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government of the city, city and county, or town, under such restrictions and limitations, and upon such terms and payment of license tax as the city, city and county, or town authority may provide. In no case must permission be granted to propel cars upon such tracks otherwise than by electricity, horses, mules, or by wire ropes running under the streets and moved by stationary engines, unless for special reasons in this title hereinafter mentioned; provided, however, that such board or body in granting the right, or at any time after the same is granted, to use electricity or any other of said modes, has power to impose such terms, restrictions, and limitations as to the use of streets and the construction and mode of operating such electric and other roads as may, by such board or body, be deemed for the public safety or welfare. [Amendment in effect February 25, 1891.]

57 Cal. 167, 175 ; 78 Cal. 365; 90 Cal. 38; 91 Cal. 340, 454; 105 Cal. 92; 117 Cal. 611; 142 Cal. 228.

of way

8.498. The city or town authorities, in granting the right

to street railroad corporations, in addition to the restrictions which they are authorized to impose, must require a strict compliance with the following conditions, except in the cases of prismoidal or other elevated railways. In such cases, said railway shall be required to be constructed in such a manner as will present the least obstruction to the freedom of the streets in which it may be erected when allowed by the granting power.

First–To construct their tracks on those portions of streets designated in the ordinance granting the right, which must be, as nearly as possible, in the middle thereof.

Second—To plank, pave, or macadamize the entire length of the street used by their track, between the rails, and for two feet on each side thereof, and between the tracks, if there be more than one, and to keep the same constantly in repair, flush with the street, and with good crossings.

Third—That the tracks must not be more than five feet wide within the rails, and must have a space between them sufficient to allow the cars to pass each other freely. [Amendment in effect April 3, 1876.]

57 Cal. 518; 87 Cal. 599 ; 89 Cal. 309.

§ 499. Two lines of street railway, operated under different management, may be permitted to use the same street, each paying an equal portion for the construction of the tracks and appurtenances used by said railways jointly; but in no case must two lines of street railway, operated under different managements, occupy and use the same street or tracks for a distance of more than five blocks nsecutively. [Amendm nt in effect February 25, 1891.]

54 Cal. 74; 57 Cal. 168; 91 Cal. 452; 115 Cal. 297; 129 Cal. 182; 135 Cal. 659.

$ 500. Any proposed railroad track may be permitted to cross any track already constructed, the crossing being made as provided in chapter two, title three, of this part. In laying down the track and preparing therefor, not more than one block must be obstructed at any one time, nor for a longer period than ten working days.

$ 501. The rates of fare on the cars must not exceed ten cents for one fare for any distance under three miles, and in municipal corporations of the first class must not exceed five cents for each passenger per trip of any distance in one direction, either going or coming, along any part of the whole length of the road or its connections. The cars must be of the most approved construction for the comfort and convenience of passengers, and provided with brakes to stop the same, when required. A violation of the provisions of this section subjects the corporation to a fine of one hundred dollars for each offense. [Amendment approved March 16, 1903; in effect in sixty days. ]

97 Cal. 563; 134 Cal. 485.

$ 502. Work to construct the railroad must be commenced in good faith within not more than one year from the date of the taking effect of the ordinance granting the right of way, and said work must be completed within not more than three years after the taking effect of such ordinance; provided, that the governing body of such municipal corporation at the time of granting said right of way shall have the power to fix the time for either the commencing or completion, or both, of said work ; not, however, to a time less than six months for commencing, and not less than eighteen months for completing the same. A failure to comply with either of the foregoing provisions of this section, or with either of the provisions of the ordinance granting said right of way, works a forfeiture of the right of way, and also of the franchise, unless the uncompleted portion is abandoned by the person or corporation to whom said right of way is granted, with the consent of the authorities granting the right of way, such abandonment and consent to be in writing. The authority granting the right of way shall have the power to grant an extension of time for the completion of said work, if it appear that the work has been commenced within the time fixed, and prosecuted in good faith; but no extension of time shall be granted for the commencement of said work, and shall not be granted for more than one year for the completion of the same. All extensions of time shall be in writing, and made a matter of record in the municipality; provided further, that this Act shall not in any way affect any franchise or right of way granted before its passage. [Amendment in effect February 25, 1895.]

57 Cal. 178; 91 Cal. 341; 101 Cal. 337; 117 Cal. 611.

§ 503. Cities and towns in or through which street railroads run may make such further regulations for the government of such street railroads as may be necessary to a full enjoyment of the franchise and the enforcement of the conditions provided herein.

128 Cal. 436.

$ 504. Any corporation, or agent or employé thereof, demanding or charging a greater sum of money for fare on the cars of such street railroad than that fixed, as provided in this title, forfeits to the person from whom such sum is received, or who is thus overcharged, the sum of two hundred dollars, to be recovered in a civil action, in any justice's court having jurisdiction thereof, against the corporation.

$ 505. Every street railroad corporation must provide, and on request furnish to all persons desiring a passage on its cars, any required quantity of pas enger tickets or checks, each to be good for one ride. Any corporation failing to provide and furnish tickets or checks to any person desiring to purchase the same, at not exceeding the rate hereinbefore prescribed, shall forfeit to such person the sum of two hundred dollars, to be recovered as provided in the preceding section; provided, that the provisions of this section shall not apply to such street railroad corporations as charge but five cents fare. [Amendment in effect March 13, 1883.]

$ 506. Upon the trial of an action for any of the sums forfeited, as provided in the two preceding sections, proof that the person demanding or receiving the money as fare, or for the sale of the ticket or check, was at the time of making the demand or receiving the money, engaged in an office of the corporation, or vehicle belonging to the corporation, shall be prima facie evidence that such person was the agent, servant, or employé of the corporation, to receive the money and give the ticket or check mentioned. [Amendment in effect July 1, 1874.]

$ 507. In every grant to construct street railroads, the right to grade, sewer, pave, macadamize, or otherwise improve, alter, or repair the streets or highways, is reserved to the corporation, and cannot be alienated or impaired; such work to be done so as to obstruct the railroad as little as possible; and, if required, the corporation must shift its rails so as to avoid the obstructions made thereby. [Amendment in effect July 1, 1874.]

$ 508. Each street railroad corporation must pay to the authorities of the city, town, county, or city and county, as a license upon each car, such sum as the authorities may fix, not exceeding fifty dollars per annum in the City of San Francisco, nor more than twenty-five dollars per annum in other cities or towns. Where any street railroad connects or runs through two or more cities or towns, a proportionate or equal share of such license tax must be paid to each of the cities or towns; and no such license tax is due the county authorities where the same is paid to any city or town authority.

$ 509. The right to lay down a track for grading purposes, and maintain the same for a period not to exceed three years, may be granted by the corporate authorities of any city or town, or city and county, or supervisors of any city or county, but • no such track must remain more than three years upon any one street; and it must be laid level with the street, and must be operated under such restrictions as not to interfere with the use of the street by the public. The corporate authorities of any city or town, or city and county, may grant the right to use steam or any other motive power in propelling the cars used on such grading track, when public convenience or utility demands it, but the reasons therefor must be set forth in the ordinance, and the right to rescind the ordinance at any time reserved.

§ 510. Street railroads are governed by the provisions of title three of this part, so far as they are applicable, unless such railroads are therein specially excepted. [Amendment in effect July 1, 1874.] [See Sections 454 et seq.]

109 Cal. 577; 125 Cal. 454.

$ 511. When a street railroad is constructed, owned, or operated by any natural person, this title is applicable to such person in like manner as it is applicable to corporations.

98 Cal. 314.

TITLE V.

Wagon Road Corporations.
SEC. 512. Wagon roads, how must be laid out.

513. Survey and map to be filed and approved by Supervisors.
514. Tolls, etc., to be collected. Penalty for taking unlawful tolls.
515. No tolls to be charged on highways or public roads.
516. Rates of toll to be posted at gate.
517. Toll-gatherer may detain persons until they pay toll.
518. Toll-gatherer not to detain any person unreasonably.
519. Persons avoiding tolls to pay five dollars.
520. Penalties for trespasses on property of corporation.
521. When capital invested is repaid, tolls to be reduced, etc.
522. May mortgage and hypothecate corporate property.
523. This title applies to natural persons as well as corporations.
524. Municipal corporations may construct paths and roads for

use of bicycles and other horseless vehicles. $ 512. Where a corporation is formed for the construction and maintenance of a wagon road, the road must be laid out as fo.lows: Three commissioners must act in conjunction with the

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