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ness, confort, and other conditions exacted by the We are informed by telegraphic communication regulations decreed for that purpose.

that a treaty between the two sister republics (ArArt. 111. No merchant vessel, national or foreign, gentine and Chilian) has been signed. We may shall cairy passengers on deck, either to ports in therefore presume that the Patagonian territorial Chili or abrond, if there is not above them, åt a con- dispute will no longer injuriously affect the credit of venient height, an awning of planks or canvas water tho two states, and that the only subject of differtight, and sufficient to protect them from bad weath ence between them has been finally removed out of er. Such passengers shall, in default of a special the way. agreement, be victualed with ratious equal to those served to the sailors of the navy of the republic.

CHIIST, an empire in Asia. Emperor,

Kwang-Liu, formerly called Tsaeteen, born In 1877 there were about 1,265 miles of rail- in 1872, a son of Prince Ch'un, and grandway in operation, and 4,800 miles of telegraph son of the Emperor Tan-Kwang, who died lines, with 62 offices. The number of post- in 1850; he succeeded to the throne in 1875. offices in 1875 was 333; the expenditures of The area of China proper is 1,554,000 square the postal department were $246,938, and the miles; the population about 405,000,000. The receipts $228,433.

area of the dependencies has received a large A conflict between State and Church las increase by the reconquest of Kashgaria, and arisen in regard to the appointment of a sic was in 1878 estimated at 3,062,000 square cessor to the Irchbishop of Santiago, the Right miles, with a population of about 29,580,000; Rev. N. V. Valdivieso; the l'Itramontane sec- making in all 4,616,000 square miles with a tion of the clergy being opposed to Señor Ta- population of 135,000,000. foro, who has so far yielded as to decline to China now has diplomatic representatives in take possession of the see until the customary the l'nited States, England, France, Germany, approbation arrives from Rome. It is report- Russia, Spain, and Japan. Tseng-chi-ta, the ell, however, that the l'atican may withhold the eldest son of the late Tseng-kuo-fan, was apcontirmation of SeñorTaforo. The Government pointed in September to succeed Kuo-sung-tao has refused to pay the vicars-general and other as the Chinese Ambassador in London, and ecclesiastical officials of Santiago, because they Li-fong-Pao was appointed Chargé d'Affaires had not been appointed by the civil anthority. at Berlin. (Thin-San-l'in, the Chinese AmbasThe question of marriage between Roman Cath- sador to the United States, arrived at San olies and Protestants has excited some atten- Francisco on the 25th of July. Ile is a man tion lately, the present state of the law in re- past middle life, is an eminent scholar who has gard to the religious condition of Protestants had large experience of public affairs, and is being very illiberal, and it is hoped that it will now a mandarin of the first class. Ilé visited soon be altered. A Protestant marrying a Ro- the I'nited States in 1872 as joint commissioner man Catholic woman in (hili is required to with Yung-Wing, in charge of the educational execute : public document under oatli, “bind- mission. ing himself that the sons is well as the daugh The Chinese armies which have been operatters that are born of his marriage are to be ing for several years against Kashgar made an educated in the Catholic religion, abstaining easy capture of that capital Iecember 17, 1877

, froin anything that might prejudice the ('athi- during the dissensions which ensued after the lic beliet of the said sons and daughters; so death of Yakoob Ber. After a conflict between that, it in the choice of masters, schools, or the two pretenders to the throne, Beg Kuli other items relating to the education of his off- Beg Yahool) Beg's eldest son, and Aalim Khan spring, while less than twenty-five years of Tiura, al descendant of the former rulers of age, it should be thought by his wite while she Kashgar, the latter was defeated and escaped lives, and, in the case of her decease, by the across the frontier, leaving a considerable body jarish priest of his sons and daughters, that of his adherents in the country. The Kirghiz any of the measures he may wish to adopt may of Badalshan, led by Ili Beg, then rose against endanger the Catholic faith of said children, be the new Khan, and seized the town of Sari-Kul, will desist from it; binding himself also not to while Niaz Bakir, Governor of Khotan, asked name in death a tutor or guardian for luis said the Chinese commander-in-chief at Turfan to sons and daughters who is not a Roman Cath- send him a Chinese garrison, as the inhabitants olic.” 1 Chilian lady marrying a Protestant of Khotan bad decided to submit to the Chinese is required to give $200 to the hospital for fall- Government. Beg Kuli Beg, who had in the en women, as if by her marriage she were par mean time marched from Kashgar to Yarkand taking of their disgrace. She must also prom- and raised the strength of his army to 35,000 ise under oath "to educate the offspring of men, now proceeded to Khotan; but finding either sex that may be born from the marriage that the Chinese had taken l'tch Turfan, he in the Catholic religion, and in the observance fled to the Russian authorities at Karakol

. of the precepts and discipline of the Church, The Chinese army of occupation contained an striving further to secure, so far as depends on effective force estimated at nearly 12,000 men, her, the conversion of the dissenting consort." and was under the command of Liu-Sho-Daryn,

The following announcement is transcribed whose services in capturing the capital wero from a London periodical dated December 23, rew red with important märks of favor. The 1878, come to hand after the above article had troops were for the most part armed with been sent to press:

lances, only 1,500 of them carry ing muskets of

European make. The Kirghiz and the Russian Naryn, on the 13th of July, that a battle had merchants in the territory of Kashgar were in- taken place between the Kashgarian insurformed that they had nothing to fear from the gents at Khotan, led by Niaz Beg, and 3,000 Chinese soldiers. After achieving this con Chinese troops from Aksu, resulting in a disasquest, Liu Sho-Daryn was instructed to regain trous defeat of the Chinese. To retrieve the the route from Mourzat, and to march through honor of the Green Dragon, the Chinese comthat place with his army to join Tsin-Tsan- mander had dispatched 2,500 troops from KashTsoum, whose troops had already taken up a gar to Khotan to crush the Mussulman people. position between Karashar and Shikho. Beg A report prevailed at Orenburg in the latter Kuli Beg, with the family of the late Ameer Ya- part of October that the Chinese Governor of koob Bag, took refuge in the Russian territory, Kashgar had prohibited commercial dealings where the ex-Khan was detained as a prisoner with the Russians, and had ordered all Rusby the Russian authorities. The Chinese de- sians within the territory to accept Chinese manded his surrender to them, but the Russians nationality or leave the country within two refused to give him up. Garrisons were placed weeks. in each of the Kashgarian towns occupied by the The occupation of Kashgar by the Chinese Ohinese, and the natives were commanded to was followed by events which seemed to threatfurnish horses for subsequent campaigns. At en to interrupt the friendly relations which had Zanghishahn seven hundred small-sized cannon, hitherto existed between China and Russia. made to be carried on the backs of camels, were The country was thrown into disorder by the found, which had not been in use, but “lay change of rule, and the Russians complained under velvet and brocade coverings, and were that their trade on the frontier was seriously all supplied from England.” A Kashgarian damaged by brigandage, in which they asserted who was at Yarkand when the Chinese took that the Chinese soldiers took part. Russian that city, in a letter to Sir Douglas Forsyth, troops, dispatched to Sharkodeh to restore ordescribed the Chinese army at that place as der, heard when they reached that place that having consisted of about one thousand men, the Chinese bands had threatened to set fire to and said: “A great number of Chinese had the artillery depots and powder magazines at hardly any clothes, and many were lame and Kulja, wit a view of depriving the Russians in miserable condition. It was a wonder the of the power of making war upon them. The Chinese ever attempted to come to Yarkand sentries were therefore increased, and all the with such troops. A hundred men only are material was removed to places of greater searmed with breech-loading rifles; the rest are curity. To the embarrassments growing out armed with sticks and short spears. The of the state of disorder were added others arisChinese in taking Yarkand killed only a few ing from the continued occupation of Kulja by people, mostly innocent persons. They the Russians. This city and the surrounding have done their best to disarm the inhabitants. districts were taken possession of by the RusSome arms have been given up; the people sians in 1871, in order, they said, to prevent have concealed quantities of them. The Chi- Yakoob Beg, who had just made a successful nese Governor collected all the stallion-horses campaign against the Sungarians, from_adof the Yarkandies and others, and appropri- vancing upon it. At the same time the Rusated them to his own use. All horses belong- sians gave a solemn pledge to the Chinese Goving to Andijanies (which amounted to some ernment that they would surrender it as soon thousands) were destroyed. The Chinese have as a sufficient Chinese force should have been been exacting large sums of money as a loan brought to it to restore order. The Chinese from herders and all others; also immense now claimed that they had fulfilled their part quantities of grain from the villages, which is of the engagement, for their army, fresh from being collected in the several forts. . The victories over Yakoob Beg, was waiting at the Chinese have destroyed a few of the arms frontier for the order to march in and take which belonged to the late Ameer. The guns, possession. The Russians showed no haste to etc., they have not injured. They do not know evacuate the position, and a part of the Rusthe use of guns.” Niaz Beg was governor of sian press opposed the fulfillment of the promYarkand under the Amban, by whom all or- ise to restore it. The impression that a dispoders were issued to Niaz Hakim, who saw them sition had been developed among the Russians carried out. Niaz Hakim is the man who has against surrendering Kulja is enforced by a had all outsiders turned out of the country. remark which Terenijeff made in a book pub“He is afraid of the Chinese,” says the writer lished by him in 1875. In speaking of that of the letter, "and they of him. Niaz Hakim position and the expected reconquest of Kashcould turn out the Chinese in a few hours if gar by the Chinese, he said: “In view of such he wished. He will do so when he is certain a reawakening on the part of the Chinese after no reēnforcements are coming for them. In their long slumber, our situation in Kulja is the whole of Kashgaria there are not more becoming very ambiguous, and every ambiguity than 7,000 troops (Chinese)—5,000 in Kashgar, is injurious to the prestige of a great empire. 600 in Yarkand, 200 in Khotan, and the rest Thus before long the Russian Government will in other towns."

have definitely to decide the question as to who Intelligence reached the Russian garrison at shall be the future masters of Kulja.” The

Vol. xvIII.-7. A

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“St. Petersburg Journal,” speaking of this for an invasion of Kashgar on the south or of subject in 1878, said: “If Kulja were to be sur-Chuguchak on the north. It is the only disrendered to China, Russian rule in the eastern trict occupied by Russia in Central Asia which part of Central Asia would be undermined. ... might be made a source of revenue instead of The surrender,” it continued, “would be an- expenditure to the Government. The soil is other triumph to England, and the Mantchoos fertile and easily tilled, and the mountains are would hold their heads still higher. In fine, rich in minerals, including iron, copper, and coal Russian influence in Central Asia would be of good quality. During the occupation by the shaken.” A diplomatic mission was appointed Chinese the land produced flourishing crops, in August to go to St. Petersburg and negotiate and grain, flour, and all articles of food were for an adjustment of the differences respecting abundant and cheap. Trade, assisted by the the frontier and the restoration of Kulja, and facilities of transport afforded by the river Ili

, to demand the surrender of the fugitive ex which runs east and west through the whole

course of the valley, was in a fairly fourishing condition. The Chinese established nine schools in Ili

, or New Kulja, from its foundation in 1763, for the children of the garrison, and supplemented them with a college; and they afterward

founded & school for the study of Russian, with annual examinations in that language, and prizes

. malonumas s The city was in ruins

when Mr. Eugene Schuyler visited it in 1873.

In November it was reported that Sir Thos. Wade, the British Ambassador at Peking,

had been instructed Khan of Kashgar. The chief of the embassy; to confer with Lord Lytton at Lahore concernor Minister Plenipotentiary, was Chunghou, ing the relations of Russia with China respectGovernor of Moakden, the capital of Mant- ing the restoration of Kulja. chooria—the same officer who was dispatched The advance of the Chinese armies against to France in 1870 to explain that the massacres the rebellious Sungarians was accompanied by which occurred at Tientsin in that year were a general destruction of the Mohammedans

, not the work, directly or indirectly, of the with their cattle and other property, in the Chinese Government. IIe was accompanied by provinces occupied by them. In this, however

, Silun, a Mantchoo, who had been employed they are said only to have done what the induring the late trouble as an agent, civil or mil- surgents had done before them; for during itary, on the northwest frontier. The pleni- the period of their insurrection, from 1861 to potentiaries left Tientsin on the 5th of August 1870, the Mohammedans had exterminated the for Peking, to have an audience with the Ëm- Chinese in the provinces of Shensi, Kansu, Ili, peror. The Russians professed to be ready to and Eastern Turkistan. retire whenever they should be compensated The northern provinces of China were affor the expense which the occupation of the flicted during the first six months of 1878 by & district had occasioned them.

famine, which lasted until it was partly alloKulja is a place of considerable strategical viated by the rains which began to fall in and commercial importance, and might be made June. The famino first spread in the fall of profitable to its possessor.' It forms a wedge 1875, and was caused by the long-continued into the Chinese territory, and is protected on absence of rain. The drought was a part of the the north by the Kopkesen and Kuyuk Moun- process of desiccation of the plains of Chihli tains, and on the south by the Tien-shan range. and Shantung, which, having begun long ago Few passes cross these natural barriers, and in the table-lands of Central Asia, has now they are capable of being so fortified that they reached the densely populated northern prorcould be made practically unassailable. The inces of the empire. Mr. Frederick H. Balfour

, Russians holding it would at the same time of Cavendish Square, London, who had been occupy an important vantage-ground, either in constant communication with the famine

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TEMPLE OF HEAVEN, PEKING.

stricken districts, in February, 1878, described of Europe and the United States. The foreign the condition there by saying that the people residents and the missionaries residing in Chiwere “dying by thousands upon thousands. na, particularly the English residents and misWomen and girls and boys are openly offered sionaries, were made the agents for distributing for sale to any chance wayfarer. When I left the relief, and did such evident service to the the country, a respectable married woman suffering people as to direct general attention could be easily bought for six dollars, and a to their benevolent work, and call forth exlittle girl for two. In cases, however, where pressions of appreciation and gratitude. The it was found impossible to dispose of their chil- Viceroy of the province of Chihli accepted the dren, parents have been known to kill them invitation of the British consul at Tientsin to sooner than witness their prolonged sufferings, dine with him on her Majesty's birthday—the in many instances throwing themselves after- first instance of the kind recorded-proposed ward down wells, or committing suicide by ar the health of the Queen, and in a courteous adsenic. Corpses lay rotting by the highway, dress referred with feeling to the efforts which and there was none to bury them. As for had been made by foreigners to relieve the disfood, the population subsisted for a long time tress. The Viceroy of Shansi addressed to Mr. on roots and grass; then they found some Forrest, the English consul at Tientsin, a letter nourishment ip willow-buds, and finally ate the of thanks for what had been done by foreignthatches off their cottages. The bark of trees ers in the matter of administering relief; and served them for several months, and last July Mr. Forrest, writing to the committee of the I received specimens of the stuff the unhappy relief fund in Shanghai, said that the distribucreatures had been by that time reduced to. tion of funds, as conducted, would do more The most harmless kind was potato - stalks, really to open China to the English than a tough, stringy fibers, which only the strongest dozen wars. In one instance, in the province teeth could reduce to pulp, and which entirely of Ilonan, the relief proffered by one of the defied all my attempts at deglutition. The oth- committees was refused; and in another iner description of 'food'-I hardly expect cre stance two Chinese district officers, appointed dence, but I have seen it myself—was red slate- to assist the coinmittee, were detected in stealstone. It appears that this substance, when ing from the funds. rolled about in the mouth and chewed, will A letter was published in November by the eventually split into small splinters, which can British Foreign Office which had been received be swallowed after practice. To such fright- from the Chinese Government, expressing its ful extremities have the famine-stricken people thanks to the English in all parts of the world in China been put.” At the end of December, for their subscriptions in aid of the sufferers by 1877, the famino region in the province of Shan- the famine, and "for the generous relief affordsi was estimated to include a population of ed by them in time of great calamity.” A bannearly ten millions needing relief. The foreign quet was given at Hong-Kong to the newly residents

, the Christian missionaries, and the appointed Ambassador to England and France, Government engaged in undertakings for the November 29th. The Ambassador made an relief of the suffering; societies were formed address in which he said that the impartial and to collect money and grain for the sufferers; excellent government given to Hong-Kong had provision was made for the collection and ac cemented the friendly feeling between Engcommodation in places of refage of persons land and China, and added that lie regarded who wandered from their homes; and the peo- tbe friends and enemies of England as the ple of Europe and America were invited to friends and enemies of China. The rains behelp. Early in February a decree was pub- gan to fall in June, and continued at intervals lished granting postponements of taxation in through the summer and fall, producing a steady many hundred townships of the province of mitigation of the distress. Shantung, in consequence of the suffering ex An edict issued by the Emperor on the perienced through “flood, drought, locusts, al- 29th of March expressed dissatisfaction at the kalization of the land," etc. It was stated in supineness of his household officers in effectApril that the largest number of victims and ing economies. Prince Kung was ordered to the earliest victims to the famine had been be handed over to the Imperial Court, and the opium-smokers. Multitudes of starving people other members of the Grand Council to the were flocking to Tai-Yuen-fu, the capital of Board of Punishments, for the adjudication of Shansi, and a daily mortality of nearly 400 was penalties, because they had failed to suggest reported in the city. Many died from sheer remedies for the existing state of distress. In starvation, others from repletion after long fast a later decree these officers were deprived of ing, many from the intense cold; and some their rank, but allowed to retain office. were eaten by wolves. The distress in north A relief hospital for refugees from the famern IIonan was quite as grievous at the opening ine at Tientsin, containing four thousand woof the spring

men and children, was burned on the 6th of The severity of the famine and the urgency January. The gates of the yards were locked, of the api for help awakened public syin- preventing the immediate escape of the inmates, patby abroad, and subscriptions were opened and fourteen hundred persons were burned to and liberally sustained in the principal cities death. The two deputies who were in charge

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of the establishment were degraded and inca- journey in Yunnan that we fairly realized the pacitated from ever holding office again. A enormous extent of its production. With some report to Parliament by Mr. Baker, of the fears of being discredited, but at the same time British consular establishment attached to Mr. with the consciousness that I am underestiGrosvenor's mission, mentions a great increase mating the proportion, I estimate that the in the production of opium. Speaking of Yun- poppy fields constitute a third of the whole nan, it says: • Of the sole agricultural export, cultivation of Yunnan.” Further on, the reopium, we can speak witli some certainty. port remarks: “We walked some hundreds of We were astounded at the extent of the pop- miles through poppies; we breakfasted among py-cultivation both in Sechuan and Yunnan. poppies; we shot wild ducks in the poppies. We first heard of it on the boundary line be- Even wretched little bovels in the mountains tween Hupei and Sechuan. A few miles south were generally attended by a poppy patch." of this spot the most valuable variety of native Imperial and viceregal edicts appeared from opium is produced. In ascending the rivers, time to time prohibiting the cultivation of the wherever cultivation existed, we found numer- poppy, but, according to a recent report of Mr. ous fields of poppy. Even the sandy banks Nicholson, the secretary of the British legation were often planted with it down to the water's at Peking, on the opium trade, they have been edge; but it was not until we began our land in most cases ignored, the only result being an

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increase in the price of the article, consequent peached. The capital is said to be the chief upon the necessity of tho producer “ silencing” center of consumption for the Indian opium the officials. But though this has been uni- which comes to Tientsin. The Viceroy of versally understood and acknowledged, the Nanking has ordered that every house let for “Peking Gazette "continues to publish me- opium-smoking be confiscated. The authorities morials from censors and others on the sub- of Soochow ha also adopted energetic meaject. More earnest attempts have recently sures against the proprietors of the shops. The been made to punish infractors of the laws, officers of Canton have adopted a licensing sysand the Government and people seem to bo tem, and, having farmed out the trade to a parentering upon another general effort to abol- ticular corporation, exact a tax on all the opium ish or curtail the traffic. The Viceroy of the prepared and sold to it. The general comtwo Kiang provinces recently denounced two manding in Kashgar has destroyed the poppy Taoutais and two or three district magistrates crops in Kansu and Shensi; and all the fields to the Emperor as inveterate opium-smokers. bordering on the roads south of Moakden hare A decree of punishment was issued against been destroyed. The Governor of Shansi has them, and the Viceroy has announced that any forwarded a memorial in which he ascribes officer within his jurisdiction whose personal many aggravations of the recent famine to the appearance gives ground for suspicion of his fact that the fertile and irrigated fields were being an opium-smoker will be interrogated, given up to the cultivation of the poppy, while and, if found guilty, will bo forth with im- the food crops were consigned to stony and

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