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people whom God has highly honored in mak. General Conferences, as “advisory and suasive ing them in past ages the depositaries of his bodies for the more perfect work of producing law and Sabbath ; " and the desire was ex- harmonious and efficient labor in all parts of pressed, “so far as practicable, to coöperate the country.” with them in leading men to the conscientious The annual meeting of the American Adobservance of the commandments of God.” vent Missionary Society was held in connecA declension was noticed from both the health tion with the camp-meeting, August 12th. The and dress reforms, and the people were en- treasurer reported his total receipts to have treated "to arouse and inake these subjects been $5,112.74, and his total expenditures matters of conscience.” Increased confidence $4,692.99. This Society was organized in was professed in the gift of the "spirit of 1865; since which, to the time of the present prophecy which God has so mercifully placed meeting, it had received and expended for its in the third angel's message; the endeavor work $33,000. was resolved upon " to maintain an affection- III. EVANGELICAL ADVENTISTS.—The Amerate regard for its presence and its teach- ican Evangelical Advent Conference was held ings; and the Executive Committee were re- at the Hebron Camp - ground, Hebronville, quested to prepare, or cause to be prepared, a Massachusetts, August 20th and 22d. The work giving the reasons for believing the tes- Committee on Worship reported an order of timonies of a Sister Whité to be the teachings service. The Committee on Systematic Beof the Holy Spirit. The Executive Committee nevolence reported that the action of the Conwere advised to take steps for the speedy pub- ference of the previous year had been carried lication of tracts and periodicals in other lan- out, and that preparations had been made to guages. Measures were taken to secure the continue the prosecution of their work. The consolidation of the systems of the Tract and Committee on Ordinations reported that no Missionary Societies by some general organi- cases for ordination had been presented. zation, and for the formation of an Educational The annual meeting of the American MillenSociety.
nial Association, which has charge of the busiThe meeting of the General Conference in ness and publishing interests of the denominaAugust, 1874, was held in connection with the tion, was held at Hebronville, August 20th. National Camp-meeting of the denomination, The treasurer reported his receipts for the which continued from the 6th to the 17th of year ending July 1, 1874, to have been, includthe month. The organization of the General ing the balance and cash on hand at the beTract and Missionary Society was completed. ginning of the year, $7,657.10, and his expenReports from about one-half of the local Tract ditures, $6,689.01. and Missionary Societies connected with the IV. LIFE AND ADVENT UNION.—The annual State Conferences showed that sixteen million camp-meeting of the American Life and Adpages of tracts had been distributed and sold vent Union was held at Springfield, Massachuduring the year. Elder J. N. Andrews was setts, beginning August 1st. The eleventh ancommissioned as a missionary to Europe, with niversary of the Union was held August 6th. instructions to look after the Swiss Mission Leonard C. Thorne, of New York, was chosen and other points of interest on the Continent. president. The treasurer reported his receipts Progress was reported in the efforts to estab- for the year just ended to have been $4,216.lish a denominational school. The school had 87, and his expenses $4,484.31. A balance been opened, under the care of Mr. S. Browns- was also due him, on tire previous year's acberger, a graduate of the Michigan University. count, of $1,297.32. Tl.e sum of $2,299 was A fine brick building for its use was nearly pledged on an effort to raise $3,200, for the completed, on a lot of twelve acres' extent. purposes of the Union for the ensuing year, to The report of the Seventh-Day Adventist Pub- be devoted to the publication of its paper, lishing Association, made at its fourteenth pamphlets, and books. annual meeting, November 17, 1873, showed AFGHANISTAN, a country in Central Asia, the amount of its assets to have been then bounded north by Toorkistan, east by British $119,707.51, and its debts $37,319.12, leaving India, south by Beloochistan, and west by $82,388.39 as the value of its net assets. Persia. In an official correspondence between
II. ADVENT CHRISTIAN Association.—The the cabinets of St. Petersburg and London, National Advent Camp-meeting of the Advent especially in the dispatches of Lord Granville, Christian Association was held at Springfield, dated October 17, 1872, and of Prince GorMassachusetts, August 6th to 8th. À meeting tchakoff, dated January 31, 1873, England and of ministers was held just before the camp- Russia agreed upon the regulation of the northmeeting, to consult on topics involving the in- ern frontier of Afghanistan. According to terest of the work of the Association "in this new agreement, Afghanistan is in future spreading the knowledge of the speedy coming to embrace-1. Badakshan with the dependent of the Lord," at which a congregational form district, Wakhan, from Siripul in the east as of government was devised. Each organized far as the confluence of the river Koktcha church, with its members and officers, will re- with the Oxus (Ama-Darya), which constitutes main an independent body, but the formation the northern frontier of this province in its was recommended of quarterly, State, and entire extent; 2. Afghan Toorkistan, which embraces the districts of Kunduz, Khulum, and the head of the rebellion in Balkh, while Azim Balkh, and is bounded north by the Oxus in its fought in the east, and finally a younger brothcourse from the mouth of the Koktcha as far er, Emin, raised the standard of revolt in Canas Khodja Sala, a post-station on the road dahar. The latter was killed in the battle of from Bokhara to Balkh. The Emir of Afghan- Kelat-il-Ghilzie, in which Shere Ali also lost istan can claim nothing on the left bank of the his beloved eldest son. Soon the sons of the Oxus below Khodja Sala ; 3. The interior rivals took a prominent part in the war. The districts of Akhshee, Şiripul, Maymene, Shiber- eldest surviving son of Shere Ali, Ibrahim, is a gan, and Andjai, the latter of which is the ex- weak and insignificant man, while the second treme possession of Afghanistan in the north- son, Yakoob, who, when a boy, had detected west, while the desert beyond it belongs to the the disguise in which the Hungarian traveler, independent Toorkoman tribes; 4. The west Vámbéry, traversed these countries, soon gained frontier of Afghanistan between the territories great renown for his sagacity and bravery. of Herat and the Persian province of Khoras- Rhaman Khan, the oldest son of Afzool, is san has not undergone any change.
likewise a brave warrior, and the two cousins Since the new regulation of the frontier, fought many hotly-contested battles against the area of Afghanistan is estimated at 278,- each other. After many vicissitudes, Afzool 647 square miles. The population is estimated Khan was overtaken by death, while advancing at upward of 4,000,000. "The population of at the head of his victorious columns. His the provinces into which Afghanistan is di- brother Azim, who by his misgovernment had vided is given by a Russian military periodic become extremely unpopular, died soon after. cal as follows: Caboolistan, 900,000; Hasareh, The brave Rhaman, after several crushing de195,000 ; Khorassan with Herat, 1,654,000; feats, was driven by Yakoob Khan out of the Seistan, 280,000; Kunduz, 400,000; Khulum, country, and Shere Ali recognized as ruler of 300,000; Balkh, 64,000; Andjai and Shiber- the Afghans. But, although Shere Ali was ingan, 60,000 ; Aktche, 10,000; Maymene, 100,- debted for the throne to his son Yakoob, he 000; in all, 3,963,000. In this report, no soon began to favor his younger son, Abdal
statement is made of the population of the lah Jan (born in 1862), the child of his favor· provinces of Badakshan and Wakhan. The ite wife. This preference was shown in an
population of the former is estimated by E. ostentatious manner when Shere Ali, in 1869, Schlagintweit from 100,000 to 150,000. To had an interview with the Viceroy of India. the territory of Maymene, Vámbéry now as- Lord Mayo by no means encouraged the plan, signs a population of 300,000.
and, when Yakoob Khan attempted to secure Afghanistan was again, in 1874, the scene of his right of succession, he used his whole inserious dynastic difficulties, which attracted fuence to bring about a reconciliation between great attention from the fact that both Great Shere Ali and his disaffected son. The latter Britain and Russia appeared, as usual, to take was appointed governor of the province of & profound interest in them, and to use them Herat, and until 1874 the relation between fawith a view to establishing their ascendency ther and son continued of a peaceable nature. in this region. Russian and English accounts It was, however, expected all the time that, of these troubles widely differ, and in many whenever Shere Ali should officially proclaim cases it is at present impossible to ascertain the Abdallah Jan as his presumptive successor, truth. The recent disturbances arose in con- Yakoob Khan would again rise in rebellion, and sequence of the appointment of Abdallah Jan, that in such a case Rhaman Khan would also the younger son of Shere Ali, the present appear on the scene. As Rhaman Khan had ruler, as heir-apparent to the throne, with the closely allied himself with the Russians, the exclusion of Yakoob Khan, the eldest son, who British statesmen have looked forward with for some time bad been governor of the im- considerable anxiety to the time when civil portant province of Herat. The latter at once war might once more reign in Afghanistan. prepared to enforce his claims to the throne by The province of Herat is situated in the & resort to arms, and to reopen the civil war northwestern corner of Afghanistan, and is among the members of the dynastic family, bounded by Persia, Khiva, and Bokhara. The from which the country has already suffered great distance from the capital of Afghanistan so much. As all the living members of the rul- made it possible for Yakoob Kban, not only to ing family who had taken a part in the former be virtually the independent ruler, but also to civil wars of the country may be expected to prepare for another war against his father. appear again on the scene, a brief retrospect He appears to have had secret diplomatic corof the former family quarrels will help to elu- respondence with the governments of the cidate the present complication. Shere Ali, neighboring countries, but the character of the the present ruler of Afghanistan, had been negotiations is not yet fully known. He is preferred by his father, Dost Mohammed, in believed, however, to have courted the friendthe same manner in which he now favors his ship of Russia, which, according to the papers youngest son. When, on the death of his fa- of British India, has of late built two roads ther, he assumed the reins of the government, leading to the frontier of Afghanistan -0 his elder brothers, Afzool and Azim, at once from Urgentsh to Herat, and the other from rose against him. Afzool placed himself at Urgentsh to Meshid.
The policy of the British authorities with extent the country will probably become one of regard to the civil troubles in Afghanistan, if the largest empires of the world, great reforms we are to believe their official professions, has continue to be introduced in all the branches been one of non-intervention. They claim to of public administration. (See EGYPT.) have been willing, all the time, to recognize The war of England against the Ashantees, the victor, whoever he might be. During which began in 1873, was a brilliant success. the wars following the death of Dost Mo- One of the worst native governments of Af. hammed, both Shere Ali and Afzool Khan re- rica was thoroughly humbled, another powerceived letters from Lord Lawrence, who, in ful blow dealt to the slave-trade, and a new one of those to Afzool Khan, expressly declared road paved for the steady progress of civilizathat as long as Shere Ali held possession of He- tion in Western Africa. (See ASHANTEE.) rat, and desired friendly relations with Eng- A war between the English colony of Natal land, he would recognize him as Emir of He- and the Zulus, under their chief, Langalobele, rat, while at the same time he felt no hesita- which also began in 1873, ended early in 1874, tion in recognizing Afzool Khan as Emir of by the capture of the Zulu chief, who on FebCabool and Čandahar as long as he held those ruary 9th was sentenced to banishment for life. places. Toward the end of the civil war be- An appeal against this sentence was moved by tween Shere Ali and his rivals, the Govern- Bishop Colenso, on the complaint of several ment of India appears, however, to have taken members of the tribe, and was allowed. a very active interest in the success of Shere The new Emperor of Morocco, though just, Ali. After the battle of Mainmanah, in 1868, is reported to be severe and energetic. Towand after the victorious entrance of Shere Ali ard the close of the year he set out on an exinto Cabool, the Indian Government sent him pedition to punish several rebellious tribes. £60,000 sterling, to enable him to fully con- The imposition of a gate-tax at Mogador was quer his opponents. At the durbah of Am- considered by the foreign consuls of that town ballah, Lord Mayo is reported to have prom- as a violation of the commercial convention ised to Shere Ali an annual subsidy of £120,- between Morocco, Great Britain, and Spain. 000. From the English Blue-Book it appears (See Morocco.) that in November, 1869, Prince Gortcbakoff re- The trade of the eastern coast of Africa, marked to the British embassador in St. Pe- which is chiefly in the hands of East Indians, tersburg that the Indian Government was sup- has assumed much larger dimensions since the porting the Emir of Afghanistan with regular opening of the Suez Canal. In January, 1873, subsidies. In 1873, shortly before the procla- a monthly steamship-line was opened between mation of Abdallah Jan as heir to the throne, & Aden, Zanzibar, and Madagascar; the vesMohammedan was sent by the Government of sels belong to the British Indian Steamship India as special onvoy to Cabool, and it was Company. The revenue of the company in surmised that he was to assure Shere Ali of December, 1873, from goods shipped from the approval of the proposed change in the Zanzibar to Aden, was about $20,000; and succession by the viceroy, and to promise him their vessels were not large enough to satisfy support in case of war.
all demands. In September, the hostilities between Shere The diamond-fields in South Africa continue Ali and Yakoob Khan actually commenced. to attract large crowds of natives from the inThe latter was supposed to have the entire sym- terior, who find it easy to be employed by the pathy not only of Russia, but Persia, which diggers, and who returning to their homes difhas been hankering after Herat ever since she fuse among the native population a general lost it. In November, a report was received in acquaintance with the progress of civilization. Calcutta that Yakoob Khan had been treach- New extensive gold-fields were discovered in erously arrested and imprisoned in his own September on the Blyde River. capital. He was charged with the design to The new British possession in South Africa, surrender Herat to the Persians. It was ex- Griqualand West, which on October 27, 1871, pected that this arrest would be followed by was annexed to the Cape Colony, has been orserious complications.
ganized by a royal decree, dated February 7, AFRICA. The growth of Egypt stands 1873, and proclaimed by the governor of the from year to year more conspicuously forth as Cape Colony, on July 5, 1873. It has received the prominent feature of the recent history of the official name, Province of Griqualand Africa. A new expedition under Colonel Gor- West, and will have a lieutenant-governor, and don has been sent into the regions of Central a Legislative Assembly, consisting of four memAfrica, which in 1873 were explored by Sir bers, elected by the three districts
, Kimberleg Samuel Baker, and it now appears more prob- (2), Barkly (1), and Hag (1), and four members able than ever that immense tracts of land appointed by the crown. extending southward to the equator may soon
The total area Africa is now estimated (see be permanently incorporated with Egypt. A Behm and Wagner, "Bevölkerung der Erde," war with the Sultan of Darfur resulted in a II., Gotha, 1874) at 11,555,855 square miles; complete victory for Egypt, and may lead to population, 203,300,000. This includes the the annexation of this country also to the do- island of Madeira and the Canary Islands, which minions of the Khédive. While thus in point of often are considered a part of Europe.
The following table gives the population of as profitable as a larger one in consequence of the large geographical divisions of Africa, and the higher prices obtained. But this has not their political subdivisions :
been the case the past year. The wheat and
barley crop in Great Britain was exceptionally Population of Population of large, and that of France much better than for
many years previous, and consequently the exNORTHERN AFRICA..
port demand which in the year ending June 30, Morocco.
1874, was 60,551,181 bushels for Great Britain Tanis
2.000,000 alone, and 71,039,928 for all foreign countries, Tripoli and Fezzan.
818,000 has fallen off heavily for the new crop, and Bara.
3,700,000 every effort to increase shipments has resulted NORTHEASTERN AFRICA..... 84,500,000
in a reduction of price both in England and Egypt....
8,400,000 the United States, which has rendered the Territory of the Kabdi..
68,000 Territory of the Coomana.
export nearly or quite unremunerative. The Ahyssinia....
3,000,000 export of barley and oats, never very large, Gallas....
7,000,000 has been decreased from the same causes, while Soumali (peninsula):
8,000,000 Conntries east of the White
the crop of Indian-corn was so much below the Nile....
7,840,000 average, and much of it so poor in quality, that Mohammedan countries of the Middle Soudan..
there was comparatively little to send abroad; Western Soudan..
and our export, which in 1872–73 was more Upper Guinea.
20,000,000 Equatorial territory...
than 38,500,000 bushels, or about one-thirtieth
45,500,000 SOUTH AFRICA.
of the crop, will not probably in 1874–75 reach Territories on the eastern
20,000,000 bushels. The export demand for coast, between the equaotor and the Portuguese
3,500,000 cotton was insufficient, even with the diminpossessions...
ished crop, to maintain the price, and there Portuguese Eastern coast..
300,000 was a steady reduction in values, even in the Possessions. Western coast.
9,000,000 Balanda countries.....
The tobacco-crop was, in the States Damara Gr. Namaqua.
50,000 most largely engaged in its production, almost West Bechganas..
160,000 Transvaal Republic..
an entire failure. Still, so wide is the extent
275,000 Orange Free State.
57,000 of our territory, and so varied the climate, soil, British Territory..
and productions of different sections, that the Kaffres, districts of..
losses and deficiencies of one section are made ISLANDS...
up by the more ample productions of another, Canary Islands..
283,859 and though there may be somewhat less to Cape Verd Islands.
67,347 Guinea Islands,
export, or a diminished demand for our prod
54,300 Ascension, St. Helena.
ucts from abroad, a general famine is hardly Tristan da Cunba
possible. There is in one part or another of our Madagascar, and adjacent isl
country “bread enough and to spare." 4,000,000
The Other islands in the Indian
lateness of the autumn in this as in the preOcean...
ceding year was very favorable to the gatherTotal, Africa....... 203,300,000
ing of cotton, corn, and the fruits and root
crops generally AGRICULTURE. The year 1874 was not The Wheat crop was in condition and yield especially favorable to the husbandman, but per acre about 2 per cent. below that of the preone of the great crops being above the average, vious year, but the increased acreage, amountand the protracted drought of the months of ing to 7 per cent., makes the entire crop someJoly and August, and the first half of Decem- what larger than that of 1873. It may, we ber, having seriously reduced the crops of corn think, be safely estimated at 305,000,000 bushand fodder, as well as the root-crops and the els, being a little larger than in any previous pasturage, throughout the States of the Atlan- year. On the Pacific coast, as well as in portic slope. In the States beyond the Mississippi, tions of the Mississippi Valley, the yield was over a tract nearly 600 miles in length from considerably above the average, but the great Dorth to south, and varying in width from about wheat-growing States of Indiana, Illinois, Wis100 miles at the north to 250 miles in Southern consin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Kansas, produced Kansas, the grasshoppers, or more properly not quite their average amount. the locusts, made almost a clean sweep of every Indian Corn.—This crop was materially ingreen thing, in some cases making a partial jured by the drought of July and August in devastation at first, and then a second invasion all the States which produce the largest quana few weeks later, and destroying grass, corn, tities of it. The number of acres planted was the later cereals, and backwheat, potatoes, considerably in excess of 1873, but the probeets, and indeed all vegetable crops not har- duction was decidedly less to the acre even vested. It has usually been the fact that, when where it was not destroyed by the grasshopour crops were not excessive, there has been a pers. The Agricultural Department early in large export demand, produced by short crops the season estimated the yield at 812,000,000 in Great Britain, France, Portugal, etc., so bushels, but the favorable weather in Septemthat a crop below the average has often proved ber and October secured the ripening of the
entire crop, and the latest returns show that coast, where our ordinary grasses do not sucnot less than 854,000,000 bushels were har- ceed well, the hay is mostly from alfalfa, lu- . vested. The crop of 1873, which was not cerne, and the wild-rice. The quantity in thought to exceed 870,000,000 bushels, actually California was said to be one-third larger than turned out to be 920,000,000.
ever before. The alfalfa is cut four or five The Rye crop is about 8 per cent. below times in a season. In the South, pea-vine hay the average, but probably does not differ ma- has been found very nutritious for cattle, and terially from that of last year. We should in South Carolina and Georgia is largely put it at 14,891,000 bushels, or 98 per cent. of cured. the crop of 1873.
Tobacco.—The tobacco-crop in all the leadOats are very nearly an average crop in quan- ing tobacco States, was almost a failure. In tity, a larger acreage than usual having been Kentucky the product was reported as only devoted to them. În New England and on the 24 per cent. of the usual average; in Missouri Pacific coast the yield was very large and the 55 per cent., and this reduced late in the seaquality excellent. In the central and South- son by the ravages of the chinch-bug, a new ern States, drought, rust, the chinch-bugs, and enemy; in Virginia, the product would not exthe grasshoppers, have done extensive injury to ceed 58 per cent. ; Tennessee yields only 19 per the crop. The estimate of the Agricultural cent., and North Carolina but 54 per cent. The Department is 240,000,000 bushels, which is seed-leaf tobacco of the Connecticut Valley did probably very near the truth.
better, yielding 75 per cent.; and the Pacific Barley.-This crop, though early in the sea- coast, where it is becoming an important crop, son reported as slightly below the average, bas was 2 or 3 per cent. above the average in quanyet, from increased acreage, been probably tity, and the quality was excellent. The entire larger in amount than in any previous year. production did not probably exceed 200,000,000 The Agricultural Department estimate it (prob- pounds. ably slightly below the truth) at 32,704,000 Cotton.-As usual, the aggregate amount of bushels, or 1 per cent. advance on the largest the cotton-crop of 1874 has been hotly and previous crop.
somewhat angrily discussed; one party onBuckwheat is never a very large crop, and is tending that the early heavy rains, the later confined to a few States.. In New England it droughts, the ravages of the caterpillar and was an average crop; in the Middle States boll-worin had reduced the crop so much, that about 8 per cent. short; in the Northwest its it would not be half that of the previous year, condition was unsatisfactory; and in portions which slightly exceeded, according to actual of Kansas the grasshoppers destroyed it. It is returns, 4,100,000 bales ; the other arguing only cultivated, in the Southern States, in West that, notwithstanding these drawbacks, the Virginia, Tennessee, and very slightly in North weather, late in the season, had been so very Carolina, and in these it was a fair crop. It favorable, and the cultivation of the crop so is seldom grown for two successive years on much more careful and thorough than usual, the same land. The yield may possibly reach that the crop would not vary more than 8 or 9,000,000 bushels.
10 per cent. from that of the preceding year. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). – In New The views of the latter party seem to have England the crop was more than an average. been justified by the returns so far as they have Elsewhere drought, Colorado beetles, chinch- been received, and the estimate of the crop, bugs, a fly, said to be a cantharis, and, above which places it at 3,748,000 bales, is not, proball, the grasshoppers, made sad havoc with the ably, far from the truth. The only States in crop, except on the Pacific coast, where it was which there was any considerable falling off an average crop. The rot was not as severe from the product of the preceding year were as usual. The crop is estimated at 106,000,000 — Texas, about 12 per cent.; Arkansas, over 35 bushels. The Colorado beetle (the ten-lined per cent; and Tennessee, about 38 per cent. spearman) has appeared in considerable num- On the other hand, Florida had increased her bers east of the Mississippi, and a few have production about 7 per cent. over the previous been seen in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and year, while South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, New York.
Mississippi, and Louisiana, were but slightly, if Potatoes, Suoeet (Batatus edulis).-Owing to at all, below the previous year's production. the drought, the crop was from 8 to 10 per The following table, giving the average numcent. below the average. It probably reached ber of pounds of ginned cotton produced to the 46,000,000 bushels.
acre in 1870, 1871, 1873, and 1874, indicates, Hay.-The protracted drought materially even in the States baving the highest average, injured the pasturage, and rendered the early either that the cotton-land had become imporfeeding of cattle necessary, and prevented in erished by the constant repetition of the same most sections the cutting of the aftermath, crop, or that the lack of manure and of careful but the first growth was not affected, and the tillage had reduced the yield far below its fair quality was, for the most part, excellent. The and legitimate amount. At the same time it is Agricultural Department estimate the crop at but just to say that there are some indications 25,500,000 tons; and later reports may show of a determination to improve both in the that it exceeded this amount. On the Pacific quality and quantity of the crop. Still the fact