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representations following each other in the quickest succession: opposite emotions are belt felt in fucceflion; but each emotion separately should be raised to its due pitch, before another be introduced.

What is above laid down, will enable us to determine a very important queition concerning emotions raised by the fine arts, viz. Whether ought similar emotions to succeed each other, or dissimilar? The emotions raised by the fine arts, are generally too nearly related to make a figure by resemblance; and for that reason, their succeffion ought to be regulated as much as possible by contrast. This holds confessedly in epic and dramatic compositions; and the best writers, led perhaps by a good taste more than by reasoning, have generally aimed at this beauty. It holds equally in music: in the same cantata, all the variety of emotions that are within the power of music, may not only be indulged, but, to make the greatest figure, ought to be contrasted. In gardening there is an additional reason for the rule: the emotions raised by that art, are at best so faint, that every artifice should be employ'd to give them their utmost vigour : a field may be laid out in grand, sweet, gay, neat, wild, melancholy scenes; and when these are viewed in fuccefsion, grandeur ought to be contrasted with neatness, regularity with wildness, and gaiety with melancholy, so as that each emotion may succeed its opposite : nay it is an improvement

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to intermix in the succession, rude uncultivated spots as well as unbounded views, which in themselves are disagreeable, but in succession heighten the feeling of the agreeable objects; and we have nature for our guide, who in her most beaụtiful landscapes often intermixes rugged rocks, dirty marshes, and barren stony heaths. The greatest masters of music, have the same view in their compositions : the second part of an Italian song, feldom conveys any sentiment; and, by its harshness, seems purposely contrived, to give a greater relish for the interesting parts of the composition.

A small garden comprehended under a single view, affords little opportunity for this embellishment. Dissimilar emotions require different tones of mind; and therefore in conjunction can never make a good figure *: gaiety and sweetness may be combined, or wildness and gloominess; but a composition of gaiety and gloominess is distasteful. The rude uncultivated compartment of furze and broom in Richmond garden, hath a good effect in the succession of objects; but a spot of this nature would be insufferable in the midst of a polished parterre or flower-plot. A garden therefore, if not of great extent, admits not dissimilar emotions; and in ornamenting a small garden, the fafest course is, to confine it to a single expression. For the same rea

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See chap. 2. part 4.



son, a landscape ought also to be confined to a single expression, and accordingly it is a rule in painting, That if the subject be gay, every figure ought to contribute to that emotion.

It follows from the foregoing train of reasoning, that a garden near a great city, ought to have an air of folitude. The folitariness again of a waste country, ought to be contrasted in forming a garden; no temples, no obscure walks ; but jets d'eau, cascades, objects active, gay, and fplendid. Nay such a garden should in some measure avoid imitating nature, by taking on an extraordinary appearance of regularity and art, to show the busy hand of man, which in a waste country has a fine effect by contrast.

It may be gathered from what is said above *, that wit and ridicule make not an agreeable mixture with grandeur. Diffimilar emotions have a fine effect in a flow fucceffion; but in a rapid succession, which approaches to coexistence, they will not be relished: in the midst of a laboured and elevated description of a battle, Virgil introduces a ludicrous image, which is certainly out of its place :

Obvius ambuftum torrem Chorinæus ab ara
Corripit, et venienti Ebulo plagamque ferenti
Occupat os flammis: illi ingens barba reluxit,
Nidoremque ambusta dedit.

Æn. xii. 298.

Chap. 2. part 4.


The fillowing image is not less ludicrous, nor less improperly placed.

Mentre fan questi i bellici ftromenti
Perche debbiano tosto in uso porse,
Il gran nemico de l'humane genti,
Contra i Christiani i lividi occhi torse:
E lor veggendo à le bell'opre intenti,
Ambo le labra per furor fi morse:
E qual tauro ferito, il suo dolore
Verso mugghiando e fospirando fuore.

Gierusal. cant. 4. ft. I.

It would however be too austere, to banish altogether ludicrous images from an epic poem. This

poem doth not always soar above the clouds: it admits great variety; and upon occasions can descend even to the ground without sinking. In its more familiar tones, a ludicrous scene may be introduced without impropriety.

This is done by Virgil * in describing a foot-race; the circumstances of which, not excepting the lus dicrous part, are copied from Homer f. After a fit of merryment, we are, it is true, the less disposed to the serious and sublime: but then, a ludicrous scene, by unbending the mind from severe application to more interesting subjects, may prevent fatigue, and preserve our relish entire.

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Hen one attempts to explain uniformi

ty and variety, in order to show how

we are affected by these circumstances, it appears doubtful what method ought to be followed. I forcfee several difficulties in keeping close to the text; and yet by indulging a range, such as may be necessary for a clear view, I shall certainly incur the censure of wandering. — Be it fo: the dread of censure ought never to make us deviate from what is right : the collateral matters, beside, that will be introduced, are curious, and not of slighţ importance in the science of human nature,

The necessary succession of perceptions may be examined in two different views; one with respect to its order and connection, and one with respect to its uniformity and variety, It merits examination in both views, for the purpose of explaining the impressions made upon the mind by the particulars mentioned. In the first view it is handled above *: and I now proceed to the fecond. The world we inhabit is replete with

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