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thus conveyed to the wife,-in February, 1880,—she left her husband and has since obtained a divorce from him; and this circumstance seems to have prompted him to disclose the true nature of the transaction to his creditors, in the hope, as he testifies, that if he cannot have the benefit of the property himself by holding it in the name of a wife, it may go to the payment of his debts. The defendant Mary Jackson joined in the conveyance by her husband of his interest in his father's estate and that of the saloon property at Independence, and thereby relinquished her right of dower therein; and she testifies that when the premises in question were conveyed to her, that it was done in pursuance of a verbal agreement then made between herself and husband, by which she promised, when thereafter requested, to join him in the conveyances of the other property above mentioned. And it is now claimed that this promise to relinquish her dower was a sufficient consideration to support the conveyance to her.

The first answer to this proposition is that the evidence does not support it; and the second is that the promise, if proven, is void, because made by a wife to her husband, (Pittman v. Pittman, 4 Or. 299; Elfelt v. Hinch, 5 Or. 257,) and because it was not in writing. Code of Civil Proc. $ 775, sub. 6. And being a void promise, it could not be enforced, and therefore it was not a valuable consideration moving from the grantee at the time of the conveyance, although it was subsequently performed. Bump, Fraud. Conv. 220, 222, 225. In Howe v. Wildes, 34 Me. 570, it was held that the note of a feme covert was not a valuable consideration although paid when due, and that, therefore, a conveyance by a son to his mother upon the consideration of her note was voluntary and void as against his creditors. But the conclusive answer to this claim is that, let the consideration for the conveyance to the wife be ever so valuable, she took it with full knowledge of 'her husband's intent to thereby hinder and delay if not defraud his creditors, and was therefore a party thereto. Again, if this conveyance had been made in consideration of an actual release of the right of dower in property worth not to exceerd $1,500, the gross inadequacy of price would itself be a badge of fraud. The property conveyed is admitted to be worth not less than $3,000, and the husband at the date of the conveyance was only about 32 years of age. His expectation of life was about 30 years, and the wife's but little more, if any. The value, then, of this right of dower at the date of the conveyance was very trifling compared with the value of the property conveyed, and is bardly worth estimating. The

net income of $500 for a few years, receivable 26 years hence, and discounted to its present value, would nearly represent the alleged consideration for the conveyance.

But the defendant Mary Jackson further contends, by an allegation in her answer and in the argument, that this bill cannot be maintained, because, as she alleges, the judgment which it is brought in aid of is void for want of jurisdiction in the court that gave it over the subject matter, in that the parties to whom the note was made could not maintain an action upon it in this court, and assigned it, if at all, to "the complainant herein for the purpose of bringing such action in this court.” Without stopping to determine whether this allegation is not a plea in abatement which is waived by an answer to the merits, (Dowell v. Cardwell, 4 Sawy. 230,) the question raised by it will be considered. But before doing so it is proper to dispose of the point made by the plaintiff that the defendant cannot attack this judgment collaterally. I think she can; and that the case falls within the rule that when the right of a third person may be affected collaterally by a judgment procured by fraud or collusion of the parties thereto, or which for any reason is erroneous and void, and he cannot bring a writ of error to reverse the same, he may allege and prove or show its invalidity in any proceeding in which it is sought to be used to his prejudice. Freeman, Judgm. $$ 335-7. The evidence upon this point is defective. It only appears therefrom that the firm of Hotaling & Co. consists of two persons,-one a resident of San Francisco and the other of Portland, - but what the nationality or citizenship of either of them is does not otherwise or further appear. But it is altogether immaterial whether the plaintiff's assignor could have maintained an action upon this note or not. True, under section 11 of the judiciary act of 1789, (1 St. 78,) the assignee of a contract, except a foreign bill of exchange, could not sue in the national courts unless the assignor could have done so.. But under section 1 of the judiciary act of 1875, (18 St. 470,) this restriction upon the right of an assignee of a promissory note has been removed, and he may now sue in this court without reference to the citizenship of his assignor. Nor is it material, if true, that the assignment to the plaintiff was made for the purpose cr with a view of enabling him to sue on the note in this court. If the assignment was actually made and the interest of the assignor absolutely vested in the assignee without any agreement or understanding to return it or account to the assignor for the proceeds, the motive or purpose of

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the latter in making the assignment does not affect the right of the assignee to sue in this court. This is well established, both upon reason and authority. Newby v. Or. Central Ry. Co. 1 Sawy. 63; De Laveaga v. Williams, 5 Sawy. 573; Hoyt v. Wright, 4 Fed. REP. 168; Marion v. Ellis, 10 FED. REP. 410.

In Newby v.Or. Central Ry. Co. supra, in considering a similar objection to the plaintiff's right to sue herein, as the assignee of two of the defendant's bonds, the court said: “If it appears that the complain. ant has the legal title to or interest in these bonds, then this plea is insufficient. They are payable to bearer, and the title to them passes by delivery, unless the contrary is shown. The motive with which they were delivered to the complainant or he received them makes no difference in this respect. Parties have a clear right to become the owners of property, real or personal, by purchase or gift, for the express purpose of maintaining a suit in this court concerning the same."

And in De Laveuga v. Williams, supra, in which there was a plea in abatement that the plaintiff was not the actual owner of the premises sued for, and that the conveyance to him was merely color. able, to give the court jurisdiction, Mr. Justice FIELD said:

“ There is no doubt, that the sole object of the deed to the complainant was to give this court jurisdiction, and that the grantor has borne and still bears the expenses of the suit. But neither of these facts renders the dead inoperative to transfer the title. The defendants are not in a position to question the right of the grantor to give away the property if he chooses to do so. And the court will not, at the suggestion of a stranger to the title, inquire into the motives which induced the grantor to part with his interest. It is sufficient that the instrument executed is valid in law, and that the grantee is of the class entitled under the laws of congress to proceed in the federal courts for the protection of his rights. It is only when the conveyance is executed, to give the court jurisdiction, and is accompanied with an agreement to retransfer the property at the request of the grantor upon the termination of the liti. gation, that the proceeding will be treated as a fraud upon the court. Such 'was the case of Barney v. Baltimore City, upon which the defendants rely. 6 Wall. 280. Here there was no such agreement, and it will be optional with the complainant to retransfer or retain the property.”

The allegation or plea, therefore, in this case is absolutely immaterial, for it does not go so far as to aver that the assignment was not bona fide, and only colorable, but simply that the motive in making it was to give this court jurisdiction.

In the evidence there is an attempt to prove this, but it is insufficient. The circumstances relied on as showing that the assignment was not absolute and unqualified are that the consideration therefor

was merely nominal—one dollar—and that the assignor paid the expenses of the suit. But these are not inconsistent with an actual transfer, and they signify nothing when taken in connection with the testimony of the assignor and assignee, who both state that the transfer was absolute, and that there is no understanding or agreement by which the assignor is to have any of the contents of the note or the fruits of the litigation. It follows that the court had jurisdiction of the action on the note, and that the judgment therein is valid and binding on all the defendants herein for the purposes of this suit. The plaintiff is therefore entitled to have the conveyances of December 29, 1877, to the defendants Beauchamp and Mary Jackson, so far as they hinder and delay him from obtaining satisfaction of his judgment, set aside and held for naught. But it is a mistake to suppose that the property, or any portion of it remaining after the satisfaction of the judgment, will revert to the husband. As between him and his wife, the conveyances are good and vest the title in her. They are not void, but only voidable at the suit of a creditor who is thereby prevented from the collection of his debt, and then only so far as to enable him to collect it. In re Estes, 7 Sawy. 460. If there is any surplus of the property, or the proceeds thereof, after satisfying the judgment of the plaintiff and the costs of this suit, as it is probable there will be, it belongs to the wife.

A decree will be entered setting, aside the conveyances as to the plaintiff, and directing the master to sell the property, or so much thereof as may be necessary to satisfy the plaintiff's judgment and the costs of this suit and the execution of the decree herein, and pay the remainder of the proceeds, if any, to the defendant Mary Jackson.

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LEWIS, JR., v. MEIER and others..

(Circuit Court, D. Kansas. November Term, 1882.)

1. EQUITY-FRAUDULENT CONTRACT—No RELIEF TO EITHER PARTY.

The general rule is that a court of equity will not interfere in behalf of either party to a contract fraudulent as to both parties, either to enforce or set aside

the same, or award damages for a breach thereof. 2. SAME-CORPORATIONS BOUND BY SAME RULE.

A corporation may be guilty of fraud, and if through its board of directors it enters into a fraudulent contract, it is subject to the rule above stated.

*From the Colorado Law Roporter.

3. CORPORATIONS ARE BOUND BY ACTS OF AGENTS OR DIRECTORS.

A contract made by the directors of a corporation in the course and within the general scope of their powers and duties, is to be regarded as made by the corporation, although in making it the directors may have acted fraudulently.

The rule is the same as that which prevails between natural persons. 4. RULE APPLIED-CONTRACT BY CORPORATION WITH ITS DIRECTORS.

Where a railway corporation, through its board of directors, entered into a contract for the construction of a part of its road with certain persons, some of whom were directors of the company, and, in pursuance of that contract, executed its bonds in a large sum, secured by mortgage upon its property, held, that although the contract be held void, yet the corporation, being itself a party to the fraud, could not maintain a bill to set aside and cancel the mortgage as a cloud upon its title.

J. P. Usher, for complainant in cross-bill.
Mr. Glover and Mr. Shepley, for defendants.

McCRARY, C. J. This suit was originally brought to foreclose a mortgage executed by the Kansas Pacific Railroad Company to certain trustees, to secure bonds to the amount of $6,500,000. The original bill has been dismissed, and the case stands upon a crossbill filed by the defendant company, in which it is alleged that the mortgage above referred to is fraudulent and void, and ought, therefore, to be canceled as a cloud upon its title. It is alleged that said mortgage was executed as part of a scheme whereby the directors of the company

united with certain others to enter into certain contracts with the company to build a portion of the company's railroad, and to receive certain considerations therefor. In other words, it is alleged that the directors of the company were members of a construction company, to which the bonds secured by said mortgage were issued, and that they contracted fraudulently with themselves. Conceding, for our present purposes, the truth of these allegations, the question arises, can the defendant company be granted the affirmative relief prayed for? The general rule is that a court of equity will not, in such cases, interfere in favor of either party, either to enforce or set aside the contract, or to award damages for its breach. The parties being in pari delicto, the court will leave them where it finds them. If this were a contract between natural persons, there could be no doubt about the application of this doctrine; but it is said that the rule does not apply to the defendant corporation, because, while the contract was made in the corporate name, the corporation is not, within the meaning of the rule, a party to it, since in making it the directors exceeded their authority. To sustain this view would be, in effect, to hold that a corporation can in no case be guilty of fraud; for, being an artificial being, it can act only through agents, and it

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