt by the laws of the land may be rendered impossible in the redemption of the interest-bearing portion thereof future and their perpetrators made infamous for

in such currency as the law will permit-in United ever, we demand that such investigation be fair and States notis where coin is not demanded by the letsearching, and the authors of the crimes be held to ter of the law, and in silver equally with gold whera full accountability under the law for their criminal ever coin is required. action.

6. A rigid economy in the management of our own Resolved, That the commercial and industrial dis- affairs, both State and national, and a reduction of tress that has so long prevailed throughout the coun

expenditures in every branch of the public service try is the legitimate result of the vicious financial consistent with efficacy. legislation of the moneyed power, etfected through

Resolved, That the employment of the army of the tho, agency of the Republican party in ('ongress; United States, except to execute the laws and mainthat by the demonetization of silver, the enactment tain the public peace, is contrary to and destructive of the resumption law, the retirement and destruc

of the principles of free government, and we express tion of legal-tender notes, the exchange of bonds

our gratitude to the present Congress for the law originally redeemable in greenbacks for those which making it illegal and punishable by fine and impris(under the law) are to be redeemed in coin, and tho

onment to use the army as a posse comitatus without maintenanco of the national banking system, this

the express authority of statute or of the Constitusame moneyed power have prostrated labor, bank- tion. rupted merchants, robbed widows and orphans, filled

Prisolved, That we condemn the extravagance and our poor-houses with paupers, transformed industri- incompetence of the late Republican Legislature, as ous men into tramps and outcasts, and filehed from

exhibited in the unnecessary and extraordinary real estate and personal property i all over the land length of its session, and the bungling and incommore than one half of what ought to be the minimum prehensible laws which it enacted. And we further value.

condemn the Republican State officials for their atResolvcd, That inequal taxation is a plain viola- tempt, under the guise of equalizing taxes, to add tion of the fundamental 1:1 w of right, and no repub- millions of dollars to the assessed value of property lican form of government can long endure under owned by our citizens, which was the subject of taxawhich the property of one class is entirely exempt

tion. from taxation, while that of others must boar all the

Resolreil, That a mint for coining gold and silver burlens; and we denounce as tyrannical and unjust should at once be established in Colorado; and we in the extreme the action of the Republican party,

most heartily commend the energetic and unremitby which hundreds of millions of dollars in national ting efforts of Ilon. Thomas M. Patterson, our membönds have been exempt t'rom taxation, while (Very

ber of Congress, to procure the establishment of such other species of property must be taxed for their mint in our State. protection.

Thomas M. Patterson was renominated for Resolveil, That before trade and business enter- Congress, and W. A. II. Loreland was nomiprises can be checked in their downward course, an increase in the volume of the currency is imperatively nated for Governor; for Lieutenant-Governor, required; that, as one measure for the end sought, Thomas V. Fielil; for Secretary of State, J. S. We slemand tho free and unlimited coinage of silver, Wheeler; for State Treasurer, Nelson Hallock; so that the owners of bullion may at pleasure have for State Auditor, John 11. Ilarrison; for Atit coined into standard silver dollars at the mints of torney-General, Caldwell Yeaman. the United States, and, without further interference upon the part of the Government, circulate the

The Republican State Convention assembled sume in the channels of trade and commerco; and at Ienver on August 7th, and was organized

by the choice of James P. Maxwell as chair- and advantage, in aid of the construction of irrigatman. The following platform was adopted:

ing ditches and highways through the mineral re

gions of the State. The Republicans of Colorado, in convention as 11. That we accept the resumption of specie paysembled, do hereby declare and resolve:

ments as practically accomplished, and denounce 1. That the American people are one people; that the fraudulent practices of the Democratic party in the American States are a nation, the sovereignty of now making war on the resumption of specie paywhose Government is supreme.

ments, after declaring, in 1872 and 1876, that the 2. We demand the equality of all men before the same ought to be brought about at the earliest praclaw, that equal justice shall be done to all, and es

ticable period. pecial privileges conferred on none.

12. That the army and navy of the nation have 3. That in the present financial condition of the earned for themselves the adniiration and gratitude country and the Government, no subsidies in money, of every true and patriotic citizen, and that they bonds, public lands, endorsement, or pledges of the should be maintained in efficiency, and in such force public credit, should be granted by Congress to asso as to protect the nation from attack without, and ciations or corporations engaged in private enter from commotion, treason, and rebellion within; and prises, and that strict economy is demanded in the we condemn the present Democratic House in seekadministration of public affairs, both State and na- ing to destroy the efficiency of both, especially while tional,

our brethren and their wives and children are being 4. That it is the primary and sacred duty of the ruthlessly murdered by savages in the northwestern national Government to protect and maintain every territory of the nation. citizen in all his civil, political, and public rights; 13. Inasmuch as the production of gold and silver and until this principle of the Constitution is cheer- constitutes one of the great industries of our country, fully obeyed, and, if need be, vigorously enforced, and we are largely interested in everything which the work of the Republican party is unfinished increases the demand therefor, we declare it to be The Republican party is committed to unremitting the duty of tho General Government to increase the efforts to secure all the legitimate beneficial results coinage of the precious metals; and especially deof the late civil war, the sovereignty of the Union, clare it to be the duty of Congress, without delay, equal rights for all citizens, untrammeled suffrage, to establish one or more coinage mints in Colorado, and the redemption of every pledge made by the whereby the production of our own mines can be Government to those who furnished the means or put into circulation bere, without the expense and gave their services to save the Union.

annoyance of first shippiug our bullion east for coin5. That we recognize the fact that whilo in Colo age and then back again for use. rado, on account of its peculiar industry, labor is 14. That we view with alarm the growing tendenwell rewarded, and the laborer still found worthy cy of great and powerful corporations to consolidate of his bire,” yet in many other sections of the coun their capital and influence, in order to shut out comtry all branches of industry-manufacturing, mechan- petition on the great lines of trade and travel, and ical, and mining--are at this time greatly depressed; thus leave the people at the mercy of merciless specand we deprecate any legislation that in its naturo ulators and unscrupulous but aspiring politicians. must further unsettle values and bring the labor of 15. That we also view with alarm the action of the America in competition with the ill-paid labor of the present Democratic House of Representatives in seatOld World; and since it is now necessary to raise a ing a man as a member of that body who had not relarge part of our national revenues by a tariff on im- ceived, under the forms of law or otherwise, the enports, we demand such duties on those imports as dorsement of the people of his district. We declare shall afford the greatest protection to American labor the act a gross outrage upon a free poople, subversive and productions, yet not be a burden on the con of the fundamental principle of a popular govern

ment; an act done in violation of right, justice, and 6. That the General Government should provide law, in a partisan spirit, to accomplish partisan ends, and be responsible for honest national money, suf- and' one which can not be too severely condemned ficient for all the legitimate needs of the country, by every honorable man, by every patriot and every with gold, silver, and paper equal in value, and alike lover of popular institutions. receivable for all debts, public and private. The in 16. That Thomas M. Patterson, by becoming a terest-bearing debt of the nation should be as soon party to this great fraud and outrage perpetrated upas possible reconverted into a popular loan, repre on the people, and in accepting a seat in the House sented by small bonds, or notos within the reach of at the hands of an unscrupulous and partisan majority

in that body to which he was in no sense entitled, 7. That the national honor and credit alike de- and against the expressed wish of the people of Colomand that the national debt be held sacred, to be rado, has forfeited their respect and confidence, and paid as agreed upon at the time such debt was con has well earned for himself the contempt of all honortracted.

able and high-minded men. 8. That we approve of the action of the Republi 17. That we commend to our State government can Senate in attempting to make greenbacks re our system of free schools, and all our educational ceivable in payment of Government dues, and we interests, which should be preserved, fostered, and denounce the action in the Democratic House in de- built up with a faithful care and a generous liberfeating that measure.

ality. 9. That while we demand rigid economy on the 18. That the legislation of the nation should be part of the Government, both State and national, in such as to promoto both the interests of capital and their expenditures, and such reduction of taxation labor; that we are opposed to sumptuary laws and iis may be consistent therewith, we denounce the laws in tho interest of any special class, and demand action of the Democratic House of Representatives that legislation be in the interest of the whole people. in withholding proper and necessary appropriations 19. That we protest against the payment by the under the specious cry of economy and reform,' national Government of the millions of rebel claims to the great inconvenience and detriment of the ser already presented, and the billions more to be previce, as the veriest claptrap, conclusively proved by sented, if a precedent is once established by the their making good the deficits in a succeeding Con- payment of one dollar of these claims-claims that gress by, deficiency bills, a piece of trickery unwor are at once illegal, presumptuous, and impudent. thy the legislation of a great and free country.

20. Lastly, we affirm our unfaltering faith in the 10. That the arid lands of Colorado, like the principles, the patriotism, and the political honesty swamp-lands of other States, should be donated by of the Republican party, and in its preēminent fitthe General Government to the State, for its benefit ness over all other parties to administer the govern


every citizen.


ment of both the State and the nation wisely and the Constitution, and to be fixed by said Constituwell; and in evidence thereof, we hereby pledge our- tional Convention; and till such State officers are selves to do our utmost both to advance its principles elected and qualified under the provisions of the and elect its nominees.

Constitution, the Territorial officers shall continue to 21. That in Governor Routt the Convention recog- discharge the duties of their respective offices, nizes an executive who has faithfully, honestly, and well discharged the duties imposed on him, and bas In the month of August, 1876, Colorado was thus guined for himself what this Convention cheer- admitted into the Union as a State. Upon the fully accords to him, the confidence and the respect third day of October of that year a Represenof the people of this state.

tative to the Forty-fourth Congress was electThe nominations were as follows: for Con- ed, and at the same time votes were cast for a gress, James B. Belford; for Governor, F. W. Representative for the Forty-fifth Congress. Pitkin; for Lieutenant-Governor, II. A. W. Mr. Belford at that time received a majority of Tabor; for Secretary of State, M. H. Meldram; votes thus cast. On the 7th day of November for Treasurer, U. S. Culver; for Auditor, E. K. of the same year an election was held in the Stimson; for Attorney-General, C. W. Wright. State for the Forty-fifth Congress, at which

The Greenback State Convention assembled Mr. Patterson received a majority of votes. at Denver on August 14th; delegates were pres- Mr. Belford claimed the seat by virtue of the ent from fourteen counties. It nominated vote cast in October. Mr. Patterson claimed it R. G. Buckingham for Governor, P. A. Sim- by virtue of the election in Norember. The mons for Lieutenant-Governor, J. E. Washburn report of the ('ommittee alleged that Novemfor Secretary of State, W. D. Arnett for Trea- ber 7, 1876, was the day fised by law for the surer, G. W. King for Auditor, Alpheus Wright election of a Representative in the Forty-fifth for Attorney-General, and Childs for Con- Congress from Colorado. This was under the gress.

act of Congress passed February 2, 1872. The The platform arraigned the Democrats for their report of three members alleged that Ocadvocacy and support of African slavery, teaching tuber 3, 1876, was the day. This was under the wild and cruel phantasy that man could hold the enabling act and the State Constitution. property in man, and the Republican party tor legis The report of one member in favor of declaring sation in the interest of the money power; demanded the issue by the Government of absolute paper mon

a Vacancy vas made on the ground that by ey as a full legal tender for all debts, public and law no day was fixed on which a member of private, in sufficient volume for the entire needs of Congress could have been elected in Colorado. trade, and in payment of the whole of the interest- After a debate in the llouse of Representatives bearing debt, and to be paid (lirectly to the people a resolution was adopted on December 13, without the intervention of banks or agents; the immediate repeal or the resumption act and all’law's 1877, giving the seat to Thomas M. Patterson authorizing the national banks; un enactment by by a vote of yeas 116, nays 110. This election ('ongress prohibiting any further issue of bonds, of member of Congress was also regarded as and a constitutional amendment making such issue important, as, in case the election of President impossible, and an income tax on all incomes above in 1880 should devolve upon the House of Rep$1,000.

resentatives, the vote of the single member The election in October was the second one from Colorado would have equal weight with held for the choice of State officers. Besides that of the thirty-three from New York. The these officers, a member of Congress and mem- result of the State election was: Belford, 14,bers of the State Legislature were also chosen. 294; Patterson, 12,003; Childs, 2,329. Bel. Unusual interest was awakened in the Congres- ford's plurality, 2,289. sional election, as the same individuals were It would be the duty of the new Legislature candidates as at the previous election, and a to elect a member of the United States Senate in contest had been raised by the Democrat as the place of Senator Chaffee, whose term would to the right of the Republican to the seat. close on March 4, 1879. The total number of This dispute came up in the session of Congress members to be chosen was sixty-three; twelve commencing in December, 1877. The con- Senators held over, of whom eight were Repubtestants were James B. Belford and Thomas M. licans and four Democrats. To have a maPatterson. The question was referred to the jority in the Legislature, was necessary for Committee on Elections, a inajority of whom the Republicans to elect thirty of the new reported in favor of giving the seat to Mr. Pat- members. In like manner, for the Democrats terson, thrce reported in favor of Mr. Belford, to have a majority, it was necessary for them and one in favor of declaring a vacancy. The to elect thirty-four of the new members. The points of the case were as follows: On March Democrats elected three Senators and ten mem3, 1875, Congress passed an act to enable the bers of the IIouse, and the Nationals one, leavpeople of the Territory of Colorado to form a ing the Republicans in a large majority. For State Constitution. This act contained the fol- Regents of the l'niversity there were 26,380 lowing section:

Republican votes, 23,462 Democratic votes, That until the next general census said State shall and 2,886 National votes. The votes for other be entitled to one Representative in the lIouse of State officers are canrassed at the subsequent Representatives of the United States, which Repre- session of the Legislature. This commences on sentative, together with the Governor, and Stato and other officers provided for in said Constitution, shall

the first Wednesday of January, 1879, and is be elected on a day subsequent to the adoption of limited to forty days. The more important

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