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revolution. Of this kind also was that of Plymouth colony, and originally that of Massachusetts.
The second was a proprietary government, in which the proprietor of the province was governor ; although he generally re. sided in England, and administered the government by a deputy of his own appointment; the assembly only being chosen by the people. Such were the governments of Pennsylvania and Maryland ; and originally those of New Jersey and the Carolinas.
The third was á royal government, in which the governor and council were appointed by the crown, and the assembly by the people. Of this kind were those of New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, Georgia, New Jersey after 1702, and the Carolinas after 1728.
The fourth was a mixed government, in which the governor alone was appointed by the crown, and both the council and assembly were chosen by the people. The governor, however, had the right to negative a certain number of the council; but not to fill up vacancies thus occasioned. Of this kind was the government of Massachusetts.
This variety of governments created different degrees of dependence on the crown. The charter governments had the sole power of enacting laws ; but the laws might not be contrary to the laws of England. In the others, the laws must be ratified by the king.
93. This state of things continued until the conclusion of the war of 1755, which ended by the expulsion of the French from Canada, and its annexation to the British dominions in North America. Within one year from the peace began the struggle between Great Britain and her colonies, relative to the right of parliament to impose taxes upon them, a struggle that eventuated in their complete independence. The attempt to tax America by a body in which they were not represented, and over which they had no controul, excited a general spirit of resistance throughout the country, which broke out in hostilities in the spring of 1775 ; and on the 4th of July, 1776, a declaration of independence was issued by a congress of deputies from all the provinces, held at Philadelphia. On the 15th of May preceding, a resolution had been passed by the same congress, recommending to the different colonies to adopt new forms of government suitable to the exigencies of affairs, on the ground of its being irreconcileable to reason and good conscience for the peo. ple to take the oath and affirmations necessary for the support of any government under the crown of Great Britain, since they had been excluded, by an act of parliament, from the protec
of the arts and manufactures, &c.; the second to record| ing events more strictly historical.
But though the main object of the Register, is the collection and arrangement of documents respecting American history, its pages will not be exclusively devoted to that purpose. It is expected that sufficient room will generally be found for recording the most important events occurring in other countries, and particularly in Europe. The importance of the transactions of the United States for the last eighteen months, however, and the anxiety of the Editor to give the documents of that interesting period complete and entire, have induced him to devote the first volumes exclusively to American affairs, and to postpone a number of interesting articles which had been prepared, among which are a history of the campaigns in Russia and Germany, in 1812–13, and a history of the revolution in Spain, up to the present time.
The Register commences with a “Review of the Political Institutions of the United States.” This review contains short comparative notices of the various provisions of the different state governments, with a more ample detail of the institutions of the federal government. It is believed that this essay will be found generally interesting, as comprising in small compass much useful information, not to be otherwise attained without a great deal of labour and research. · The history of the proceedings of congress during the two sessions held since the declaration of war, with a complete collection of the state papers laid before them by the executive, copied from the originals printed for the use of congress, occupies the remainder of the volume. The plan which has been adopted in this section of the work is to present the proceedings of congress digested into a regular narrative, giving a view of their acts, and of the propositions which have occupied their attention, in their natural order, without regard to the time of their occurrence. The advantages of this plan over that of a journal will, it is believed, be sufficiently obvious to every reader. In the proceedings of the first session of the 13th congress, will be found a digested view of the system of internal revenue, which went into operation on the first of January, 1814.
The second volume is occupied by a history of the most remakable events that have occurred from the de. claration of war to the commencement of the year 1814, followed by a complete collection of official historical documents for that period, in which will be found a number of interesting official letters which are now for the first time made public. The official documents are so arranged as to show at one view both the British and American statements, and they generally follow the order of the history, of which they may be considered an amplification and elucidation.
The work has been divided into two annual volumes, in compliance with the wish of many of the subscribers, who objected to its bulkiness on the former plan, and suggested that its interest would be much increased, by publishing it twice instead of once a year*.
• To accommodate those who prefer it in its original shape a few will be bound with the two volumes in one. Henceforward one volume will be published as soon as possible after the conclusion of each session of congress; the other about the commencement of the year, probably on the first of February.
It was originally intended that an introductory volume should have been published, containing the speeches or messages of the different presidents, at the opening of each session of congress, and the diplomatic correspondence relative to the infractions of the rights of the United States by the belligerent powers, which it was expected would have contained a compendious view of the Union since the adoption of the Federal constitu. tion. In examining the archives of congress, however, for the purpose of making this collection, it was found, that the presidential speeches and messages would be extremely imperfect unless they were accompanied by the voluminous documents that were at the same time laid before that body, to which numerous references are made. Such a vast mass of other important documents throwing a light on the history of the country was likewise found, as determined the Editor to relinquish this part of his plan for the present, with a view of employing all the leisure that his work would afford, in drawing up such a digest of the proceedings of congress and of the valuable historical documents in the capitol, as, connected with notices of the most remarkable events that have taken place, would form a complete history of the United States. It will be easily perceived that this will be a work of much time and labour. Its extent cannot at present be exactly ascertained, though it most probably will fill at least three or four volumes; it will of course be optional with the subscribers either to purchase these volumes or not.
REVIEW OF THE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE
CHAPTER 1.-Of the State Governments. 5 1. Settlement of the English colonies. 2. Their forms of government.
3. Revolution. 4. The thirteen states. 5. Formation of the new states. 6. State governments. 7. Governor. 8. Legislature. 9. Judiciary. 10. Qualifications of electors. 11. Appointment to office. 12. Religious tests. 13. Eligibility of ministers of the gospel. 14. Religious establishments. 15. Provision for the support of schools. 16. Imprisonment of debtors. 17. Titles. 18. Instruction of repre. sentatives. 19. Modes of amending the constitution. 20. Territorial governments
CHAPTER II.-Of the Governments of the Union. 1. New England confederacy. 2. Articles of confederation. 3. Dissolution. 4. Albany plan of union. 5. Causes of its failure. 6. Congress of 1765. 7. Congress of 1774. 8. Mode of election. 9. Powers of delegates. 10. Their transactions. 11. Congress of 1775. 12. Articles of confederation. 13. Treaty of peace. 14. Inefficacy of the articles of confederation. 15. Convention at Annapolis. 16. Convention at Philadelphia. 17. Formation of the federal constitution
CHAPTER III.-Of the Federal Constitution. $ 1. General view of the constitution. 2. Compared with the articles
of confederation. 3. Prohibitions on the state governments. 4. The president and vice-president. 5. Mode of their election. 6. Their qualifications. 7. Term of election. 8. Salary. 9. Powers and duties of the president. 10. Provision for vacancy. 11. Executive departments. 12. Department of state. 13. Salaries. 14. Duties. 15. Patent office. 16. Treasury department. 17. Salary of the secretary, &c. 18. Duties. 19. Mitigating powers. 20. Salaries in the comptroller's office. 21. Duties. 22. Salaries in the auditor's office. 23. Duties. 24. Salaries in the treasurer's office. 25. Duties. 26. Salaries in the register's office. 27. Duties. 28. Salaries in the office of the commissioner of the general land office. 29. Duties. 30. Salaries in the commissioner of the revenue's office. 31. Duties. 32. War department. 33. Salaries. 34. Duties. 35. Navy depart. ment. 36. Salaries. 37. Duties. 38. Vacancies in the departments
23 CHAPTER IV.-Of the Federal Constitution. (In continuation.) 9 1. legislature. 2. Their qualifications. 3. House of representatives.