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there has been neither law, nor justice, they were unequal to the collection of the < nor subordination!' Mr. Cowper being revenues; he says, I believe at first the asked, As far as you had the knowledge, 'nabob was very willing to disband his <did the resources of the country decline army, finding them totally insufficient during your knowledge of them?' His for the purpose of collecting the reveanswer is, They continued to decline from Inues, and for the subordination of his 'the first acquaintance I had with the do- country.'-Sir James Craig, who comminions of Oude, till the last hour of my manded in Oude, being desired to state staying in India.' [Mr. Cowper had been his opinion as to the efficiency, and disciin India from May 1769 till Feb. 1801]. pline of the troops of the vizier in the Being asked, Were they in a progressive years 1798,-9, and 1800, says, They <state of decline during the whole of this were totally undisciplined; mutinous, 'time?' His answer is, 'Yes.' To what licentious, and many battalions not arm'cause do you suppose that decline of the ed.' being asked, Were they attached ' revenues is to be attributed?' To the to the person and the government of Satotal want of all government in that coun- 'dut ali Khan, the nabob of Oude?' Sir 'try.' (p. 46).—We have also, to confirm James Craig answered, I never had much this, the evidence of major Ousely, communication with them, but I always the aid-de-camp of the vizier. He says, ' understood the reverse; and, I know As to the state of the Duab, I can speak the nabob himself considered them in with accuracy, but I cannot to the whole that light.' (p. 97).-The Extracts to 'kingdom of Oude: that part called the which I have presumed to call the attenDuab I found in a state of great anarchy, tion of the house, in my humble opinion, a total want of law, or justice, and every incontestably prove that the internal adthing else: nothing but violation of pro- ministration of the vizier's government 'perty of all kinds, and banditti ranging was radically bad; and that the interests over the whole of it, a total direlection and safety of the vizier and of the East from every thing like justice.' Major India company required that these growOusely being asked,Have you any ing evils should be corrected. In addiknowledge of the state of the Revenues tion to this state of internal disorder, Oude in Oude, under the government of the was threatened with external danger, by nabob? His answer is, I understood the approach of Zeman Shah. Under that they were in a state of annual de- all these circumstances, the measures pur'crease or decay.' (p. 64).-This is the sued by the noble lord in Oude appear to account of the civil administration in have been founded in the wisest policy, Oude. The military, if possible, was as well as in the strictest justice, and we worse. By a reference to the Papers be- have reason to believe, from the evidence fore us, we find that the reform of the of major Ousely, that those measures Military Establishment of the vizier had have promoted the real interests and hapbeen one of the principal objects of the piness of the vizier, and of his people.British government, from our earliest con- The following Extract of a letter to the nection with Oude. Lord Cornwallis, lord governor general, dated 4th of Dec. 1800, Teignmouth, and every succeeding gover- shews that the conduct of the noble lord nor general had directed his attention to with respect to Oude, was highly approvthis object, and we are informed by Mr. ed of by the court of directors. They Cowper in his evidence, That the uni- say, That they entertained a due sense form opinion of the court of directors of the highly essential services of the was, that nothing could be more ruinous marquis Wellesley in the persevering to the state and the affairs of Oude, than zeal with which he effected a reform in the existence of those troops.' (p. 46).- the military establishment of the nabob And Mr. Cowper further observes, That vizier, a measure not less contributing the most earnest recommendations to to the preservation of his excellency's their council were, to prevail on the na- dominions, than to the relief of the com• bob to reduce them as much as possible,pany's finances, by furnishing a large as much as was consistent with the safe-additional subsidy, to the annual amount ty of the country, and the collection of of fifty lacks of rupees, to reimburse the 'the revenues.' (p. 46).—For military pur-charges of the late augmentation of our poses there was no question as to the inefficiency of the vizier's troops; but we are told by major Ousely (p. 64), that
troops in that quarter, so necessary to be 'made in view to the ultimate security of our possessions against the invasion of
Zeman Shah, or of any other power | authority at home. In considering this hostile to the British interests: and that important subject, it appears necessary to they had the firmest reliance upon the take a short view of the political state of 'continuance of his lordship's exertions India, at the time the noble lord assumed for introducing the necessary improve- the charge of that government. Tippoo ments into the civil administration of the Sultan, compelled by lord Cornwallis to affairs of the nabob vizier.'-And the purchase a peace under the walls of his Secret Committee in a letter dated the capital, by the surrender of one half of 19th Nov. 1803, approved of the conduct his dominions, by the payment of a large of marquis Wellesley in the following sum of money, and by delivering up two terms: Having taken into our considera- of his sons as hostages for the due pertion the treaty lately concluded between formance of that treaty,-from this mothe governor gen. and the nabob vizier ment had been seeking the means of rewe have now to signify our approbation, venge. He had connected himself more of the provisions of the treaty. We closely with the French, from whom he <consider the stipulations therein contain- actually received succours of troops. He ed, as calculated to improve and se- had stirred up Zemaun Shaw and other nacure the interests of the vizier as well tive powers against us, and the Carnatic as those of the company, and to provide was threatened with the renewal of war. more effectually hereafter for the good-The court of the Nizam was entirely 'government and prosperity of Oude, controuled by French influence, and consequently for the happiness of its na- there was at Hydrabad a large and well tive inhabitants.'-We find in the Car- disciplined native force under French offinatic Papers laying upon our table, that cers, ready to co-operate with Tippoo in the war with Hyder Ali in 1780,-81, Sultan, menacing the weakest part of our and 82, lord Macartney, then governor of possessions on the coast of Coromandel.→→ Madras, found it absolutely necessary to A formidable native force, under 300 assume the management of the revenues French officers, nominally in the service of the Carnatic, in order to have security of Scindia; but in reality totally indefor the payment of the nabob's subsi- pendant of him, was stationed on the most dy. In the war with Tippoo Sultan in vulnerable part of our Bengal frontier 1790, lord Cornwallis had recourse to (Oude); and M. Perron, who commanded the same expedient; and a treaty was that force, also commanded the resources of concluded with the nabob, by which the the country, and was in the receipt of an collection of the revenues was to be as- annual revenue of upwards of one million signed to the Company during war,-not sterling. Let us for one moment look at merely the necessity of this temporary as the amount of this force. The army of signment during war, but the necessity of Tippoo Sultan amounted to 94,000 men, having permanent territorial security for 50,000 of which, with a train of 130 pieces the payment of the subsidy, was so evident of artillery, he afterwards brought into the to a noble friend of mine (lord Bucking-field against us. The French force at hamshire) who resided over the government of Madras with so much honour to himself and advantage to the public, that he endeavoured by every means in his power to modify the then existing treaty with the nabob of the Carnatic; on that principle, the Court of Directors highly approved of the conduct of my noble friend, and lamented that his zealous endeavours had not proved successful; as, in their opinion, nothing short of the modification proposed, was likely to answer any beneficial purpose; and lord Wellesley, on going to India, was instructed to accomplish that object. Territorial possession, therefore, instead of subsidy, has been a principle acted upon in India by the predecessors of lord Wellesley, and recommended and sanctioned by the highest
Hydrabad consisted of 15,000 native troops, and 60 field pieces. The French force under M. Perron, consisted of 40,000 well disciplined native troops, and 280 pieces of Artillery, making altogether a regular field force of 105,000 men, and a train of 470 pieces of Artillery. If to this we add the armies of Scindia, of the Rajah of Berar, and of Holkar, amounting to 95,000 cavalry, 30,000 infantry and 400 guns, we shall find there was a force of no less than 230,000 men and 870 guns, which, in my opinion, would have been brought into the field against us if that formidable confederacy had not been de feated, by the foresight, the promptitude, and the vigour of the measures pursued by the noble lord. This force is independant of Zemaun Shaw's army, which menaced
surrendered to the British power.-The Peishwa, driven by Scindiah and Holkar from his capital, and obliged to take refuge at Bombay, was restored to his authority, and a subsidiary treaty was concluded with him, similar to that with the Nizam.
Oude, and of the army of the Nizam. Be- | sides these dangers with which we were threatened at the time the noble lord took charge of the Indian government, he found an empty treasury and our credit so low, that the company's 8 per cent. paper was at a discount of more than 20 per cent.Cuttac, the only maritime territory I would beg to call the attention of the of the Marhattas on the coast of Corohouse to the situation in which we should mandel, ever considered of the utmost imat this moment stand, threatened as India portance, as connecting our possessions in is by the ruler of France, if the measures of Bengal with those of Madras, and as the noble lord not been carried into effect? shutting out the French from all commuI would ask, what our prospects would be nication with the Mahrattas, on that side if a large French force, reaching the north- of India; was acquired.- Acquisitions, western frontier of India, were to be there nearly as important, were made on the joined by 40,000 well disciplined native coast of Malabar, excluding the French in troops, under French officers, and 200 pieces that quarter. In less than three months, of Artillery, with every necessary equip- lord Lake (a name it is impossible to menment for an army, and with the resources tion but with the deepest concern) gained of a country, yielding an annual revenue three brilliant victories-in which he deof above one million sterling?-If Oude, stroyed 31 battalions of Perron's army, our frontier, was in the disordered and and took 268 guns. A gallant officer, an distracted state in which it was found by honourable member of this house, in two the noble lord, with its army as described brilliant actions, at Assaye and Argaum, by Sir James Craig, totally undisciplined, which, for conduct in the general, and mutinous, licentious, unarmed, and dis- determined bravery in the troops, have affected to their prince and his governnever been surpassed-and where, if ever 'ment.' I think we might tremble for the victories were gained by the exertions safety of India. But if, in addition to this, and example of an individual, they were there was a force of 15,000 men and 60 guns, gained on those occasions, by the exerunder French officers at Hydrabad, threat- tions and example of my hon. friend; in ening the northern Circars and to cut off all those two actions, he completely defeated communication by land between Madras the armies of Scindiah and the Rajah of and Bengal?—If Tippoo Sultan was at the Berar, destroyed the remaining battalions head of an army sufficiently powerful to of Perron's army and took 136 guns.meet us as he did, single handed in the field? These glorious victories were followed by If Scindiah, the rajah of Berar, and Holkar, advantageous treaties of peace. These were combined against us? And if French are a few of the splendid services of that influence pervaded every court in India? illustrious character, Marquis Wellesley. I think there is no man that hears me so I will not trust myself to speak of the resanguine as to believe that, under these turn he has met with. During a period of circumstances, we could retain our domi- seven years, the most eventful in our hisnion in the East.-Fortunately, these dan-rory of India, decision, energy, and purigers have been averted by the noble lord. He augmented the British force in Oude to guard against the attack that was menaced by Zemaun Shah, and directed the whole of his attention to overcome our foreign enemies. The French force at Hydrabad, and the French influence at that court, were completely annihilated. This able measure was followed up by the conclusion of a treaty with the Nizam, by which our subsidiary force was considerably augmented, and British influence was established. In the short space of two months, from the time the army under general Harris crossed our frontier, Tippoo Sultan, in the vain attempt to defend his capital, lost his life; and his dominions
ty marked every measure of his administration, and they were crowned with success. Thinking as I do of the conduct of that noble lord, thinking that he was the saviour of British India, and convinced that an ardent zeal to promote the honour and the real interests of his country governed every part of his conduct, I shall oppose the Resolutions moved by the noble lord; and shall most cordially concur in the motion of the right hon. baronet.
Mr. Grant differed from the hon. gent. who had just sat down, because he thought the measures of the noble marquis had been extremely prejudicial to the interests of the company. He thought the trans
action in Oude, both in its nature and pro- | from Zemaun Shaw had passed away at gress, extremely unjust. Of all the im- the time the treaty was negociated, and portant questions that could come under he contended that before the troops had the consideration of parliament, this was been marched some communication ought the most important, because to that was to have been made to the nabob. The the last appeal to be made, in case of any demand of the reform of his troops the abuse of power in British India. After nabob seemed never to have understood, adverting to the circumstances by which but as applying to their improvement, and the company first became involved in the not to the reduction of them, and therequarrels of the native princes, the hon. fore, some explanation ought to have been gent. said, that whatever might have been given to him of what was required of him. the opinion upon these subjects, they had On the whole, he could not see that the always considered treaties as sacred. Mar- occasion called for the interference. The quis Cornwallis felt sensibly for the dis- assumption of the territory in the Carnatic, orders in Oude, but so strong was his re- which had been done under an imperious gard for the faith of treaties, that he never necessity, did not apply; and as to the deinterfered upon the subject, otherwise than position of Vizier Ally, that event had by remonstrance. It was in the breach originated in his own violence; and the of the treaty that the essence of the pre- circumstance of his being spurious, and not sent question consisted. A solemn treaty of the blood of Rajah Sujah al Doulah. had been violated six months after it had The hon. gent. denied that the transactions been entered into, without any material in Oude had ever received the sanction of change of circumstances to render that the court of directors at the period stated violation necessary. The negociation by the hon. baronet, and for a good reawhich led to the new treaty was carried because they had not been acquainted on with a series of compulsory mea- with them, and when they were informed sures, executed with extreme rigour, by respecting them, they had taken the course which the nabob was compelled, under that the occasion called for. It was not a menace of the deprivation of his whole till the 24th of June 1802, that the treaty territory, to agree to the new treaty, had been communicated to the council of whereby he was to pay 135 lacks instead of Calcutta, six months after the transaction 76 lacks of rupees, as a subsidy, and instead had taken place, and a great part of the of ten or thirteen thousand troops, any un- impropriety of the case arose from the limited number was to be employed in his circumstance of the noble marquis having territory. Thus the nabob had been de- taken upon himself to violate the treaty of prived of the whole benefit of the Treaty of 1798, and to take one half of the province 1798, and yet in 1806, the number of of Oude from its sovereign. It might be British troops employed in Oude did not asked what was now to be done? He exceed 11,400. The nabob was by these would not take upon him to say, but he means reduced to the state of a Zemindar thought that substantial justice ought to be completely dependent upon the govern- done in some manner. The character ment of Bengal. When Oude first threw of this country was its dearest possession, itself into our protection, it was by treaty, and he was convinced that that character and, except by treaty, we had no right to would be compromised, if the house should alter the relation of that country to our em- not, with a view to national honour and pire in India, for the nabob had fully com- national justice, express its disapprobation plied with the treaty of 1798. The time of this transaction. at which that treaty had been violated had been a time of profound peace. They had heard much of the alarm of invasion by Zemaun Shaw, and of the danger arising from Buonaparte being in Egypt. But he had marquis Wellesley's own authority for saying, that the danger of invasion had passed away at the time of the treaty by the destruction of Zemaun Shaw. Here the hon. director proceeded to read an extract from a letter of lord Wellesley to the secret committee of the court of directors. This document proved that the danger
Sir John Anstruther, in explanation, denied that he had thrown out any aspersion on the administration of lord Teignmouth, although he thought it a government more of mildness than of vigour.
Mr. Wallace declined entering into any detailed examination of the Papers on the table, but vindicated lord Wellesley's conduct from the great feature of his administration. With respect to the Resolutions of the noble lord, they kept short of moving an impeachment; but lord W. was not much obliged to him for that,
because, if the stigma affixed upon his conduct was just, the house could not, consistently with its own honour, and that of the country, forbear prosecuting him before a higher tribunal. Our connection with Oude, he maintained, originated in absolute conquest, and all that the nabob or his family possessed they owed to British munificence. In the treaty of 1798, it was stipulated, that if there were more than 13,000 men in the country of the nabob of Oude, he was to be charged with the support of them; and if there were less than 8,000, there was to be a proportionate deduction in the subsidy, and there was also in the treaty an established right of general interference in the government. 'On lord Wellesley's arrival in India there was the loudest call for this interference. There was no protection either for the person or property of the inhabitants, and they were oppressed by a large, useless, licentious, and he might add, disaffected army. In support of this statement he quoted the authority of sir James Craig; and if this was true, lord W. had two things to do, to substitute a force for the defence of the country, and to get rid of an army which only served to burthen the country. Of the necessity of this reform in his army the resident of the nabob himself was convinced. But before a negociation for this purpose could be set on foot, a voluntary proposition was made by the nabob to abdicate his government. This proposition lord W. met with eagerness. But was his acquiescence in a proposition which was likely to be productive of the best effects to the people of that country, to be attributed to the overweening ambition of the noble lord? If this was a crime in the noble lord, the hon. gent. declared that it was one in which he deeply partook. But so far from its being a criminal act, he thought lord W. would have been wanting in his duty, not to have embraced an opportunity of doing so much good, by transferring the inhabitants of an oppressed and distressed province, to subjection to the mild laws of a British government. In these circumstances, British troops were sent into the country; and this measure was, in the first place, perfectly consonant with the treaty; and in the next place, it was in the then situation of the province of Oude, absolutely necessary to the defence of the country, which was essential at the time to the protection of the British dominions. It was incumbent on those who contended, that our power was then
abused, to shew either that our territory was not threatened, or that the troops of the nabob were adequate to his defence; neither of which propositions could be made out if attention was paid to the hostile demonstrations of the Mahratta powers, or to the state of the nabob's army. And if a British force was necessary, the only question remaining to be settled was, whether the number of troops sent into the province of Oude were more than sufficient for the purpose of its defence; for if they were not more than what the exigency of affairs required, we were authorised by one of the articles of the treaty to demand that the expences of the army should be defrayed by the nabob; and if this could not be done by any other means, to take possession of his territory as a security. On these grounds he gave his decided negative to the Resolutions of the noble lord.
Mr. S. Lushington (Member for Yarmouth) contended, that the observations made by the hon. gent. who preceded him, did not, in great part, apply to the question then submitted to the consideration of the house. Without following him throughout the extensive circuit he had taken, the paramount question was, whether the character of Great-Britain, for good faith, had been preserved? It was, whether the marquis Wellesley, in those treaties, which pledged the honour and credit of this country, had not, without any pretext on the part of the nabob of Oude, violated their spirit and letter, and consequently deterioratedour character with the native powers of Hindostan? The hon. gent. had asked, what benefit could marquis Wellesley acquire in keeping possession of the principality of Oude? That was not the question; but the fact was, that he had continued in possession of that principality from 1801 until 1805. The noble marquis had disdained to regulate his policy in the government of India by that system which the East India directors had recommended; regardless of the voice of the British legislature, of two acts of parliament forbidding the extension of territory, he had, confident in his own talents, and in gratification of his own ambitious views, abrogated the solemn provisions of ratified treaties, and committed, by his disregard of the recorded injunctions of parliament, the good faith of the British character, and the security of our possessions in India. It had been said that such a system of action was executed for the public good, that it was not only calculated to produce benefit to Great Britain, but to