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preliminary articles of peace were signed at Tien Tsin, May 11, 1884, the principal articles of which were on May 20 communicated with explanations to the chambers for their consideration.' The definitive treaty of peace and commerce, signed June 9, 1885, was also submitted for legislative approval, which was given in the form of a law authorizing the President to ratify and execute. A similar law was passed by the Deputies February 27 and by the Senate March 6, 1886, approving the treaty of peace concluded with Madagascar December 17, 1885.'

Under the term commerce are included not only treaties that directly affect the existing tariff, and the revenue receipts, but also those for the general regulation of trade and intercourse. For instance, the ratification and execution of the general treaty of amity and commerce with Japan, signed August 4, 1896, were authorized by the special law of January 13, 1898, followed by the exchange of ratifications March 19, and the decree of promulgation July 30.3 In the case of existing commercial treaties about to terminate, the approval of the chambers to their prolongation may be given in the form of a general law authorizing the President to secure an extension of the time for a period specified in the law; and agreements concluded conformably thereto are not submitted to the chambers for approval. On the authority of the law of August 4, 1879, agreements of this nature were reached with Great Britain, October 10; Belgium, October 18; Austria-Hungary, November 20; Sweden and Norway, November 25; Portugal, Novem

De Clercq's Recueil des Traités de la France, vol. xiv, pp. 298, 300.

'Ibid., vol. xv, p. 922. Treaties often fall within more than one class. Thus the treaty with China could also be classed under commercial treaties.

* Ibid., vol. xx, p. 550. Bulletin de Lois, vol. Ivii, p. 1197, no. 1987.

ber 25; Italy, November 26; and Switzerland, November 29, 1879.' By the law of December 29, 1891, the Government was authorized not only to extend provisionally the whole or parts of treaties of commerce about to terminate, but to apply in whole or in part the minimum tariff rates to products of countries maintaining a conventional tariff, provided that such countries should consent to apply to French products the treatment of the most-favored-nation." By virtue of this law a limited reciprocity in commerce was established by exchange of notes with Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden and Norway, Greece, and Spain. To secure the advantages of the American tariff, so far as it was subject to executive regulation by section 3 of the McKinley Act, a special law was passed January 27, 1893, authorizing the Government to apply certain minimum tariff rates to articles produced in the United States. The agreement concluded with that country May 28, 1898, in which reciprocal tariff advantages were secured, was made effective by the President of France without submission to the chambers, by virtue of existing laws,s and by the President of the United States, without submission to the Senate, by virtue of section 3 of the act of July 24, 1897. Treaties securing commercial privileges with African tribes are frequently ratified and promulgated on executive authority. Commercial treaties entered into

'De Clercq's Recueil des Traités, vol. xii, pp. 476, 488, 490, 507, 509 511. See similar laws of July 20, 1881, and of Feb. 2, 1882, and the prorogation of treaties, ibid., vol. xiii, pp. 59, 80-88, 235, 238 et seq.

* Art. II. Ibid., vol. xix, p. 304. See also Art. IV of the law of April 5, 1898, Bulletin des Lois, no. 34558.

*De Clercq's Recueil des Traités, vol. xix, pp. 400, 403, 409, 457; vol. xx, p. 94. '' Ibid., vol. xix, p. 547.

* Ibid., vol. xxi, p. 379.

by the French government, acting in its suzerain capacity under the treaty of May 12, 1881, for Tunis, have not been submitted to the chambers for approval. The President of France, acting in his own name as well as in the name of his Highness the Bey, concluded a treaty of commerce relative to Tunis with the Italian government September 28, 1896. The treaty having been approved by the President, it was promulgated and put in force by a decree of the Bey, February 1, 1897, countersigned by the French minister resident in Tunis, who acts under the direction of the French foreign office.' In a similar manner treaty relations between Tunis and various other countries have been established.

Telegraphic, postal-union, and monetary conventions, and those for the regulation of international railroad traffic, while they may indirectly involve the finances of the state, directly relate to trade and intercourse with foreign nations. The ratification of the general convention for the regulation of international railroad traffic, signed at Berne, October 14, 1890, was authorized by the law of December 29, 1891.3 An agreement with Italy, signed January 20, 1879, relative to the establishment of international railroad stations; and three agreements signed with Belgium May 9, 1877, September 23, 1877 and February 20, 1878, relative to the construction and regulation of frontier railroads, were approved by laws. The approval of the telegraphic conventions

'De Clercq's Recueil des Traités, vol. xx, pp. 596, 597.

* Switzerland, April 12, 1893, and Oct. 14, 1896; Austria-Hungary, July 20, 1896; Russia, Oct. 14, 1896; Germany, Nov. 18, 1896; Spain, Jan. 12, 1897; and Denmark, Jan. 21, 1897. Ibid., vol. xx, p. 626

et seq.

* Ibid., vol. xviii, p. 601.
Ibid., vol. xii, pp. 20, 41, 67, 376.

signed June 21, 1890, at Paris, and July 22, 1896, at Budapest, was given by the laws of June 19, 1891, and June 28, 1897, respectively. The postal-union conventions, signed at Paris June 1, 1878, at Vienna July 4, 1891, and at Washington June 15, 1897, were approved by the laws of December 20, 1878, April 13, 1892, and April 8, 1898. Special treaties to facilitate postal exchanges have occasionally been concluded and made effective without submission to the chambers, by virtue of existing laws.3 Postal agreements of an administrative character are sometimes entered into by the DirectorGeneral of Posts. The monetary convention between France, Belgium, Greece, Italy and Switzerland, signed at Paris, November 5, 1878, and the subsequent conventions of November 6, 1885, and November 15, 1893, modifying and revising it, have all been approved by special laws.s

Treaties entered into for the guarantee of loans potentially involve the finances and are accordingly submitted to the chambers for approval. The convention with the United States signed at Washington, January 15, 1880, providing for the settlement by a commission of arbitration of claims of American citizens arising out of the

'De Clercq's Recueil des Traités, vol. xviii, p. 392: vol. xx, p. 433. See for special telegraphic and telephone conventions, and the dates of the laws approving them, ibid., vol. xviii, p. 471 et seq.; vol. xix, pp. 268, 283, 513.

*Ibid., vol. xii, p. 95; vol. xix, p. 114; vol. xxi, p. 82.

* See the conventions signed Jan. 17, 1894, with the Netherlands, and July 9, 1895, with Great Britain, ibid., vol. xx, pp. 109, 110, 259, 263.

*The arrangements with Great Britain of Nov. 6 and 9, 1894, and Dec. 2 and 9, 1895, were thus concluded. Ibid., vol. xx, pp. 181, 262.

Ibid., vol. xii, p. 356; vol. xv, p. 892; vol. xx, p. 71.

6 The convention of Mar. 29, 1898, to facilitate a Greek loan was approved by law of Apr. 8, 1898. Ibid., vol. xxi, p. 350.

French operations against Mexico, the Franco-Prussian war and the internal disturbances known as the “Insurrection of the Commune;" and on the other hand, of claims of citizens of France arising out of acts committed against their “persons and property” in the United States during the period between April 13, 1861 and August 20, 1866, required the approval of the chambers not only as involving the finances of the state but also as affecting the persons and property of French citizens in a foreign country.' Under this latter head would be classed very many of the claims conventions that have been concluded; such, for instance, as the convention signed at Santiago, November 2, 1882, for the settlement of the claims of French citizens for damages suffered during the war between Chili and Peru and Bolivia.' Treaties of extradition and those defining the duties and privileges of consuls are ratified only on legislative authority. As affecting the persons and property of French citizens in foreign countries may also be classed the following treaties of a special character which have been submitted for approval: the treaty with Switzerland, July 23, 1879, regulating the naturalization of children of former French citizens who have become by naturalization Swiss citizens ;3 the convention with AustriaHungary, May 14, 1879, stipulating for judicial assistance to citizens of the one in the territory of the other;. the convention with Russia, July 27, 1896, exempting French citizens bringing action in Russia from any hindrance to which Russians are not subject;s a convention and additional protocol originally between France, Belgium,

De Clercq's Recueil des Traités, vol. xii, p. 519. Law of June 16. 1880. ' Ibid., vol. xiv, p. 61.

*Ibid., vol. xii, p. 407. *Ibid., vol. xii, pp. 400, 527.

* Ibid., vol. xx, p. 547.

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