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that it was from Ephesus St. Paul proceeded upon his second journey into Greece. Therefore, as the epistle purports to have been written a short time preceding that journey; and as St. Paul, the history tells us, had resided more than two years at Ephesus, before he set out upon it, it follows that it must have been from Ephesus, to be consistent with the history, that the epistle was written; and every note of place in the epistle agrees with this supposition. “ If, after the manner of men, I have fought with beasts at Ephesus what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not? (xv. 32.) I allow that the apostle might say this, wherever he was ; but it was more natural and more to the purpose to say it, if he was at Ephesus at the time, and in the midst of those conflicts to which the expression relates. 6 The churches of Asia salute you.” (xvi. 19.) Asia, throughout the acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of St. Paul, does not mean the whole of Asia Minor or Anatolia, nor even the whole of the proconsular Asia, but a district in the anterior part of that country, called Lydian Asia, divided from the rest, much as Portugal is from Spain, and of which district Ephesus was the capital. “ Aquila and Priscilla salute you.” (xvi. 19.) Aquila and Priscilla were
THE CORINTHIANS. at Ephesus during the period within which this epistle was written. (Acts, xviii. 18. 26.) “ I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost.” (xvi. 8.) This, I apprehend, is in terms almost asserting that he was at Ephesus at the time of writing the epistle.—“ A great and effectual door is opened unto me.” (xvi. 9.) How well this declaration corresponded with the state of things at Ephesus, and the progress of the Gospel in these parts, we learn from the reflection with which the historian concludes the account of certain transactions which passed there : “ So mightily grew the word of God and prevailed,” (Acts, xix. 20.); as well as from the complaint of Demetrius, “ that not only at Ephesus, but alsó throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded, and turned away much people.”. : (xix. 26.)—“ And there are many adversaries,” says the epistle, (xvi. 9.) Look into the history of this period : “When divers were hardened and believed not, but spake evil of that way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disci-' ples.”. The conformity therefore upon this head of comparison, is circumstantial and perfect. If any one think that this is a con
formity so obvious, that any forger of tolerable caution and sagacity would have taken care to preserve it, I must desire, such a ope to read the epistle for himself; and, when he has done so, to declare whether he has discovered one mark of art or design ; whether the notes of time and place appear to him to be inserted with any reference to each, other, with any view of their being com pared with each other, or for the purpose of establishing a visible agreement with the history, in respect of them.
., No. III. Chap. iv. 17-19. “ For this cause I have sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son and faithful in the Lord, who shal} bring you iņto remembrance of my ways which be in Christ, as I teach every where in every church. Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come unto you ; but I will come unto you shortly, if the Lord will.”
. With this I compare Acts, xix. 21, 22: “ After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem ; saying, After I have been there,
I must also see Rome: so he sent unto Macedonia two of them thát ministered unto him, Timotheus and Erastus."
Though it be not said, it appears I think with sufficient certainty, I mean from the history, independently of the epistle, that Timothy was sent upon this occasion into Achaia, of which Corinth was the capital city, as well as into Macedonia : for the sending of Timothy and Erastus is, in the passage where it is mentioned, plainly connected with St. Paul's own journey: he sent them before him. As he therefore purposed to go into Achaia himself, it is highly probable that they were to go thither also. Nevertheless, they are said only to have been sent into Macedonia, because Macedonia was in truth the country to which they went immediately from Ephesus ; being directed, as we suppose, to proceed afterwards from thence into Achaia. If this be so, the narrative agrees with the epistle; and the agreement is attended with very little appearance of design. One thing at least concerning it is certain : that if this passage of St. Paul's history had been taken from his letter, it would have sent Timothy to Corinth by name, or expressly however into Achaia.
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But there is another circumstance in these two passages much less obvious, in which an agreement holds without any room for suspicion that it was produced by design. We have observed that the sending of Timothy into the peninsula of Greece was connected in the narrative with St. Paul's own journey thither ; it is stated as the effect of the same resolution, Paul purposed to go into Macedonia ; “ so he sent two of them that ministered unto him, Timotheus and Erastus.” Now in the epistle also you remark that, when the apostle mentions his having sent Timothy unto them, in the very next, sentence he speaks of his own visit: “ for this cause haye I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son, &c. Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come to you; but I will come to you shortly if God will."
Timothy's journey we see is mentioned in the · history, and in the epistle, in close connexion with St. Paul's own. Here is the same order: of thought and intention; yet conveyed under such diversity of circumstance and expression, and the mention of them in the epistle so allied to the occasion which introduces it, viz, the insinuation of his adversaries that he would come to Corinth no more, that I am