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has formed itself through the greater development of one element which has become the "Haupt-Florenglied” (principal member of a Flora); such as, for instance, has occurred in the Flora of Australia,* and of the Cape.t The rest of the genetic members have remained rudimentary. The Endemic species of European, Asiatic, and East Indian genera are, in the above-mentioned Floras, the representatives of these "Nebenglieder" (secondary members).

Thirdly, that the species of fossil plants inclined much more to the formation of varieties than those of living plants, and that the varieties of the fossil species, for the most part, correspond with the species of existing Flora. I have proved this in the case the Pinus palæo-strobus, the varieties of which so entirely correspond with many of the recent Pinus species, that the former must be recognised as the original forms of the latter. At some future time, I hope to publish a demonstration of the genetic connexion of the varieties of many other Tertiary plants with species of plants in the living world.

V.Results relating to the Eocene Flora of Great Britain. The very extensive materials which I have had under examination were principally those of the collections of the British Museum and that of Mr. John S. Gardner, and I have here to express to Mr. H. Woodward and Mr. Carruthers, as well as to Mr. Gardner, my most grateful thanks for their willing aid. I desire, also, especially to acknowledge my deep obligation to the Royal Society, from which I have received a grant for the investigation of the Eocene Flora of Great Britain. Mr. Gardner has gained for himself well deserved acknowledgments for the important services he has rendered in discovering and obtaining a vast collection of the Eocene Flora of Great Britain, and it has given me great satisfaction to have been associated with him in the study of this fossil Flora.

As the geology of the localities of the Eocene Flora of Great Britain has been already published by Mr. Gardner, I proceed at once to those results which the investigation of this Flora have, up to the present time, produced. These results can only be partially indicated now, as the comparing of the fossil Flora of Great Britain with other Floras will not be published until the investigations are completed. For the present, the monographic work of the Filices is finished in manuscript.

The Eocene Flora of Great Britain is distinguished by a series of tropical forms of ferns. Of these are especially to be named the peculiar genera of Podoloma and Glossochlamys, which connect themselves mostly with tropical forms of Polypodium; then the peculiar genus Menyphyllum most nearly related to the tropical Aspidiacer.

Ettingshausen, “Die genetische Gliederung der Flora Australiens," “ Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie der Wissenschaften,” Band xxxvii.

+ Ettingshausen, “ Die genetische Gliederung der Cap-Flora,” “Sitzungsber. der Wiener Akademie der Wissenschaften," Band lxxi.

In addition may be mentioned forms of Chrysodium and Lygodium. The appearance of the genus Gleichenia reminds us of the fern Flora of the Cretaceous period, while some species of Pteris and Phegopteris are related to species of the Miocene Flora. One fern, Asplenites allusoToides Ung, as yet only known in the Fossil Flora of Sotzka, has also here found its predecessor.

The species of the Eocene Flora of Great Britain are enumerated as follows:

Filices of the Eocene Flora of Great Britain.

Names of Species.




a. Acrostichaceæ. Chrysodium Lanzæanum. Vis sp. Studland, Bourne- Lower and Mid


dle Eocene. 6. Polypodiea. Podoloma polypodioides. Ett. et Gard.. | Bournemouth Middle Eocene.

affine. Ett. et Gard. Glossochlamys transmutans.

Ett. et
Polypodium sp., near to P.

lepidotum. Willd.

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ORD. OSMUNDACEÆ. Osmunda subcretacea. Saporta

lignitum. Gieb. sp..

Bovey Tracey

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