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'T has been obferved in all ages, that the advantages of nature or of fortune have contributed very little to the promotion of happinefs; and that thofe whom the fplendor of their rank, or the extent of their capacity, have placed upon the fummits of human life, have not often given any juft occafion to envy in those who look up to them from a lower station. Whether it be that apparent fuperiority incites great defigns, and great defigns are naturally liable to fatal miscarriages; or that the general lot of mankind is mifery, and the miffortunes of those whofe eminence drew upon them an univerfal attention, have been more carefully recorded, becaufe they were more generally observed, and have in reality been only more confpicuous than thofe of others, not more frequent, or more severe.

That affluence and power, advantages extrinfic and adventitious, and therefore

fily fepa



rable from those by whom they are poffeffed, fhould very often flatter the mind with expectations of felicity which they cannot give, raifes no aftonishment; but it feems rational to hope, that intellectual greatnefs fhould produce better effects; that minds qualified for great attainments fhould first endeavour their own benefit; and that they who are moft able to teach others the way to happinefs, fhould with moft certainty follow it themselves.

But this expectation, however plaufible, has been very frequently difappointed. The heroes of literary as well as civil hiftory have been very often no lefs remarkable for what they have atchieved; and volumes have been written only to enumerate the miferics of the learned, and relate their unhappy lives, and untimely deaths.

To thefe mournful narratives, I am about to add the Life of Richard Savage, a man whofe writings intitle him to an eminent rank in the claffes of learning, and whofe misfortunes claim a degree of compaffion, not always due to the unhappy, as they were often the confequences of the crimes of others, rather than his own.

In the year 1697, Anne Countefs of Maccleffield, having lived for fome time upon very un-1 cafy terms with her hufband, thought a public confeffion of adultery the most obvious and expeditious method of obtaining her liberty; and therefore declared, that the child, with which The

The was then great, was begotten by the Earl Rivers. This, as may be easily imagined, made her husband no lefs defirous of a feparation than herself, and he profecuted his defign in the most effectual manner; for he applied not to the ecclefiaftical courts for a divorce, but to the parliament for an act, by which his marriage might be diffolved, the nuptial contract totally annulled, and the children of his wife illegiti mated. This act, after the ufual deliberation, he obtained, though without the approbation of fome, who confidered marriage as an affair only cognizable by ecclefiaftical judges *; and on March 3d was feparated from his wife, whofe fortune, which was very great, was repaid her; and who having, as well as her husband, the liberty of making another choice, was in a short time married to Colonel Bret.

This year was made remarkable by the diffolution of a marriage folemnized in the face of the church. SALMON'S REVIEW.

The following proteft is registered in the books of the Houfe of Lords.


Because we conceive that this is the firft bill of that nature that hath paffed, where there was not a divorce first obtained in the Spiritual Court; which we look upon as an ill precedent, and may be of dangerous confequence in the future.



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While the Earl of Macclesfield was profe cuting this affair, his wife was, on the roth of January 1697-8, delivered of a fon, and the Earl Rivers, by appearing to confider him as his own, left none any reafon to doubt of the fincerity of her declaration; for he was his godfather, and gave him his own name, which was by his direction inferted in the register of St. Andrew's parifh in Holborn, but unfortunately left him to the care of his mother, whom, as she was now fet free from her husband, he probably imagined likely to treat with great tenderness the child that had contributed to fo pleafing an event. It is not indeed easy to difcover what motives could be found to overbalance that natural affection of a parent, or what intereft could be promoted by neglect or cruelty. The dread of fhame or of poverty, by which fome wretches have been incited to abandon or to murder their children, cannot be fuppofed to have affected a woman who had proclaimed her crimes and folicited reproach, and on whom the clemency of the legiflature had undefervedly bestowed a fortune, which would have been very little diminished by the expences which the care of her child could have brought upon her. It was therefore not likely that he would be wicked without temptation, that he would look upon her fon from his birth ith a kind of refentment and abhorrence; and, inftead

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