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are distinguished from figure, extension, solidity, which in contradistinction to the former are, termed primary qualities, because they inhere in subjects whether perceived or not. This dir tinction suggests a curious inquiry, Whether beauty be a primary or only a secondary quality of objects. The question is easily determined with respect to the beauty of colour ; for if colour be a secondary quality, existing no where but in the mind of the spectator, its beauty must be of the fame kind.: This conclusion must also hold with respect to the beauty of utility, which is plainly a conception of the mind, arising not merely, from fight, but from reflecting that the thing is fitted for fome good end or purpose. The question is more intricate with respect to the beauty of regularity; for if regularity be a primary quality, why not also its beauty? That this is not a good inference, will appear from considering,

: that beauty, in its very conception, refers to a percipient; for an object is faid to be beautiful, for no other reason but that it appears so to a spectator : the same piece of matter that to a man appears beautiful, may poflibly appear ugly to a being of a different species. Beauty therefore, which for its existence depends upon the percipient as much as upon the object perceived, cannot be an inherent property in either. And hence it is wittily observed by the poet, that beauty is not in the person beloved, but in the lover's eye. This reasoning is undoubtedly folid; and the only cause of doubt or hesitation is, that we are taught a different lesson by sense: by a singular determination of nature, we perceive both beauty and colour as belonging to the object, and, like figure or extension, as inherent properties. This mechanism is uncommon; and when nature, to fulfil her intention, prefers any singular method of operation, we may be certain of some final cause that cannot be reached by ordinary means. For the beauty of fome objects we are indebted entirely to nature; but with respect to the endless variety of objects that owe their beauty to art and culture, the perception of beauty greatly promotes industry: and as beauty is frequently connected with utility, this perception of beauty is to us a strong additional incitement to enrich our fields and improve our manufactures. These however are but flight effects, compared with the connections that are formed among individuals in society by means of this singular mechanism : the qualifications of the head and heart, are undoubtedly the most solid and most permanent foundations of such connections; but as external beauty lies more in view, and is more obvious to the bulk of mankind, than the qualities now mentioned, the sense of beauty has a more extensive influence in forming these connections : at any rate, it concurs in an eminent degree with mental qualifications, to produce social intercourse, mutual good-will, and consequently mutual aid and support, which are the life of society. It must not however be overlooked, that this fense doth not tend to adyance the interests of fociety, but when in a due mean with respect to ftrength. Love in particular arising from a sense of beauty, loses, when excessive, its sociable character * ; the appetite for gratification, prevailing over affection for the beloved object, is ungovernable ; and tends violently to its end, regardless of the misery that must follow. Love in this state is no longer a sweet agreeable passion : it becomes painful, like hunger or thirst; and produceth no happiness but in the instant of fruition. This discovery suggests a most important lesson, I hat moderation in our desires and appețițes, whịch fits us for doing our duty, contributes, at the same time, the most to happiness: even social passions, when moderate, are inore pleafant than when they fwell beyond proper bounds,


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Sce chap. 3. part 1. feet. I.





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ATURE hath not more remarkably distinguished us from the other animals by

an erect posture, than by a capacious and aspiring mind, attaching us to things great and elevated. The ocean, the sky, seize the attention, and make a deep impression *: robes of state are made large and full to draw respect : we admire an elephant for its magnitude, notwithstanding its unwieldiness.

The elevation of an object affects us not less than its magnitude : a high place is chosen for the statue of a deity or hero: a tree growing on the brink of a precipice, looks charming when viewed from the plain below : a throne is erected for the chief magistrate ; and a chair with a high seat for the president of a court.

In some objects, greatness and elevation concur to make a complicated impression: the Alps

* Longinus observes, that nature inclines us to admire, not a small rivulet, however clear and transparent, but the Nile, the Ister, the Rhinc, or still more the ocean. The light of a small fire produceth no emotion ; but we are struck with the boiling furnaces of Ærna, pouring out whole rivers of liquid flame. Treatise of the Sublime, chap. 29.

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and the pike of Teneriff are proper examples; with the following difference, that in the former greatness seems to prevail, elevation in the latter.

The emotions raised by great and by elevated objects, are clearly distinguishable, not only in the internal feeling, but even in their external expressions. . A great object makes the spectator endeavour to enlarge his bulk; which is remarkable in plain people who give way to nature without reserve; in describing a great object, they naturally expand themselves by drawing in air with all their force. An elevated object produces a different expression : it makes the spectator stretch upward, and stand a tiptoe.

Great and elevated objects considered with relațion to the emotions produced by them, are termed grand and sublime. Grandeur and sublimity have a double signification : they generally fignify the quality or circumstance in objects by which the emotions of grandeur and fublimity. are produced; fometimes the emotions themfelves.

In handling the present subject, it is essential to ascertain, with all possible accuracy, the impreslion that is made upon the mind by the magnitude of an object, abstracting from its other qualities. And because abstraction is

is a mental operation of some difficulty, the fafen

method for judging is, to chuse a plain object that is neither beautiful nor deformed, if such a one can be found. The plainest that occurs, is a huge mass


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