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assemblies, (but in private,) though with much weakness and infirmity, discover my gift amongst them; at which they not only seemed to be, but did solemnly protest, as in the sight of the great God, they were both affected and comforted, and gave thanks to the Father of Mercies for the grace bestowed on me.”

In those days the supply of public news came so slowly, and was so scanty when it came, that even the proceedings of so humble an individual as Bunyan became matter of considerable attention in the town of Bedford. His example drew many to the Baptist-Meeting, from curiosity to discover what had affected him there, and produced such a change in his conversation. “ When I went out to seek the Bread of Life, some of them,” he says, “would follow, and the rest be put into a muse at home, Yea, almost all the town, at first, at times would go out to hear at the place where I found good. Yea, young and old for a while had some reformation on them : also some of them perceiving that God had mercy upon me, came crying to Him for mercy too.” Bunyan was not one of those enthusiasts, who thrust themselves forward in confident reliance upon what they suppose to be an inward call. He entered upon his probation with diffidence and fear, not daring “ to make use of his gift in a public way; and gradually acquired a trust in himself, and a consciousness of his own qualifications, when some of those who went into the country to disseminate their principles and make converts, took him in their company. Exercising himself thus as occasion offered, he was encouraged by the approbation with which others heard him; and in no long time, "after some solemn prayer, with fasting,” he was particularly called forth, and appointed to a more ordinary and public preaching, not only to and amongst them that believed, but also to offer the Gospel to those who had not yet received the faith thereof."

The Bedford Meeting had at this time its regular minister, whose name was John Burton; so that what Bunyan received, was a roving commission to itinerate in the villages round about; and in this he was so much employed, that when in the ensuing year he was nominated for a deacon of the congregation, they declined electing him to that office, on the ground that he was

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too much engaged to attend to it. Having in previous training overcome his first diffidence, he now "felt in his mind a secret pricking forward” to this ministry ; not “for desire of vainglory,” for he was even at that time “sorely afflicted” concerning his own eternal state, but because the scriptures encouraged him, by texts which ran continually in his mind, whereby "I was made,” he says, " to see, that the Holy Ghost never intended that men who have gifts and abilities should bury them in the earth, but rather did command and stir up such to the exercise of their gift, and also did command those that were apt and ready, so to do.” Those gifts he had, and could not but be con. scious of them: he had also the reputation of possessing them ; so that people came by hundreds to hear him from all parts round about, though " upon divers accounts ;” some to marvel, and some perhaps to mock; but sonie also to listen, and to be “touched with a conviction that they needed a Saviour.” “But I first,” he says, “ could not believe that God should speak by me to the heart of any man, still counting myself unworthy; yet those who were thus touched would love me, and have a particu. lar respect for me: and though I did put it from me that they should be awakened by me, still they would confess it, and affirm it before the Saints of God. They would also bless God for me, (unworthy wretch that I am !) and count me God's instrument that shewed to them the way of salvation. Wherefore, seeing them in both their words and deeds to be so constant, and also in their hearts so earnestly pressing after the knowledge of Jesus Christ, rejoicing that ever God did send me where they were; then I began to conclude it might be so that God had owned in his work such a foolish one as I, and then came that word of God to my heart with much sweet refreshment, *"The blessing of them that were ready to perish is come upon me: yea, I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy."

When he first began to preach, Bunyan endeavoured to work upon his hearers by alarming them; he dealt chiefly in comminations, and dwelt upon the dreadful doctrine, that the curse of God “lays hold on all men as they come into the world, because of sin." “ This part of my work,” says he, “I fulfilled with

* Job xxix. 13.

great sense; for the terrors of the law, and guilt for my transgressions, lay heavy upon my conscience. I preached what I felt,—what I smartingly did feel,-even that under which my poor soul did groan and tremble to astonishment. Indeed I have been as one sent to them from the dead. I went myself in chains, to preach to them in chains; and carried that fire in my own conscience, that I persuaded them to be aware of. I can truly say—that when I have been to preach, I have gone full of guilt and terror even to the pulpit door; and there it hath been taken off, and I have been at liberty in my mind until I have done my work; and then immediately, even before I could get down the pulpit stairs, I have been as bad as I was before. Yet God carried me on; but surely with a strong hand, for neither guilt nor Hell could take me off my work.” This is a case like that of the fiery old soldier John Haime, who was one of Wesley's first lay preachers.

When he was in a happier state of mind, he took a different and better course, "still preaching what he saw and felt;" he then laboured “ to hold forth our Lord and Saviour" in all his offices, relations, and benefits unto the world ;-and “to remove those false supports and props on which the world doth lean, and by them fall and perish.” Preaching however was not his only employment; and though still working at his business for a maintenance, he found time to compose a treatise against some of those heresies which the first Quakers poured forth so profusely in their overflowing enthusiasm. In that age of theologi, cal warfare, no other sectaries acted so eagerly upon the offensive. It seems that they came into some of the meetings which Bunyan attended, to bear testimony against the doctrines which were taught there; and this induced him to write his first work, en. titled, “Some Gospel Truths opened according to the Scriptures : or the Divine and Human Nature in Christ Jesus; His coming into the world ; His Righteousness, Death, Resurrection, Asce sion, Intercession, and Second Coming to Judgment, plainly demonstrated and proved.” Burton prefixed to this treatise a commendatory epistle, bidding the reader not to be offended because the treasure of the Gospel was held forth to him in a poor earthen vessel, by one who had neither the greatness nor the

wisdom of this world to commend him. “Having had experience,” he says, “with many other Saints of this man's soundness in the faith, of his godly conversation, and his ability to preach the Gospel, not by human art, but by the Spirit of Christ, and that with much success in the conversion of sinners,—I say, having had experience of this, and judging this book may be profitable to many others, as well as to myself, I thought it my duty, upon this account, to bear witness with my brother to the plain, and simple, and yet glorious truths of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

It may be asked, How is it possible that the man who wrote such illiterate and senseless verses in the margin of his Book of Martyrs, could have composed a treatise like this, about the same time, or shortly afterwards ? To this it may be replied, that if the treatise were seen in its original spelling it might have, at first sight, as tinkerly an appearance as the verses ; but in those days persons of much higher station spelt quite as loosely, . . perhaps all who were not professionally scholars, .. for it was before the age of spelling books; and it may be believed, that in most cases the care of orthography was left to the printers. And it is not to be concluded from Bunyan's wretched verses, that he would write as wretchedly in prose: in versifying he was attempting an art which he had never learnt, and for which he had no aptitude; but in prose he wrote as he conversed, and as he preached, using the plain, straightforward language of common life. Burton may have corrected some vulgarisms, but other correction would not be needed; for frequent perusal of the scriptures had made Bunyan fully competent to state what those doctrines were which the Quakers impugned: he was ready with the scriptural proofs; and in a vigorous mind like his, right reasoning naturally results from right premises.

An ill judgment might be formed of Bunyan's treatise from that part of its title which promises “profitable directions to stand fast in the doctrine of Jesus the Son of Mary, against those blustering storms of the Devil's temptations, which do at this day, like so many Scorpions, break loose from the bottomless Pit, to bite and torment those that have not tasted the virtue of Jesus, by the Revelation of the Spirit of God." Little wisdom and less

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moderation might be expected in a polemical discourse so introduced. It is however a calm, well-arranged, and well-supported statement of the scriptural doctrines, on some momentous points which the primitive Quakers were understood by others to deny ; and which, in fact, though they did not so understand themselves, they frequently did deny, both virtually and explicitly, when in the heat and acerbity of oral disputation they said they knew not what; and also, when under the same belief of immediate inspiration, they committed to writing whatever words came uppermost, as fast as the pen could put them down, and subjected to no after revisión what had been produced with no forethought. “ I would not have thee think,” says Bunyan, "that I speak at random in this thing; know for certain that I myself have heard them blaspheme,-yea, with a grinning countenance, at the doctrine of that Man's second coming from Heaven, above the stars, who was born of the Virgin Mary. Yea, they have told me to my face, that I have used conjuration and witchcraft, because what I preached was according to the scriptures. I was also told to my face, that I preached up an Idol, because I said that the Son of Mary was in Heaven, with the same Body that was crucified on the cross ; and many other things have they blasphemously vented against the Lord of Life and Glory, and his precious Gospel. The Lord reward them ac, cording as their work shall be !"

A reply to this (published originally, like the treatise which provoked it, as a pamphlet) is inserted among “The Memorable Works of a Son of Thunder and Consolation, namely, that True Prophet and Faithful Servant of God, and Sufferer for the Testimony of Jesus, Edward Burroughs .. Published and Printed for the good and benefit of Generations to come, in the year 1672.” This answer is entitled, “The True Faith of the Gospel of Peace contended for in the Spirit of Meekness; and the Mystery of Salvation (Christ within the hope of Glory) vindicated in the Spirit of Love, against the secret Opposition of John Bunyan, a professed Minister in Bedfordshire.” Words soft as dew, or as the droppings of a summer cloud ; but they were the forerunners of a storm, and the Son of Thunder breaks out at once:..

6 How long, ye crafty fowlers, will ye prey upon the innocent, and shoot

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