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The space marked out for a small garden, is furvey'd almost at onę view; and requires a motion of the eye fo slight, as to pass for an object that can be comprehended under the largest angle of distinct vision: if not divided into too many parts, we are apt to form the fame judgement of each part; and consequently to magnify the garden in proportion to the number of its parts.
A very large plain without protuberances, is an object not less rare than beautiful; and in those who see it for the first time, it must produce an emotion of wonder. This emotion, however flight, imposes upon the mind, and makes it judge that the plain is larger than it is in reality. Divide this plain into parts, and our wonder ceases: it is no longer considered as one great plain, but as fo many different fields or inclosures.
, The firit time one beholds the sea, it appears to be large beyond all bounds. When it becomes familiar, and raises our wonder in no degree, it appears less than it is in reality. In a ftorin it appears larger, being distinguishable by the rolling waves into a nuniber of great parts. Hands scattered at considerable distances, add in appearance to its size : each intercepted part looks extremely large, and we insensibly apply arithmetic to increafe, the appearance of the whole. Many islands scattered at hand, give a diminutive appearance to the sea, by its connection with its diminutive parts: the Lomond lake would undoubtedly look larger without its islands.
Furniture increaseth in appearance the size of a small room, for the same reason that divisions increase in appearance the size of a garden. The emotion of wonder which is raised by a very large room without furniture, makes it look larger than it is in reality: if completely furnished, we view it in parts, and our wonder is not raised.
A low ceiling hath a diminutive appearance, which, by an easy transition of ideas, is communicated to the length and breadth, provided they bear any proportion to the height. If they be out of all proportion, the opposition seizes the mind, and raises fome degree of wonder, which makes the difference appear greater than it really is.
The resemblance of emotions to their causes.
Hat inany emotions have some resemblance
to their causes, is a truth that can be made clear by induction; though, so far as I know, the observation has not been made by any writer. Motion in its different circumstances, is productive of feelings that resemble it : sluggish motion, for example, causeth a languid unpleasant feeling; flow uniform motion, a feeling calm and pleasant ; and brisk motion, a lively feeling that rouses the spirits and promotes activity. A fall
of water through rocks, raises in the mind a tumultuous confused agitation, extremely similar to its cause. When force is exerted with any effort, the spectator feels a funilar effort, as of force
a exerted within his mind. A large object swells the heart. An elevated object makes the spectator stand erect.
Sounds also produce emotions or feelings that resemble them. A found in a low key, brings down the mind; such a found in a full tone, hath
a a certain solemnity, which it communicates to the feeling produced by it. A found in a high key, chears the mind by raising it: such a found in a full tone, both elevates and swells the mind.
Again, a wall or pillar that declines from the perpendicular, produceth a painful feeling, as of a tottering and falling within the mind; and a feeling somewhat similar is produced by a tall pillar that stands so ticklish as to look like falling *. A column with a base looks more firm and stable than upon the naked ground; and for that reason is more agreeable : and a cube as a base, is preferred before a cylinder, though the latter is a more beautiful figure; because the angles of a cube are extended to a greater distance from the centre than the circumference of a cylinder. This excludes not a different reason,
Sunt enim Tempe saltus transitu difficilis: nam præter angustias per quinque millia, quâ exiguum jumento onufto iter cft, rupes utrinque ita abscillæ funt, ut despici vix fine vertigine quadam fimul oculorum animique possit. Titus Livius, lib. 44. feft.6.
that the base, shaft, and capital, of a pillar, ought, for the sake of variety, to differ from each other: if the shaft be round, the base and capital ought to be square.
A constrained posture, uneasy to the man himself, is disagreeable to the spectator ; whence a rule in painting, that the drapery ought not to adhere to the body, but hang loose, that the figures may appear easy and free in their movements.
The constrained posture of a French dancing-master in one of Hogarth’s pieces, is for that reason disagreeable; and it is also ridiculous, because the constraint is assumed as a grace.
The foregoing observation is not confined to emotions or feelings raised by still life: it holds also in what are raised by the qualities, actions, and passions, of a sensible being. Love inspired by a fine woman, assumes her qualities: it is fublime, foft, tender, severe, or gay, according to its cause. This is still more remarkable in emotions raised by human actions: it hath already been remarked *, that any signal instance of gra-, titude, beside procuring efteem for the author, raiseth in the spectator a vague emotion of gratitude, which disposeth him to be grateful; and
; I now further remark, that this, vague emotion hath a strong resemblance to its cause, viz. the passion that produced the grateful action: courage exerted inspires the reader as well as the spectator
* Part 1. of this chapter, fect. 3.
with a like emotion of courage : a just action fortifies our love of justice, and a generous action 'rouses our generosity. In short, with respect to all virtuous actions, it will be found by induction, that they lead us to imitation by inspiring emotions resembling the passions that produced these actions. And hence the benefit of choice books and choice company.
Grief as well as joy are infectious: the emotions they raise in a spectator resemble them perfectly. Fear is equally infectious : and hence in an army, fear, even from the slightest cause, making an impression on a few, spreads generally through all, and becomes an universal panic. Pity is similar to its cause : a parting scene between lovers or friends, produceth in the fpectator a sort of pity, which is tender like the distress: the anguish of remorse, produceth pity of a harsh kind; and if the remorse be extreme, the pity hath a mixture of horror. Anger 1 think is singular; for even where it is moderate, and causeth no disgust, it disposes not the spectator to anger in any degree * Covetousnefs, cruelty, treachery, and other vicious passions, are so far from raising any emotion similar to themselves, to incite a spectator to imitation, that they have an opposite effect : they raise ab
* Aristotle, Poet cap. 18. $ 3. fays, that anger raiseth in the fpectator a similar emotion of anger.