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equally applicable to the race and to the individual. It is all contained in miniature in the heart of every true believer, which is a little world in itself, containing all nations, or all generations in itself, in the successive course of the experience of human life. In this course they are often given for a time into the power of their enemies, in chastisement for their sins, for purgation of their graces, and for confirmation of their faith ; but in the end they over come all things, and rule the heathen tribes within them, as promised by our Lord in the book of Revelations, viz. “ He that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over THE NATIONS : and he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken in pieces, EVEN As I RECEIVED of my Father. And I will give him the morning star.”*
as a type of human wisdom; or, figuratively speaking, between the free gift of the grace of God, and the results of human industry; or between divine faith and the works of the letter of the law.
* Those who are very ambitious to reign literally as kings, with the literal Jews, over the literal nations of this world, may not feel much obliged to me for this adaptation of the text, which may cast a shade over the brightness of their hopes; but I would ask, how is it possible to translate or to understand it literally? If we were to allow that only one million out of all mankind shall overcome, where shall we find so many kingdoms and nations in this world for them, allowing only one to each ? But the text gives the whole to each individual! Besides, our LORD says, even as I received of my Father.” Not shall receive, but “ did receive.” Was this literally fulfilled to our LORD upon earth? Again, and I will give him the morning star. There is only one literal morning star, therefore I must conclude that the passage is altogether figurative, for our LORD JESUS CHRIST is the true “ MORNING Star."
To return to the natural earth, it is worthy of The censpecial remark, that a single day, or a complete nal revo CENTRAL DIURNAL REVOLUTION of this earth the Earth. or globe, if considered with respect to speculative measurement of space, is similar to a year, or an annular or annual, and circumferental revolution, if considered with respect to actual experimental progress in its orbit : for the central diurnal revolution brings to our view, though imperfectly, all those regions of the heavens which we travel through in the year; and it contains 360 geometrical degrees of speculation, which may be considered as the speculative days of this little speculative diurnal year.
The speculative orbit of this diurnal year, (viz. the equatorial circumference of the globe,) in itself, is necessarily a circle, at any point of revolution, and would be actually so, were it not modified by the annual motion in orbit; and, therefore, it contains exactly 360 degrees, which is the true sum of every circle in every sphere; but the practical orbit of the earth round
of the Axis and the Orbit of
Obliquity the sun, is a little eliptical, and therefore there
is a fraction of time and space, above 360 dethe Earth, grees and days in the actual year, whether
tropical, civil, or sidereal. This is a wonderful phenomenon in every point of view, excepting only that which shows us the fall of man. The reason given or understood as the cause of this fraction, by astronomers, is, “the obliquity of THE ECLIPTIC with respect to THE EQUATOR, and the unequal motion of the earth in AN ELIPTICAL ORBIT." (Bonnycastle, see page 192.) But for the obliquity of the orbit itself, and of the the poles and axis, they assign no cause but the will of the Creator! They seem not to perceive that it is apparently a defect! an error! or if they do perceive it, they candidly or cautiously ascribe the appearance of defect to proceed entirely from their own ignorance, because the wisdom, power, and goodness of God in his works are unquestionable. *
But considering natural obliquities to be symbolical of moral and spiritual ones in fallen man, (according to universal analogy,) we find, on consulting natural, and mere moral philosophy, without religion, on this deep subject, that they consider moral obliquities, also, to be the will and work of God; because, they say, it was impossible to make things better than he evidently
* See the references to this passage in the end of Note 11. of the Appendix.
has made them; for he must have made all things in the best manner possible; therefore, say these philosophers, what we call sin is not really and essentially wicked, or displeasing to him, because “partial ill is universal good;" (see Pope's Essay on Man ;) neither are the natural obliquities of the planets, or comets, to be considered as defects, because they were, doubtless, made in perfect wisdom, power, and goodness, as far as possible. But if we ask these philosophers whether man is not fallen, and whether the fall of man may not have affected the original state of the natural world, the answer will be, pshaw! nonsense! Hutchinsonian nonsense! But Scripture says, “ Cursed is the ground (or earth) for thy sake.” (Genesis iii.) Answer—"Nonsense! fanaticism! If this text means any thing particular, it must mean the curse of infertility, and nothing more is mentioned, except thorns and thistles. We must not be wise above what is written." But may not infertility proceed from the intervention of a less favourable aspect, between the sun and the earth ? Do not gardeners and husbandmen perceive the influence of aspect, respecting the sun on their plants? Does not aspect, direct or oblique, proceed from the relative position of our poles and axis ? to the sun? Answer—" This is downright fanaticism, illiberal, unphilosophical bigotry! mixed with the absurd ravings of a disordered
imagination, puffed up with the wind of an undigested and partial, superficial knowledge of various sciences, ill understood, and jumbled together into an intellectual chaos.”
But a much wiser man than this ignorant, half-learned creature, even Solomon himself says the same, viz. “the WORLD (viz. the natural world) shall fight with him, against the unwise. Then shall the right aiming THUNDERBOLTS go abroad, and from the CLOUDS,* as from a WELLDRAWN BOW, shall they fly to the mark. And HAILSTONES † full of wrath shall be cast as out of a strong bow.” (See Wisdom of Solomon.) Answer.—“As you have got into the clouds of the Apocrypha, I am quite satisfied to have driven you there, and shall leave you to get out as you can.
Adieu.” Mr. Ferguson, in his 14th chapter, says, page 151, on the Precession of the Equinoxes :-It has been already observed, that by the earth's motion on its axis, there is more matter accumulated all round the equatorial parts, than any where else on the earth. The sun and moon, by attracting this redundancy of matter, bring the equator sooner under them in every return towards it, than if there was no such accumulation. Therefore, if the sun sets out
Precession of the Equinoxes.
* Or divine mysteries—see 2d. P. S. of the Memoirs of a Deist.
+ See Essay I. page 183, on the Analogy of Hail, Sec. I.