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duffle, and planking have been plenteously used not only to keep out the cold, but for the purpose of reducing the temperature of all the fittings which will require handling. The health of the adventurers will also be carefully attended to, and what is of as inuch importance, means of amusement and recreation are amply provided
The object of the expedition was not, as heretofore, to find out a north-west passage, but to make straight for the North Pole. That mysterious spot remained still to be discovered ; and if the English should fail to seize this highest prize of northern adventure, it seemed likely that on the general awakening of enterprise it would fall to the lot of Germans, Americans, or Swedes.
“ The general design of the voyage," it was stated in the Report of the Arctic Committee, “should be that while both ships would share as far as possible in the objects of discovery and exploration, one must be so placed that she would not only serve for he crew the other to fall back upon,
but that the united crews could, without doubt, escape from her to the relief ship at the entrance of Smith's Sound by means of their sledges and boats over the ice.
“ Consequently the second ship must not be carried northward of the 82nd parallel ; such a position would secure this most important object, and also afford every prospect of exploration into very high latitudes."
At the 82nd parallel or thereabouts, where the “ Polaris" wintered in 1871-72, the “ Discovery," if the weather and ice be equally propitious, will spend the winter of 1875–76.
“ Having assured himself of the safety of his second ship, and increased his own crew by such portion of hers as he may deem necessary to enable him to accomplish a sledging attempt to reach the Pole, this being the main feature of his voyage, and also the exploration of his share of the coast-line extending northwards, the leader of the expedition should then push on northward and explore by ship as much of the unknown area as the season and the state of the ice will permit. But it is not contemplated that the two ships should winter at a greater distance apart than about 200 miles ; and the officer in command, if he advance with his ship beyond that point in 1875, should use his best endeavours to return within the 200 miles distance, or the case may arise in which it may be even wise to rejoin his consort and unite their forces for exploration in the spring and summer of 1876. Should the advance ship, after leaving her consort, carry continuous or pearly continuous land up to a high northern latitude, the officer in command should avail himself of opportunities to land small depôts of provisions at intervals, with cairns and records as already described ; and also to deposit at the most northern station a depôt of provisions and a boat, for his spring travelling parties.
In 1877 the leader should be at full liberty to abandon his ship as early as convenient if, in his opinion, the explorations
of the preceding year had been final, or if, from his experience of the navigable seasons of 1875-76, her escape in 1877 would be doubtful; and he should so time his abandonment as to reach the reliet ship at the entrance of Smith Sound not later than the first week in September 1877. In the event of his remaining out in the hope of extricating his own, or it may be both ships, during the summer of 1877, he should consider the propriety of reducing his own or both crews to a minimum, sending away all that can be spared to the relief ship at the entrance of Smith's Sound. In this case one or both ships would remain out for the winter of 1877, if unable to extricate themselves in the summer of that year, a contingency which is hardly possible. It is not desirable, under any circumstances, that a single ship should be left to winter in the Arctic regions. If one ship remains up Smith Sound, a second ship should remain at the rendezvous at its entrance.” A third vessel, the “ Valorous,
« Valorous,” was sent to accompany the “ Alert” and “Discovery” as far as into Davis' Strait, carrying additional stores for the expedition. The “ Valurous” returned from Disco Island at the end of August; and the tidings it brought of the Arctic adventurers were, so far, very cheering. Despatches were sent to the Admiralty from Captain Nares, commander of the expedition, and from Captain Stephenson of the “ Discovery,” together with several private letters to their friends at home from the officers and men of the two ships. It appeared that not many days after their leaving Bantry Bay the vessels, which had proceeded in company during the first part of their voyage, but which afterwards lost sight of each other for a considerable interval, very early fell in with an earuest of the difficulties and dangers they had made up their minds to encounter. A succession of violent head-winds from the north-west, culminating on three or four occasions in heavy gales, obstructed their advance to the desolate regions they had undertaken to explore. Their voyage to Disco had occupied a far longer time than is usual with ships from the south of Ireland to the same destination. The sea was so rough that the vessels haid to be battened down—their only mishap, how
The “ Alert" and the “Discovery” lost each of them a whale-boat. It was not until after they had rounded Cape Farewell that they suddenly emerged into fine weather; and, one after another, they reached their rendezvous. The “ Valorous” watched the departure northward from Disco of the “ Alert" and the “ Discovery"; and there was every probability that by the beginning of September one of the ships had taken up her winter quarters. The spirits of officers and men were reporied as good, and their health unbroken. At Disco they had availed themselves of the time at their command for amusing and seeking amusement from the few inhabitants of the little port in which their ships were anchored. There were no traces of gloom upon their countenances, no indications of despondency in their conduct; and they seemed heartily to enjoy a brief interval of gaiety after the stormy adventures through which they had passed.
Further news reached England some weeks later by the “ Pandora.” This vessel had been fitted out, not by Government, but by the ayed widow of the great Arctic navigator, Sir John Franklin, whose interest in North Pole adventures had never slacked since her husband's loss, or rather, it should be said, had been exalted in her mind to a sort of religious obligation since that dire and but half-explained calamity. The "Pandora,” a frigate of small size, was entrusted to an experienced commander, Captain Allen Young. It started from England on the 26th of June, and following the same course as the “ Alert” and the “ Discovery,” reached Disco, where the “ Valorous” had parte company with the expedition, arriving at that point three weeks after Captain Nares had left it to go north. Captain Young pursued the Expedition and reached the Carey Islands without difficulty. An unsuccessful search was there made for despatches, and the “ Pandora ” sailed away west upon a fresh attempt at the North-west passage. The vessel wound its way through Lancaster Sound and Barrow Strait to the celebrated Peel Straits. This was the region explored on foot by Captain Young when, with the “ Fox” in 1859, he was wintering at Bellot Strait. The hopes of the party were great. One hundred and twenty miles sailing due south would bring the vessel to King William's Land, where the course would be smooth sailing. But to the disappointment of all a solid belt of ice was encountered. Just as the “Fox ” had been stopped on a former occasion, so was the “ Pandora ” now. This one belt resisted the solution of the North-West passage.
There was no break anywhere ; nothing but a sea of granite as far as the eye coull reach. Captain Young might have wintered at this spot, but rightly conjecturing that the course would not be closed behind him if he made good speed, he retraced his steps, resolving that next summer the passage should be again attempted. But meanwhile, before entering Peel Straits, Ross's “ Northumberland House," on Beechy Island, was found and entered. No one had been there, except bears, since 1854. The record left by loss was brought away, the place put in order, and fresh supplies stored.
The - Pandora's” final endeavour was to find the letters which Captain Nares' expedition was expected to have left at different intervals on their route. The explorations at Carey Islands I efore entering upon the North-west route had failed, but Captain Young was not satisfied that the search had been complete. It was strange that it should not have been so.
His impulse on coming out of Lancaster Sound was again to sail north for Carey Islands. He went, and was rewarded by finding a cairn at a spot not previously examined on the top of South-East Island, and therein, contained in a tin tube, a treasure of despatches from Captain Nares.
In these documents it was stated that the “ Alert” and Discovery” had arrived at Carey Islands at midnight, July 27th, and were to leave the next day for Smith Sound; that all on board were well, and that the season being a very open one, every prospect was entertained of reaching a high latitude.
The high-hearted patroness of the “ Pandora ” was not destined herself to see the return of the vessel whose enterprise she had promoted. Three months previously, on the 18th of July, Jane Lady Franklin, who was truly said to have lived with her heart in the Arctic regions for years, passed away. A fortnight after her death a monument to the memory of Sir John Franklin was uncovered in Westminster Abbey. On the slab of that monument were engraved the pathetic lines of Alfred Tennyson :
“Not here : the white North has thy bones; and thou,
Heroic Sailor Soul,
Toward no earthly pole.' Dean Stanley now added that the monument was “erected by Jane, his widow, who, after long waiting, and sending many in search of him, herself departed to seek and to find him in the Realıns of Light, July 18, 1875, aged 83 years."
Several deaths of note took place in the spring and summer of this year, to some of which it may not be out of place to advert. The same week in which Sir John Franklin's monument was uncovered, Westminster Abbey received the remains of the most distinguished man of learning in England, John Thirlwall, the retired Bishop of St. David's. This eminent scholar died at a ripe age, with his faculties still vigorous, his work on earth satisfactorily accomplished. But there was something immature, and therefore, to ordinary apprehensions, the more regretable, in the fate which hurried to the grave-mainly, it is believed, in consequence of the extreme severity of the East wind during the early spring monthsthe brilliant and energetic Canon Kingsley-divine, historian, poet, and romancer ; Sir Arthur Helps, the Queen's personal friend and literary adviser-a man of most accomplished intellect himself; and the French Ambassador, Louis Count de Jarnac, who had only lately been appointed to his distinguished and iinportant post, who, half Irishman as well as Frenchman, bad long been known and valued in British society, and whose international sympathies bad been relied upon as qualifying him for diplomatic mediation in a special degree.
Some veteran military leaders, too, were swept off the stage. Sir William Gomm died at the advanced age of over 90; Sir Hope Grant, who was buried at Edinburgh with distinguished honours, at the age of about 64.
While Parliament was sitting the public were enlivened by the visit to London of an Erstern potentate, the Seyyed, or Sultan, of Zanzibar. Seyyed Barghash represented an Arab dynasty which had for more than 100 years held sway over the African negroes inhabiting the island made familiar to us by name in consequence of its connexion with the enterprises of Dr. Livingstone and others. Sir Bartle Frere's mission on behalf of the British Government to the Ruler of Zanzibar, in 1874, for the purpose of inducing him to put down the slave trade, which resulted in an acquiescent treaty on the Seyyed's part, was the proximate occasion of this friendly visit, the principal occurrences of which will be found noted in our Chronicle.
Colonial and Indian History-Petition of Chiefs on Gold Coast-South Africa:
Natal : Lord Carnarvon's proposed Conference : Opposition to it in Cape Colony : Mr. Froude and Mr. Molteno-Delagoa Bay award-Congo River expedition-India : Baroda inquiry : Deposition of the Guicowar-Death of Lord Hobart-Report on Indian Famine-Difficulties with Burmah-Murder of Mr. Margary-Sir Douglas Forsyth's mission— Negotiations with China : Threatenings of war-Sir Thomas Wade's ultimatum-Malay outbreak—New Guinea annexation question - Australian prosperity-Change of ministry at Victoria-Fiji-Death of Commodore Goodenough-Canada : Speech of Lord Dufferin: Riots at Montreal--Mr. Forster's remarks on Colonies.
We turn now to take a survey of Colonial and Indian affairs,
The Queen's proclamation against slavery, issued at the close of the Ashantee War, did not meet with unqualified acquiescence on the part of the petty sovereigns of the Guinea Coast. Early this year they addressed a petition to Governor Strahan, together with a memorial to the Queen, complaining that the “ Protectorate was going to absolute ruin through the abolition of the old custom. The wording of these documents, showing a somewhat remarkable acquaintance with the English language and ways, led the Governor to conjecture that they were the composition of a few educated Fantee slaveholders of the region, who were seeking to get up an agitation for their own purposes. To this conjecture Lord Carnarvon alluded in his reply to the Governor, adding, “In their personal relations with you the kinys and chiefs appear to have throughout shown a proper sense of the very great benefits conferred upon them by the Queen in the rescue of their country from invasion, and themselves from slavery and death; and I at once absolve them from any conscious participation in so ill-advised and unworthy a sentiment as that contained in the seventeenth paragraph of the petition to the Queen, in which they are made to say that 'the late war was not a war of their own, and that the British forces fought more to uphold and maintain the dignity of the British Empire than in defence of the people of the Gold Coast.' Those words will at once be generally repudiated, but they unfortunately represent 100 correctly that lamentable want of patriotism and public morality which have in times past characterised too many of the Gold Coast natives, and have rendered it so difficult either to govern