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tages of this union : But no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine states.

ARTICLE 12. 1. All bills of credit emitted, moneys borrowed, and debts contracted by, or under the authority of, Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States, and the public faith, are hereby solemnly pledged.

ARTICLE 13. 1. Every state shall abide by the determination of the United States, in Congress assembled, in all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every state, and the union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them, unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every state.

2. And whereas it hatb pleased the great Governor of the world to in. cline the hearts of the Legislatures we respectively represent in Congres, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said articles of confedera tion and perpetual union, KNOW YE, that we, the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do, by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, Tully and entirely ratify and confirm caeh and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained. And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, in all questions which, by the said confederation, are submitted to them ; and that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent, and that the union shall be perpetual. In witness whereof, ve lave hereunto set our hands in Congress. New Hampshire. New-York.

Josiah Bartlett,
James Duane,

Richard Henry Lee,
John Wentworth, jr. Francis Lewis,

John Banister,
William Duer,

Thomas Adams,
Gouverneur Morris. John Harvie,
John Hancock,
Samuel Adams,


Francis Lightfoot Lee. John Witherspoon,

Elbridge Gerry,

Nathaniel Scudder. John Penn,
Francis Dana,
James Lovell,

Pennsylvania. Cornelius Harnett,
Robert Morris,

John Williams.
Samuel Holten.

Daniel Roberdeau, South-Carolina. Rhode-Island, &c. Jona. Bayard Smith, Henry Laurens, William Ellery, William Clingan, Wm. Henry Draytoo. Henry

John Collins.
Joseph Reed.

John Mathews,

Richard Hutson,

Thomas M'Kean, Thomas Heyward, jr. Roger Sherman, John Dickinson,

Georgia. Samuel Huntington, Nicholas Van Dyke.

John Walton, Oliver Wolcott.


Edward Telfair,
Titus Hosmer,
John Hanson,

Edward Langworthy, Andrew Adams.

Daniel Carroll.

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WE, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Consti tution for the United States of America.


Of the Legislative Power. 1. All legislative powers herein granted, shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Reprebentatives.


Of the House of Representatives. 1. The House of Representatives skall be composed of niembers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole num. ber of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts eight; Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one; Connecticut five; New-York six ; New-Jersey four; Pennsylvania eight; Delaware one; Maryland six ; Virginia ten; North-Carolina five; SouthCarolina five; and Georgia three.

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.


Of the Senate. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each senator shall have one vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may bê, into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and wlio shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

4. The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the Stnate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall exercise the office of president of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the eole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds i the members present.

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honour, trust, or profit, under the United States ; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.


Marper of Electing Members 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall, by law, appoint a different day.


Powers of the 1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifi. cations of its own members; and a majority of each-shall constitute, a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to com pel the attendance of absent mem bers, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.


2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two. thirds, expel a member.

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and, from time to time, publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on

any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.


Privileges and Capacities of Members, &c. 1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil ofice under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time ; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.


Maduer of passing Bills, Orders, &c. 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of represen. tatives ; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sigo it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall kave originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the senate and house of representatives may be necessary, (except on a ques tion of adjournment,) shall be presented to the president of the United States ; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations pro · scribed in the case of a bill.


Powers of Congress. The Congress shall have power

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises ; to pay the debts, and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United States :

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States :

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes :

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United Staies :

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures :

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States :

7. To establish postoffices and post roads :

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries :

9: To constitute tribunals inferiour to the supreme court : To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations :

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water:

11. To raise and support armies : but no appropriation of money to that use shall be sor a longer term than two years :

12. To provide and maintain a navy:

13. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces :

14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions :

15. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States; reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress :

16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoeyer, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress,

become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased, by the consent of the Legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other need. ful buildings :-and,

17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.


Limitation of the Powers of Congress. 1. The migration or importation of such persons of any of the states

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