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THE

DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE

OF THE

AMERICAN REVOLUTION:

BEING

THE LETTERS OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, SILAS DEANE, JOHN ADAMS, JOHN JAY,
ARTHUR LEE, WILLIAM LEE, RALPH IZARD, FRANCIS DANA, WILLIAM
CARMICHAEL, HENRY LAURENS, JOHN LAURENS, M. DUMAS, AND
OTHERS, CONCERNING THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE

UNITED STATES DURING THE WHOLE REVOLUTION;

TOGETHER WITH

THE LETTERS IN REPLY FROM THE SECRET COMMITTEE OF CONGRESS, AND

THE SECRETARY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ALSO,

THE ENTIRE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE FRENCH MINISTERS, GERARD AND

LUZERNE, WITH CONGRESS.

Published under the direction of the President of the United States, from the original Manuscripts

in the Department of State, conformably to a Resolution of Congress, of March 27th, 1818.

EDITED BY JARED SPARKS.

VOL. V.

NEW EDITION: WASHINGTON:
PUBLISHED BY JOHN C. RIVES.

Resolution of Congress of March 27th, 1818.

Resolution directing the Publication and Distribution of the Journal and Proceedings of

the Convention which formed the present Constitution of the United States.

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Journal of the Convention which formed the present Constitution of the United States, now remaining in the office of the Secretary of State, and all Acts and Proceedings of that Convention which are in possession of the Government of the United States, be published under the direction of the President of the United States, together with the Secret Journals of the Acts and Proceedings, and the Foreign Correspondence of the Congress of the United States, from the first meeting thereof down to the date of the ratification of the definitive treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States, in the year seventeen hundred and eighty-three, except such parts of the said Foreign Correspondence as the President of the United States may deem it improper at this time to publish. And that one thousand copies thereof be printed, of which one copy shall be furnished to each member of the present Congress; and the residue shall remain subject to the future disposition of Congress,

APPROVED, March 27th, 1818.

COMPLETE IN SIX VOLUMES.

STEREOTYPED.

Jackson Hall, Washington.

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...11

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Aranjues, May 28th, 1780, 19

Difficulty of communication. Dispositions of the Spanish Court. English

policy in Spain. Dispositions of the other European Powers. Bills on Mr.

Jay.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, July 17th, 1780, 23

Mr. Cumberland, English agent at Madrid.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. St. Ildefonso, August 22d,

1780.....

.. 25

Finances of Spain. Mr. Cumberland. Armed neutrality. Naval forces and

operations of France and Spain. M. Gardoqui succeeds M. Miralles.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. St. Ildefonso, September

9th, 1780.....

.29

Failure of the Spanish loan attributed to M. Necker. Scheme of the loan.

Unsettled policy of Spain. Armed neutrality. The navigation of the Mis-

sissippi the chief obstacle to the opening of negociations with Spain.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. St. Ildefonso, September

25th, 1780....

....32

Supplies from Spain. Conference with the Count de Florida Blanca. The

Count declares that Spain will never relinquish the exclusive navigation of

the Mississippi. Finances of the belligerent Powers. The Count de Mont-

morin.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, October 15th,

1780....

..35

The Spanish Government finds it difficult to raise money. The armed neu-

trality and Holland. Revolt in Peru.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, November 28th,

1780....

...37

Finances and financial operations of Spain. Vigorous preparations of Eng-

land. Spain aims at the exclusive possession of the Guli of Mexico. The

European Powers are jealous of the House of Bourbon. Suggests the

expediency of securing the alliance of Spain by further concessions. Pro-

ceedings in Holland. The Count de Vergennes informs Mr. Jay that France

cannot pay the bills drawn on him.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, December 19th,

1780.....

.....42

Amount of bills drawn on Mr. Jay. Accession of Holland to the armed

neutrality. Disposition of the Emperor. Mr. Cumberland continues to

reside at Madrid

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, January 4th,

1781....

43

England declares war against Holland. Supplies promised by Spain.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, January 29th,

1781....

.44

Offer of mediation by the German Emperor and the Empress of Russia.

Spanish policy in regard to America.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, February 22d,

1781....

..47

Supplies. Imperial offer of mediation. Russia unfavorably disposed towards

England. English preparations. French preparations.

..55

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, March 4th, 1781, 49

M. Gardoqui. The correspondence of the American Ministers is known to the

European Governments by opening the letters.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, March 11th, 1781, 50

Mr. Cumberland intends to leave Spain. Naval forces of the belligerents.

Bad consequences of the mutiny of ihe Pennsylvania line.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Aranjues, May 25th, 1781, 51

Secret armament preparing at Cadiz. Difficulty of communicating safely with

America.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Aranjues, May 26th, 1781, 52

Naval operations. Supplies granted by France. Probable destination of the

force raising in the south of Spain.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Aranjues, June 2d, 1781, 54

Dismission of M. Necker disagreeable to the Court of Spain. M. Necker not

favorable to the granting of supplies to the United Siates. His character.

Proposed mediation by the Court of Vienna.

James Lovell to William Carmichael. Philadelphia, June 15th,

1781 ........

His communications have been valuable to Congress.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. St. Ildefonso, August 16th,

1781.......

...55

Progress of the negociations. Loans raised by Spain. Bills on Mr. Jay.

Apprehensions that the demands on Spain may delay the general peace.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. St. Ildefonso, September

28th, 1781...

..57

The Court promises to appoint a person to treat. M. Del Campo. Little

prospect of a general negociation.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, October 5th, 1781, 59

No progress has been made in the negociation. Complaints against Commo-

dore Gillon. The rebellion in Peru quelled.

To the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, November 17th,

1781.....

...62

Arrest of an English agent. No progress towards opening a conference with

Mr. Jay. Animosity of the Irish at the Spanish Court against America.

Account of M. Cabarrus. Spanish expedition against their Colonies.

French naval expeditions. State of affairs in Holland and France.

Robert R. Livingston to William Carmichael. Philadelphia, De-

cember 20th, 1781....

...67

Mr. Carmichael's communications valuable to Congress. Commodore Gillon

is not in a United States ship: Delays of Spain beget feelings of ill-will in

America. Evacuation of Wilmington.

To Robert R. Livingston. Madrid, December 20th, 1781.....69

Motives of his correspondence. Delays of Spain. General satisfaction in

Spain at the capture of Lord Cornwallis. Imperial and Swedish Ambassadors

desire to favor the trade with America. Advances by M. Cabarrus. State

of the sieges of Gibraltar and Mahon. M. Cabarrus's plan of a new bank.

Spain endeavors to discourage the commerce of foreigners in her ports.

Attempt to exclude salt-fish by the sale of indulgences permitting the use of

meat on fast days. Character of the Spanish Ministry.

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