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Pastor Fido, act 2. sc. 5.

Emotions indeed properly so called, which are quiescent, produce no remarkable signs externally. Nor is it neceffary that the more deliberate passions should, because the operation of such passions is neither fudden nor violent: these however remain not altogether in obfcurity; for being more frequent than violent paflion, the bulk of our actions are directed by them. Actions therefore display, with sufficient evidence, the more deliberate passions; and complete the admirable system of external ligns, by which we become skilful in human nature.

Next in order comes an article of great importance ; which is, to examine the effects produced upon a spectator by external signs of pafsion. None of these signs are beheld with indifference; they are productive of various emotions, tending all of them to ends wife and good. This curious article makes a capital branch of hu

nature: it is peculiarly useful to writers who deal in the pathetic; and with respect to history-painters, it is altogether indispensable.

It is mentioned above, that each passion, or class of passions, hath its peculiar signs; and with respect to the present article it must be added, that these invariably make certain impressions on a spectator : the external signs of joy, for example, produce a chearful emotion; the exter




nal signs of grief produce pity; and the external signs of rage, produce a sort of terror even in those who are not aimed at.

Secondly, It is natural to think, that pleasant passions should express themselves externally by figns that to a spectator appear agreeable, and painful passions by signs that to him appear difagreeable. This conjecture, which Nature fuggests, is confirmed by experience; unless pride be an exception, the external signs of which are disagreeable, though it be commonly reckoned a pleasant passion : but pride is not an exception, being in reality a mixed passion, partly pleasant partly painful; for when a proud man confines his thoughts to himself, and to his own dignity or importance, the passion is pleasant, and its external signs agreeable; but as pride chiefly confifts in undervaluing or contemning others, it is so far painful, and its external signs disagreeable.

Thirdly, It is laid down above, that an agreeable object produceth always a pleafant emotion, and a disagreeable object one that is painful*, According to this law, the external signs of a pleasant passion, being agreeable, must produce in the spectator a pleasant emotion; and the external signs of a painful passion, being disagreeable, inust produce in him a painful emotion.

Fourthly, In the present chapter it is observed, that pleasant passions are, for the most part, expressed externally in one uniform manner ; but

* See chap. 2. part 7.

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that all the painful passions are distinguishable from each other by their external expressions. The emotions accordingly raised in a spectator by external figns of pleasant passions, have little variety: these emotions are pleasant or chearful, and we have not words to reach a more particular defcription. But the external signs of painful passions produce in the spectator emotions of different kinds: the emotions, for example, raised by external signs of grief, of remorse, of anger, of envy, of malice, are clearly distinguishable from each other.

Fifthly, Passions raised in the spectator by external signs of painful passions, are fome of them attractive, some repulsive. Every painful pafsion that is also disagreeable *, raises by its ex

: ternal signs a repulsive passion, repelling the spectator from the object : thus the passion raised by external signs of envy and rage, is repulsive. Painful passions that are agreeable produce an opposite effect : their external signs, it is true, are disagreeable, and raise in the spectator a painful passion : but this painful passion is attractive, producing in the spectator good will to the man who is moved by the passion, and a desire to relieve or comfort him; witness distress painted on the countenance, which instantaneously inspires the spectator with pity, and impels him to af


* Sce passions explained as agreeable or disagreeable, chap. 2. part 2.


ford relief. The cause of this difference among the painful passions raised by external signs of pasLion, may be readily gathered from what is laid down, chapter, Emotions and passions, part 7.

It is now time to look back to the question proposed in the beginning, How we come to understand external signs, so as to refer each sign to its proper paffion? We have seen that this branch of knowledge, cannot be derived originally from sight, nor from experience. Is it then implanted in us by nature ?. The following considerations will incline us to answer this question in the affirmative. In the first place, the external signs of passion inust be natural ; for they are invariably the same in every country, and among the different tribes of men : pride, for example, is always expressed by an erect posture, reverence by prostration, and sorrow by a dejected look. Secondly, we are not even indebted to experience for the knowledge that these expressions are natural and universal : for we are so framed as to have an innate conviction of the fact: let a man change his habitation to the other side of the globe, he will, from the accustomed signs, infer the paffion of fear among his new neighbours, with as little hesitation as he did at home. But why, after all, involve ourselves in preliminary obfervations, when the doubt may be directly folved as follows? That if the meaning of external signs be not derived to us from fight, nor from experience,

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there is no remaining fource from whence it can
be derived but from nature.

We may then venture to pronounce, with
some degree of confidence, that man is provided
by nature with a sense or faculty, which lays open
to him every passion by means of its external ex:
pressions. : And we cannot, I imagine, entera
tain any reasonable doubt of this fact, when we
reflect, that the meaning of external signs is not
hid even from infants : an infant is remarkably
affected with the passions of its nurse expressed on
her countenance; a smile chears it, a frown
makes it afraid: but fear cannot be without ap-
prehending danger ; and what danger can the in-
fant apprehend, unless it be fensible that its nurse
is angry? We must therefore admit, that a child
can read anger in its nurse's face; and it must
be sensible of this intuitively, for it has no other
mean of knowledge. I do not affirm, that these
particulars are clearly apprehended by the child;
for to produce clear and distinct perceptions, re-
flection and experience are requisite : but that e-
ven an infant, when afraid, must have some no-
tion of its being in danger, is extremely evi-

That we should be conscious intuitively of a passion from its external expressions, is conformable to the analogy of nature': the knowledge of this language is of too great importance to be left upon experience; because a foundation fo uncertain and precarious, would prove a great


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