On a Scale: A Social History of Writing Assessment in America
Peter Lang, 2005 - 408 halaman
Fear and Trembling? Shock and Awe? Which set of statements best describes the emotions surrounding the assessment of writing ability in educational settings? This book - the first historical study of its kind - begins with Harvard University's 1874 requirement that first-year student applicants submit a short composition as part of the admissions process; the book concludes with the College Board's 2005 requirement for an essay to be submitted as part of the new SAT(R) Reasoning Test. Intended for teachers who must prepare students to submit their writing for formal assessment, administrators who must make critical decisions based on test scores, and policy makers who must allocate resources based on evaluation systems, On a Scale provides a much-needed historical and conceptual background to questions arising from national attention to student writing ability.
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achieved admissions American analysis Annual Report answer asked Association become Brigham called candidates Charles Spearman colleagues College Board College Entrance Examination committee complex Comprehensive construct correlation course critical demonstrated designed Diederich direct Educational effect English Composition Entrance Examination Board error essay established evaluation evidence experience factor given grades Harvard holistic human identified important included individual instruction intelligence issue John judgment language learning literacy means measure method noted Noyes objective organization percent performance portfolio practice present Princeton Psychological published questions ratings readers reading reliability response Review Rhetoric Richard samples scale scoring Secretary selection Service skills Stalnaker standards task teachers teaching Thorndike topic types University validity writing ability writing assessment written wrote Yerkes York