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leges, immunities and estates which they, in justice, ought to enjoy, under such regulations, as the General Assembly of this State shall direct.


All field and staff officers, and commissioned officers of the army, and all general officers of the militia, shall be chosen by the General Assembly.

SECTION XLIII. The declaration of rights is hereby declared to be a part of the Constitution of this State, and ought never to be violated, on any pretence whatsoever.


In order that the freedom of this Commonwealth may be preserved inviolate, forever, there shall be chosen, by ballot, by the freemen of this State, on the last Wednesday in March, in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, and on the last Wednesday in March, in every seven years thereafter, thirteen persons, who shall be chosen in the same manner the council is chosen-except they shall not be out of the Council or General Assembly—to be called the Council of Censors; who shall meet together, on the first Wednesday of June next ensuing their election; the majority of whom shall be a quorum in every case, except as to calling a Convention, in which two thirds of the whole number elected shall agree; and whose duty it shall be to enquire whether the constitution has been preserved inviolate, in every part; and whether the legislative and executive branches of government have performed their duty as guardians of the people; or assumed to themselves, or exercised, other or greater powers, than they are entitled to by the constitution. They are also to enquire whether the public taxes have been justly laid and collected, in all parts of this Commonwealth-in what manner the public monies have been disposed of, and whether the laws have been duly executed. For these purposes they shall have power to send for persons, papers and records : they shall have authority to pass • public censures to order impeachments, and to recommend to the legis. lature the repealing such laws as appear to them to have been enacted contrary to the principles of the constitution. These powers they shall continue to have, for and during the space of one year from the day of their election, and no longer. The said Council of Censors shall also have power to call a Convention, to meet within two years after their sitting, if there appears to them an absolute necessity of amending any article of this constitution which may be defective-explaining such as may be thought not clearly expressed, and of adding such as are necessary for the preservation of the rights and happiness of the people; but the articles to be amended, and the amendments proposed, and such articles as are proposed to be added or abolished, shall be promulgated at least six months before the day appointed for the election of such convention, for the previous consideration of the people, that they may have an opportunity of instructing their delegates on the subject:





MARCH, 1778.

State or VERMONT-Windsor, Thursday, March 12, 1778. The Representatives of the freemen of the several towns in this State, met at the meeting house in said Windsor, agreeable to the Constitution, and formed themselves into a House.*

The Assembly then chose Capt. JOSEPH BOWKER, Speaker of the House, and Major THOMAS CHANDLER, Clerk.

After the House was formed, the Reverend Mr. Powers preached a sermon on the occasion, from the 28th chapter of Matthew, 18th verse. Divine service being ended, proceeded, agreeable to the Constitution of this State, and chose a committee of twelve to receive, sort and count the votes for Governor, Deputy Governor, Treasurer, and twelve Councillors. Committee chosen, Col. Thomas Chittenden, Capt. Joseph Bowker, Col. Timothy Brownson, Capt. Ira Allen, Col. Peter Olcott, Col. Joseph Marsh, Deacon Benjamin Emmons, Doct. Jonas Fay, Doct. Paul Spooner, Major Thomas Chandler, Major Jeremiah Clark, and Col. Jacob Kent, and sworn to a faithful discharge of their trust.

Votes being called for a Governor, Col. THOMAS CHITTENDEN was elected, by a great majority of votes.

Votes for a Deputy Governor being called for, when there was no person chose by a majority of the suffrages of the freemen (by eleven votes ;) then this Assembly, by ballot, made choice of Col. JOSEPH MARsh for Deputy Governor. After the choice was made, there was brought in fifteen votes for Col. Marsh, which, if they had come before, he would have been chosen, by a majority of the suffrages of the freemen, at large. Votes called for Councillors, when the following were chose, by the suffrages of the freemen, viz: JOSEPH BOWKER,

Votes for a Treasurer being called for, no person chose by a majority of suffrages of the freemen; when this Assembly, by ballot, made choice of IRA ALLEN, Esq. as Treasurer.

* A list of the Representatives pot entered in the journal, and is not to be found.


Jonas Fay,

Timothy I ROWNSON,


John Throop,

Assembly adjourned until to-morrow morning, eight o'clock.

Friday, March 13, 1778.
Assembly met according to adjournment.

Voted, that a committee of two be chosen, to retarn the thanks of this House to the Rev. Mr. Powers, for his sermon, preached at the opening of this present session, and desire a copy thereof, for the press. Committee chosen, Col. John Barret and Mr. John G Bailey.

Voted, that Nathan Clark, Esq. be, and is hereby, appointed Speaker, pro tempore.

Voted, that EBENEZER Curtis be, and is hereby, appointed Clerk, pro tempore.

Adjourned until two o'clock, afternoon.

Assembly met according to adjournment.

Voted, that Mr. Gideon Cowle be, and he is hereby, appointed to attend this House as a Constable.

Voted to accept John W. Dana, as a member of this House.

The Governor, Deputy Governor, Treasurer, and Council, sworn to their several offices.

Voted, that leave be given to any person to contribute to the Rev. Mr. Powers, for his services on the 12th March inst.

Voted, that the Hon. Joseph Bowker, Esq. be, and he is hereby, anpointed to receive said contribution, and deliver the same to the Rev. Mr. Powers. Collected by said contribution, the sum of ten pounds, lawsul ' money.

Voted, that Major THOMAS CHANDLER be, and he is, appointed Secre tary for this State, for the ensuing year—who accordingly took the necessary oaths, to qualify him for that office.

The Hon. Joseph Bowker, Esq. Speaker of this House, being chosen a Councillor : Voted that NATHAN CLARK, Esq. be, and is hereby, appointed Speaker of this Assembly, the present year; who was accordingly sworn.

Voted, that PENJAMIN BALDwin be, and he is hereby, appointed Clerk of this Assembly, for the present year; who was accordingly sworn to said office.

Voted, Mr Joshua Tuck have liberty to return home.
Voted, that Mr. Joshua Webb have leave of absence, until Tuesday


Voted to choose a committee out of the Assembly and Council, to wait on the committee from the east side of Connecticut River :-com.

mittee chosen from the House, Col. Barrett, Capt. John Fassett, Doct. Reuben Jones, and Capt. Curtis; from the Council, Doct. Jonas Fay, Capt. Ira Allen, and Col. Peter Olcutt.

Assembly adjourned until eight o'clock, to-morrow morning.

Saturday, March 14, 1778. Assembly met, according to adjournment.

Voted, that Doct. Reuben Jones be, and is hereby, appointed an assistant Clerk, to this Assembly.

Voted, that Doct. King be, and is hereby, appointed an assistant Clerk to this Assembly.

Voted, that Thomas Jewet, Deacon Edward Aikins, Thomas Rowley and Jacob Burton be a committee to draw up, or make, some rules for the regulation of this House.

Voted, that Moses Johnson be dismist this House.

Voted, that John W. Dana, Esq. have leave of absence until Tuesday next.

Voted, that Mr. Gallop have leave of absence, until Monday next. Adjourned until two o'clock, asternoon.

Met according to adjournment.

Voted, that the Governor and Council, or a committee by them appointed, out of their number, to adjust the accounts between this State and the Rangers raised by them, and others that have been out, in defence of their country, belonging to this State, where any act of Convention or Council is pledged to them for their service; rendering an account to such auditor or auditors, as shall be appointed by this House for that purpose; and that an order be given to draw money out of the Treasury of this State, for that purpose.

Voted, that the petition of Capt. Leonard Spaulding be dismist, or flung out.

Voted, that Mr. Thomas Cooper have leave of absence, until Tues. day next.

Assembly adjourned until Monday next, eight o'clock in the forenoon.

Monday, March 16, 1778. Assembly met, according to adjournment. Voted, that the petition of Joseph Hatch and others, remain on file. Voted, that the petition of Capt. Abner Seelye, lies upon file.

Voted, to send a request to his Excellency the Governor and Council. to prepare a bill, or draught of regulating the militia, and a mode for the defence of the frontiers, and measures to supply the Treasury of this State.

Voted, that a committee, to prepare a bill to regulate attornies, be ap. pointed. Committee chosen, Capt. Coffin, Mr. Rowley, Ensign Harris, Mr. Alverd and Mr. Jewet be the committee to make said bill.

Voted to adjourn until two o'clock, afternoon.

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