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poor corners. His view is confirmed in the the center of Corea to the Chinese town of report of Mr. Nicholson, who shows that in Moakden, amid insults and threats of murder Shansi and Shensi, where the famine has been all along the line of the route, and was saved · most intense, the poppy can be cultivated with only by the declarations of his escort that he success only on the irrigable lands, all of which was under the protection of the Emperor. For would have been available for the raising of several months his daily fore in prison was a wheat and vegetables, except for the profit de- handful of rice and a bowl of cold water, and rived from the opium-culture. The Governor he had to sleep on the ground and associate of Shansi, with the approval of the throne, has with criminals of the worst stamp. This was resolved to issue a proclamation laying on the the third time Monseigneur Ridel had been senancestral clans and village clubs the responsi- tenced to death in Corea ; on the two previous bility of preventing the growth of the poppy occasions he owed his escape to his own energy. in their neighborhoods. A vigorous voluntary An insurrection broke out in the province organization for checking the spread of opium- of Kwangsi in the latter part of the year, and smoking has been formed in Canton, which immediately assumed such formidable proporpublishes and circulates tracts, and has given tions as to cause considerable auxiety to the prizes for essays discussing the evils of the imperial authorities. The leader of the insurtrade and of the use of the drug. Several of gents was a general named Li-Yung-Choi, who the essays have been published. They are very was also notorious in the great Taiping rebelplain-spoken against those who have introduced lion, but had prudently deserted to the impeopium into the country. The religion of the rial side when he saw that the collapse of the West, says the essay that won the first prize, rebellion was imminent. Since then he had teaches that we must love our neighbors as our gained great distinction in the service of the selves, practice kindness toward all, and not Emperor, and had been honored with the yelbenefit ourselves at others' expense; yet what low tunic. It seemed that he was disappointed one thing in the world can be compared with at not receiving some coveted preferment, and opium for the injury it inflicts on mankind, put himself at the head of a revolutionary moveand the mischief it causes men to bring on ment. His army was reported to number fifty their neighbors for the sake of their own gain? thousand men. "No wonder that mobs have burned some of The preliminary examination of the country the Christian churches and put to death West- at Kaeping, where mining operations are conern men and women." The essayist also shows templated, has proved very satisfactory. A how the importation of Western manufactures flat piece of country about twenty miles long into the country would be benefited by the was found to be covered with coal and iron. suppression of the trade. Missionaries from stone. The coal is bituminous, with 70 to 75 China reported at the anniversary of the Wes- per cent. of gas, and 77 to 15 per cent. of ash, leyan Missionary Society in May, 1878, that having every appearance of being excellent the prejudice caused by British support of the coal. The ironstone, which runs in a parallel opium trade was the most formidable obstacle line with the coal, is hematite. Boring operathey had to encounter. An opium refuge has tions have been begun close to the river. The been opened by missionaries in Peking, which coal fields of Kilung are worked by machinery during the first six months of its existence re and foremen from England, and now produce ceived fifty-three in-patients, and was attended about fifty thousand tons daily of coals which by nearly three hundred out-patients.

are said to be equal to the best English coals. The Rev. Mr. Mackay, a Canadian Presby Mr. G. J. Morrison, the late engineer of the terian missionary, was attacked at the begin- Shanghai-Woosung railway line, early in the ning of the year by a crowd of Formosans at year made an examination of the country Tamasi, and was threatened with death unless between Hangkow and Canton with a view of he left the island; but he remained in spite of ascertaining its nature with reference to the the threat. Violent attacks were made during construction of railways. The distance bethe summer upon the Protestant missions at tween the two points by a straight line is five Kien-ning-fu and Yeng-ping-fu. At the former hundred miles, but by the route he took it place, a chapel belonging to the Church Mis was eight hundred miles. IIe passed through sionary Society was completely destroyed by the cities of Wuchang, Yo-chow, Siang-yin, a mob headed by the literati and gentry. At Chang-sha, Siang-tan, over the Chihling Pass, first the rioters threatened to kill the catechist and thence by I-chang, Ping-shih, Lo-chang, in charge of the chapel, but subsequently they and Shao-chow, to Canton. He was interested ordered him to leave the city, and not to return in the examination of the coal fields of Hunan under penalty of instant death should he be and Kwang-tung, and in some places found again discovered. Some time ago Monseigneur that the coal trade had largely increased since Ridel, a French missionary bishop, was cap

the visit of the Baron F. von Richthofen. tured with other missionaries by the inhabi CHRISTIAN CONNECTION.* The quadtants of Corea, and condemned to torture and rennial American Christian General Convendeath. The Chinese ministers intervened in tion was held at Franklin, Warren County, his favor, and he was set at liberty during the summer. Ile was escorted from a prison in Connection, for a full account of statistics.

* See “Annual Cyclopædia“ for 1574, article CIRISTIAN

Ohio, beginning October 2d. About one hun- for religion, faith, and practice; that it condred ministers and fifty lay members were in tains truth for its matter, without mixture of attendance. Elder J. H. Coe presided. The error; and contains the true sentiment of principal business transacted consisted in the Christian oneness. We therefore recommend adoption of amendments to the constitution the study of it to all of our people, that we of the body, by which it was given a certain may know of its cardinal principles.” The legislativo power, and was placed in control of Council expressed its appreciation of the imthe enterprises of the Church, particularly of portance of the Sunday school, but deprecated the missionary and publishing interests. llith- the employment of ungodly teachers in the erto the ('onvention has had only an advisory same. The report on education urged the impower. Under these provisions, the National portance of establishing a college in a central or Extension Society, previously a voluntary location, free from all denominational restraint, organization formed in 1872, was merged in for the education of the children of the Church; the missionary department of the General Con- and advised the ministers to study the sciences, vention ; its constitution was modified so that and thereby qualify themselves for greater useits workings might become denominationally fulness before the world. It was ordered that effective; its name was changed to that of the General Council meet hereafter every four “The Missionary Society of the Christian Fears, instead of, as heretofore, every two years. Church in America”; and its corresponding Elder Flack, the_Moderator of the year, estisecretary was elected secretary of the mission- mates that the Union includes one hundred ary department of the General Convention, thousand members. with an Executive Board associated with him. CHRISTINA, Maria, Dowager Queen of Provision was made for the organization of Spain, born April 27, 1806, died August 21, auxiliary societies in conferences, churches, and 1878. She was the second of the eleven chilSunday schools. Arrangements are also to be dren of Francis I. of Naples, and had in her made for assuming and carrying on the pub- earliest youth acquired great independence of lishing enterprises of the Church, which have character. When Ferdinand VII. of Spain, heretofore been conducted by a private asso in 1829, had become a widower for the third ciation at Dayton, Ohio, and for placing the time, he was induced by the representations of Sunday schools under the general control of Louise Charlotte, the older sister of Christina, the Convention. A collection was ordered to to ask for the hand of the latter in marriage, be taken in all the churches in December for in opposition to the wishes of all his relatives. the Biblical School, and another in January, She accepted the offer, and on December 11th 1879, for the Publishing Ilouse.

was married to Ferdinand. The King was CIIRISTIAN UNION. The fourth General soon completely influenced by his beautiful Council of the Christian Union met at Wesley, and intriguing wife, and only three months Ind., May 15th. The Rev. J. V. B. Flack, of after the wedding, on March 29, 1830, reMissouri, was chosen Moderator. A paper stored the Siete Partidas, which admitted which had been adopted at the previous ses female descendants of the King to the throne. sion of the Council, defining the position of This measure called forth a shower of prothe Union as an undenominational organiza- tests. Charles X. of France, Francis of Nation, endeavoring to offer a common platform ples, the Queen's own brother, and Don Carlos of principles on which all Christians can unite, and Don Francisco, the younger brothers of was readopted. It pronounces sectarianism an the King, all saw their claims endangered by evil, and declares that " all religious associa- this law, and urged the King to retract his ortions, built upon a narrower basis than that der. But Ferdinand remained firm, and when, which teaches and treats all the Christians of on October 10th, Maria Christina was delivthe locality as equal brethren of the one church ered of a daughter, Spain had again a Princess of the place, and presents creeds, tests, and of Asturias, a Crown Princess, who receired usages which exclude a part of the Christians the name of Isabella. The second child of of the place, are not built after the New Tes- Christina was also a daughter, Marie Louise, tament model, and have no claim to bo re who afterward became the wife of the Duke garded as churches of Christ, simply becauso de Montpensier, and the mother of Queen Merthey have Christians among them”; and - that cedes, the wife of King Alfonso XII. Ferdithe church is a divine institution, is God-made, nand VII. died on September 29, 1833, and not mechanical, not human, not man-made, Queen Christina assumed the regency accordand God alone can placo members in his ing to his last will, in the name of her daughChurch; and, as every one who truly loves is ter, who was proclaimed Queen as Isabella II. born of God, and therefore a member of his A civil war followed this step, in which Don Church, therefore it does not depend on our Carlos sought to gain the throne. After a doctrinal views, baptism, votes, or enrollment, duration of seven years it was finally subdued but on a loving and obedient heart.” A reso- by Espartero, who promised to the Basque lution, which substantially defined the doc- Provinces, the principal supporters of Don trinal position of the church, declare that Carlos, the restoration of their fueros. When

we believe the Bible to be a revelation of Queen Christina hesitated to execute this God, and that it is, therefore, a suflicient rulo promise, Espartero placed himself at the head





350,000 60,000 40,000


or' a new revolution, and on October 12, 1840, magistrates of the nine States are: Antioquia, she_formally resigned the regency and fled General T. Rinjifo; Bolívar, Señor B. Noto Rome, and afterward to France. She re- guera; Boyacá, Señor J. E. Otalora; Cauca, turned in triumph in 1843, and remained Señor M. Garces; Cundinamarca, Señor D. in Spain until 1854, when she again fled to Delgado; Magdalena, Señor Luis A. Robles ; France. After that time she only occasionally Panamá, Señor B. Correoso: Santander, Señor visited Spain. She was secretly married in M. A. Estrada; Tolima, Señor Dr. J. Manique. December, 1833, to Fernando Muñoz, one of The Colombian Consul-General in New York her guards, who was made Duke of Rianzares, is Señor Miguel Salgar. The American Minand the marriage was acknowledged by a de- ister Resident at Bogotá is the Hon. E. Deichcree dated October 13, 1844.

COLOMBIA (Estados UNIDOS DE Colou The Federal army comprises in time of peace BIA), an independent state, occupying the north- 3,000 men; and in time of war each State is western portion of South America and the held to furnish a contingent of one per cent. southeastern portion of Central America, and of its population. extending from latitude 12° 21' north to 1° 20' Educational interests have suffered little south, and from longitude 68° 52 to 83° 5' west. from internecine strife, as attested by the Its boundaries are: on the north, the Carib- steady increase in the number of schools : bean Sea; on the northeast and east, Vene- 1,625 primary schools were officially reported zuela; on the southeast, Brazil; on the south, for 1877, against 1,159 for 1875; though the Ecuador; and on the west, the Pacific Ocean State school fund for the latter year amounted and Costa Rica. The area of the territory of to $508,779, while that of the former did not Colombia has been estimated at rather more exceed $380,017. than 500,000 square miles, 400,000 of which The following tables exhibit the amounts lie to the north of the equator. The republic and several branches of the national revenue is divided into nine Federal States and six Ter- and expenditure for the year ending August ritories, and its population is about 3,000,000, 31, 1878: including uncivilized Indians to the number of soine 50,000.*

$3,000,000 The principal centers of population are the

Salt inonopoly


Panamá and Sabanilla Railways... valleys of the Magdalena, Cauca, and Atrato Rivers, the first of which flows through seven Telegraphs.

12,000 States comprising the vast central region of the

National property.

50,000 country, 500 miles in length, and varying from Church property 70 to 100 in width. It is the great highway

40,000 of commerce to the Atlantic, and is navigated

$4,838,500 from Barranquilla to Ilonda, a distance of 500 miles, by steamers of from 50 to 200 tons, the property of private companies. The mouth of Ministry of Interior. .

$240,024 the Magdalena is obstructed by bars, and a rail

1,150), 430 road fifteen miles in length, constructed by a

1,139, 160

1,372,994 German company at a cost of $600,000, con

2,821,433 nects the bay of Sabanilla with the town of Foreign affairs. Barranquilla, the lower limit of river naviga


76,034 Public instruction.

331,120 tion. The Cauca Valley is an elevated plain rising to a height of 5,000 feet above the sealevel. The Atrato Valley is generally similar


$7,271,933 to that of the Magdalena in its topography.

The staple productions of tho country aro On comparing the totals of the foregoing coffee, cacao, sugar, rice, tobacco, cotton, in- tables, a deficit of $2,433,133 will be observed, digo, maize, mandioca, and cattle. The cli- and is to be attributed to two causes : mate varies with the altitude of the land; the hanced expenditures in the War Department lowlands yield all tho tropical products; and owing to the late revolution, and the partial the plateaus and slopes of the Colombian An- stagnation of foreign commerce while the disdes, those of sub-tropical and cold climates. turbance lasted. The President of the Republic is General

The national debt in 1878 was as follows: Julian Trujillo, inaugurated April 1, 1878, and

$10,392,500 the Cabinet is composed of the following min Ilome debt....

5,606,504 isters or secretaries; of the Interior and For


$15,999,304 eign Affairs, Ir. F. Zaldua; of Finance and Public Works, Dr. R. Nuñez; of the Treasury The foreign debt incurred during the war of and Credit, Señor Camacho Roldan; of War independence was consolidated in 4 per cent. and Marine, Señor M. IIurtado. The chief bonds in 1873, and a convention entered into

with the foreign bondholders whereby month* For detailed statistics concerning the territorial division, ly payments were to be made by the Governpopulation, etc., see tho volumes of the “ Annual Cyclopadia" for 1874 and 1877.

ment of Colombia to the bondholders' agent






of Justice.
of Financo..

of War and Marine.
National debt.
Public works



116,220 433,956


Foreign debt.



('osta Rica

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residing at Bogotá. In spite of the political trouble you with this explanation, but I like to say disturbances of 1876–77, the interruption of

a good word for Colombia when I can.

I remain, my dear sir, your faithful servant, navigation on the Magdalena for the past year,

ROBERT BUNCÚI, owing to an unprecedented drought, and the consequent lull in the export trade, the month

The value of the exports for the year 1876– ly payments have been punctnally made to ?77 amounted to $14,477,897, and that of the the agent; but, as they did not reach London imports to $7,328,928. The subjoined table in time for the payment of the coupons, the shows the value and destination of the exports British Minister to Colombia, Robert Bunch, for the year 1875–76: Esq., who was then in London, wrote the following letter to the Right IIonorable E. P. Germany.


West Indies. Bouverie, chairman of the Council of Foreign

244,416 Buenos Ayres..

4,000 Bondholders, which commends the fidelity of

2,496 Colombia’s representatives and the sacrifices


157 they have made to preserve the credit and

3,577 honor of the country :

t'nited States of America.

2,510,633 l'nited States of Colombia.

116,234 Londox, June 9, 1573.

2,569,624 The Right FIɔnorable E. P. BOUVERIE :

6,922 Great Britain.

324,836 MY DEAR SIR: I regret to find that some misap


4.258 prehension exists, evev among persons who are in Peru.

84,864 terested in the United States of Colombia, as to the Venezuela.

21,510 action of the Government of that republic with ref Various.

8,956,531 erence to that portion of its external debt which is commonly known as the 45 per cent. loan of 1873.

$12,722,811 Founding themselves on the undoubted fact that

The value of the imports for the same year the remittances from Bogotá have been for some months past smaller in amount than the convention

was $6,709,109. It should be observed that of 1873 gives the bondholders a right to demand, the foregoing table contains an item of $116,many persons think that this decrease is owing to 234, which, as it stands for commodities sent the failure of the Colombian Treasury to meet its from other parts of the republic to the free engagements; in other words, thut the bondhold: Colombian ports of Panamá and Colon (Asers' agent, Mr. O'Leary, does not send larger sums because he does not himself receive them. As this pinwall), would properly belong to the coastbelief is altogether unfounded, and as much injus- ing trade, although in the ministerial report it tice is thereby done to the credit of Colombia, I figures as here given. think it may be satisfactory to you to learn tho real

The principal articles of export, with the state of the case. By the last mail Mr. O'Leary quantities and value of those shipped from the writes to me as follows:

“ To the bondholders I only send £3,000, and re- republic in the year 1875–76, are shown in the main with a balance of £22,000, which is more like- annexed table: ly to increase than to diminish, as the supply of bills ciecreases. It is a thing which preys on my mind;

Quantities. the rate of exchange is 6 per cent. prenium, and bids fair to reach 20 before long. The detention of Cotton, kilogrammes..

820,793 $201.115 this money will delay the payment of the coupons,


62,992 and the delay will affect prejudicially the credit ot'




Hides, this country at the very moment when it ought to

1,357,437 621,449 Coffee,

8,423,532 1,168,23 be the highest, considering the sacrifices it has



97.619 made and is making to comply with its engage Gold and silver coins.

1,991,872 menty. If you are in London, and can spare the Ores, kilogrammes.

410,500 timo, you will do Colombia a service by impressing Gold dust,

51,674 on the Council the necessity of explaining matters

Gold (ingots)...

428 523

Gold and silver (ingots). to the public, and so preventing a cause entirely be


('abinet wood, kilogrammes.. yond human control from damaging the credit of


40,471 Precious stones,

40,000 the country:

('inchona, kilogrammes... 8,-157,600 2,088, 003 As I entirely agree with Mr. O'Leary in his ap


180,880 preciation of the honorable behavior of Colombia in Tobacco (lead)

5,792,205 2,109,625 the matter of its foreign debt, it has appeared to me

Tobacco (elaborated), kilo..

20,320 that the simplest manner of meeting his wishes is to

Tagua (Vegetable ivory), kilo. 2,616,337 804,116 trouble you with this letter. I have been a witness myself of the determination of the various Governments of Colombia to s'tisfy the claims of the bonul- chaser of that article, took 5,046,000 kilo

Of tobacco, Bremen, by far the largest purholders. I have even seen their money put away in the chest to wait for the next pay-day, when the grammes, and Hamburg and London each about Treasury was almost empty, and ererybody, from 270,000; while to New York but 52,000 kilothe President down, was on reduced allowances, and grammes were shipped. New York took of salaries were discounted at a loss of 25 per cent. The supply of bills has given out, chietly because London about 1,160,000. Of coffee, 923,000

cinchona some 2,320,000 kilogrammes, and of late has visited Colombia

with especial severity: kilogrammes were sent to Hamburg, 624,000 No doubt the political disturbances of the last half to Bremen, 242,000 to Ilavre, 464,000 to Lonof 1876 and beginning of 1877 are partly to blame don, and 943,000 to New York. The more for the decrouse of the exports, but this cause is as nothing when compared with the physical one of a

important nts of cotton were he folwant of water in the river.

lowing ports: Liverpool, 320,000 kilogrammes; Perbaps I am going out of your and my way to Ilavre, 201,000; Bremen, 221,000; Ilamburg,




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37,000; London, 12,000; and New York, 20,- of a canal between the two oceans, the Atlantic and 000.

Pacific. Said canal may be constructed without re

strictive stipulations of any character. The shipping movements at all save the free

This concession is made under the following conports (Panamá and Aspinwall) of Colombia ditions: were as follows in the year 1875–76 :

1. The duration of the privilege shall be for ninety

nine years, to be reckoned from the day in which

the canal shall be opened wholly or partially to pub-
lic service, or when the grantees begin to realize the
tolls upon commerce and navigation.

2. From the date of approbation by the Colombian PORTS.

Congress of the present contract for the opening of
the Interoceanic Čanal, the Government of the Repub-

lic can not construct by itself, or concede to any comBuenaventura..

41,011 4

pany or individual, under wliat title soever, the right Cartagena.. 73 62,240

31,631 to construct another canal across Colombian terCúcuta

ritory, which shall put in communication the two Rio Hacha, 96

4,158 Rio Sucio..


oceans. If the grantees wish to construct a railway Sabanilla.. 190 202,366


as an auxiliary of the canal, the Government (saving Santa Marta.


14,514 existing rights) can not concede to any other coniTumaco


1,862 pany or individual the right to establish another in

teroceanic railroad, nor do so itself, during the time 595 367,788

57,637 conceded for the construction and use of the canal. Steamers 320,613

3. The necessary studies of the ground and route

41 41,128 Bailing vessels..

for the line of the canal shall be made at the cost of 312

97 16,214

the grantees, by an International Comunission of in-
595 367,788 133 57,637 dividuals and competent engineers, in which two

Colombian engineers shall take part. The Commis-
sion shall determine the general route of the cana),
and inform the Colombian Government directly, or
their diplomatic agents in the United States or £u-
rope, at latest, in 1881, unless extreme necessity,

clearly proved, should prevent. The report shall
No. of

include, in duplicate, the scientific labors executed, Tons.

and an estimate of the projected work.

4. The grantees will have then a period of two Buenaventura.



years to form a universal stock company which shall Cartagena

61 57,527 83 37,638 Cúcuta

take charge of the enterprise, and undertake the Rio Hacha.

16 679

work of the construction of the canal. This term Rio Sucio.



will be counted from the date mentioned in the preSabanilla.. 171 193,695

11,027 ceding paragraph. Santa Marta


80,066 5. The canal shall be finished and placed at tho Tumaco



service of the public within the twelve years imme577

diately following the time of the organization of the 352,440 | 152

71,294_company to undertake its construction; but the exSteamers


60,590 ecutive power is authorized to grant a further maxi-
Sailing vessels.
292 39,575

10,404 mum terın of six years, if, in an extreme case, beyond

the control of the company, and after one third part
577 352,410

152 | 71,294 of the canal is built, they should recognize the im-

possibility of finishing the work in the said twelve
The most recent official returns relating to soars.
railways, telegraph lines, etc., are those re-

The canal shall have the length, depth, and all

other conditions necessary in order that sailing vebcorded in the “ Annual Cyclopædia” for 1876.sels and steamers of 140 metres long, a maximum

Among the latest official acts of ex-Presi- beam of 16 metres, and drawing 8 metres of water, dent Parra, immediately before transferring the shall, with lowered topmasts, be able to pass thé reins of government to his successor, General


Art. II. Within the term of twelve months reckTrujillo, was the approval of a contract drawn oned from the time at which the International Comup between Señor Eustorgio Salgar, Secretary mission shall have presented the result of its definite of the Interior and of Foreign Relations of studies, the grantees will deposit in the bank or the United States of Colombia, duly authorized banks of London which the national executive powparty of the first part, and, as party of the ty for the execution of the work. The deposit shall

er may designate the sum of 750,000 francs as securiother part, Lucien N. B. Wyse, chief of the be made in certificates of the foreign debt of Colomscientific exploring expedition of the Isthmus bia at the current price in the market on the day of in 1876, 1877, and 1878, Member and Delegate delivery. On the conclusion of the canal the amount of the Committee of Direction of the Civil In- deposited as security will remain to the credit of the ternational Interoceanic Canal Society, pre- the expenses incurred in the erection of edifices for

Treasury to indemnify the National Government for sided over by General Etienne Türr. The the use of public offices. more important clauses of this contract are as Art. III. Should the route for the construction follows:

of the canal from one occan to the other pass to the

west or north of the imaginary straight line which ART. I. The Government of the United States of joins Capo Tiburon with Garachiné Point, the granColombia concedes to Mr. Lucien N. B. Wyse, who tees must arrange amicably with the Panamá Railaccepts, in the name of the Civil International Inter- road Company, or pay an indemnity which shall be oceanio Canal Society, represented by their Como established by the terms of the law 46 of August 16, mittee of Direction, the exclusive privilege for the 1867, "which approves the contract celebrated July execution across its territory, and for the excavating 5, 1567, reformatory of that of the 15th of April, 1850,

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