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and the products and by-products thereof in interstate commerce; that the prices involved in such transactions are generally quoted and disseminated throughout the United States and in foreign countries as a basis for determining the prices to the producer and the consumer of grain and the products and by-products thereof and to facilitate the movements thereof in interstate commerce; that such transactions are utilized by shippers, dealers, millers, and others engaged in handling grain and the products and by-products thereof in interstate commerce as a means of hedging themselves against possible loss through fluctuations in price; that the transactions and prices of grain on such boards of trade are susceptible to speculation, manipulation, and control, and sudden or unreasonable fluctuations in the prices thereof frequently occur as a result of such speculation, manipulation, or control, which are detrimental to the producer or the consumer and the persons handling grain and products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce, and that such fluctuations in prices are an obstruction to and a burden upon interstate commerce in grain and the products and by-products thereof and render regulation imperative for the protection of such commerce and the national public interest therein. (Sept. 21, 1922, sec. 3, 42 Stat. 999; 7 U.S.C., sec. 5.)
310. Prohibition against dealing in grain futures; general exceptions.It shall be unlawful for any person to deliver for transmission through the mails or in interstate commerce by telegraph, telephone, wireless, or other means of communication any offer to make or execute, or any confirmation of the execution of, or any quotation or report of the price of, any contract of sale of grain for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any board of trade in the United States, or for any person to make or execute such contract of sale, which is or may be used for (a) hedging any transaction in interstate commerce in grain or the products or by-products thereof, or (b) determining the price basis of any such transaction in interstate commerce, or (c) delivering grain sold, shipped, or received in interstate commerce for the fulfillment thereof, except
(a) Where the seller is at the time of the making of such contract the owner of the actual physical property covered thereby, or is the grower thereof, or in case either party to the contract is the owner or renter of land on which the same is to be grown, or is an association of such owners, or growers of grain, or of such 'owners or renters of land; or
(b) Where such contract is made by or through a member of a board of trade which has been designated by the Secretary of Agri. culture as a “contract market ”, as hereinafter provided, and if such contract is evidenced by a record in writing which shows the date, the parties to such contract and their addresses, the property covered and its price, and the terms of delivery: Provided, That each board member shall keep such record for a period of three years from the date thereof, or for a longer period if the Secretary of Agriculture shall so direct, which record shall at all times be open to the inspection of any representative of the United States Department of Agriculture or the United States Department of Justice. (Sept. 21, 1922, sec. 4, 42 Stat. 999; 7 U. S. C., sec. 6.)
311. Designation of boards of trade as “contract markets"; conditions.That the Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized and directed to designate any board of trade as a “contract market" when, and only when, such board of trade complies with and carries out the following conditions and requirements:
(a) When located at a terminal market where cash grain of the kind specified in the contracts of sale of grain for future delivery to be executed on such board is sold in sufficient volume and under such conditions as fairly to reflect the general value of the grain and the differences in value between the various grades of such grain, and where there is available to such board of trade official inspection service approved by the Secretary of Agriculture for the purpose.
(b) When the governing board thereof provides for the making and filing by the board or any member thereof, as the Secretary of Agriculture may direct, of reports in accordance with the rules and regulations, and in such manner and form and at such times as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, showing the details and terms of all transactions entered into by the board, or the members thereof, either in cash transactions consummated at, on, or in a board of trade, or transactions for future delivery, and when such governing board provides, in accordance with such rules and regulations, for the keeping of a record by the board or the members of the board of trade, as the Secretary of Agriculture may direct, showing the details and terms of all cash and future transactions entered into by them, consummated at, on, or in a board of trade, such record to be in permanent form, showing the parties to all such transactions, including the persons for whom made, any assignments or transfers thereof, with the parties thereto, and the manner in which said transactions are fulfilled, discharged, or terminated. Such records shall be required to be kept for a period of three years from the date thereof, or for a longer period if the Secretary of Agriculture shall so direct, and shall at all times be open to the inspection of any representative of the United States Department of Agriculture or United States Department of Justice.
(c) When the governing board thereof provides for the prevention of dissemination by the board or any member thereof, of false or misleading or knowingly inaccurate reports concerning crop or market information or conditions that affect or tend to affect the price of grain in interstate commerce.
(d) When the governing board thereof provides for the prevention of manipulation of prices or the cornering of any grain by the dealers or operators upon such board.
(e) When the governing board thereof does not exclude from membership in, and all privileges on, such board of trade, any duly authorized representative of any lawfully formed and conducted cooperative association of producers having adequate financial responsibility which is engaged in cash grain business, if such association has complied, and agrees to comply, with such terms and conditions as are or may be imposed lawfully on other members of such board: Provided, That no rule of a contract market shall forbid or be construed to forbid the return on a patronage basis by such cooperative association to its bona fide members of moneys collected in excess of the expense of conducting the business of such association.
(f) When the governing board provides for making effective the final orders or decisions entered pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (b) of section 6 of this Act [7 U. S. C., sec. 9]. (Sept. 21, 1922, sec. 5, 42 Stat. 1000; 7 U.S. C., sec. 7.)
312. Application for designation as "contract market ”; suspension or revocation of designation; composition of commission; review; exclusion from privilege of contract market ”; provisions of Interstate Commerce Act made applicable.—Any board of trade desiring to be designated a “ contract market” shall make application to the Secretary of Agriculture for such designation and accompany the same with a showing that it complies with the above conditions, and with a sufficient assurance that it will continue to comply with the above requirements.
(a) A commission composed of the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General is authorized to suspend for a period not to exceed six months or to revoke the designation of any board of trade as a “contract market” upon a showing that such board of trade has failed or is failing to comply with any of the above requirements or is not enforcing its rules of government made a condition of its designation as set forth in section 5 [7 U.S. C., sec. 7). Such suspension or revocation shall only be after a notice to the officers of the board of trade affected and upon a hearing: Provided, That such suspension or revocation shall be final and conclusive unless within fifteen days after such suspension or revocation by the said commission such board of trade appeals to the circuit court of appeals for the circuit in which it has its principal place of business by filing with the clerk of such court a written petition praying that the order of the said commission be set aside or modified in the manner stated in the petition, together with a bond in such sum as the court may determine, conditioned that such board of trade will pay the costs of the proceedings if the court so directs. The clerk of the court in which such a petition is filed shall immediately cause a copy thereof to be delivered to the Secretary of Agriculture, chairman of said commission, or any member thereof, and the said commission shall forthwith prepare, certify, and file in the court a full and accurate transcript of the record in such proceedings, including the notice to the board of trade, a copy of the charges, the evidence, and the report and order. The testimony and evidence taken or submitted before the said commission duly certified and filed as aforesaid as a part of the record, shall be considered by the court as the evidence in the case. The proceedings in such cases in the circuit court of appeals shall be made a preferred cause and shall be expedited in every way. Such a court may affirm or set aside the order of the said commission or may direct it to modify its order. No such order of the said commission shall be modified or set aside by the circuit court of appeals unless it is shown by the board of trade that the order is unsupported by the weight of the evidence or was issued without due notice and a reasonable opportunity having been afforded to such board of trade for a hearing, or infringes the Constitution of the United States, or is beyond the jurisdiction of said commission: Provided further, That if the Secretary of Agriculture shall refuse to designate as a contract market any board of trade that has made application therefor, then such board of trade may appeal from such refusal to the commission described therein,
consisting of the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General of the United States, with the right to appeal as provided for in other cases in this section, the decision on such appeal to be final and binding on all parties interested.
(b) If the Secretary of Agriculture has reason to believe that any person is violating any of the provisions of this Act, or is attempting to manipulate the market price of any grain in violation of the provisions of section 5 hereof [7 U. S. C., sec. 7], or of any of the rules or regulations made pursuant to its requirements, he may serve upon such person a complaint stating his charge in that respect, to which complaint shall be attached or contained therein a notice of hearing, specifying a day and place not less than three days after the service thereof, requiring such person to show cause why an order should not be made directing that all contract markets until further notice of the said commission refuse all trading privileges thereon to such person. Said hearing may be held in Washington, District of Columbia, or elsewhere, before the said commission, or before a referee designated by the Secretary of Agriculture, who shall cause all evidence to be reduced to writing and forth with transmit the same to the Secretary of Agriculture as chairman of the said commission. That for the purpose of securing effective enforcement of the provisions of this Act the provisions, including penalties of section 12 of the Interstate Commerce Act, as amended, relating to the attendance and testimony of witnesses, the production of documentary evidence, and the immunity of witnesses, are made applicable to the power, jurisdiction, and authority of the Secretary of Agriculture, the said commission, or said referee in proceedings under this Act, and to persons subject to its provisions. Upon evidence received the said commission may require all contract markets to refuse such person all trading privileges thereon for such period as may be specified in said order. Notice of such order shall be sent forth with by registered mail or delivered to the offending person and to the governing boards of said contract markets. After the issuance of the order by the commission, as aforesaid, the person against whom it is issued may obtain a review of such order or such other equitable relief as to the court may seem just by filing in the United States circuit court of appeals of the circuit in which the petitioner is doing business a written petition praying that the order of the commission be set aside. A copy of such petition shall be forth with served upon the commission by delivering such copy to its chairman or to any member thereof, and thereupon the commission shall forthwith certify and file in the court a transcript of the record theretofore made, including evidence received. Upon the filing of the transcript the court shall have jurisdiction to affirm, to set aside, or modify the order of the commission, and the findings of the commission as to the facts, if supported by the weight of evidence, shall in like manner be conclusive. In proceedings under paragraphs (a) and (b) the judgment and decree of the court shall be final, except that the same shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court upon certiorari, as provided in section 240 of the Judicial Code. (Sept. 21, 1922, 42 Stat. 1001, sec. 6; 7 U. S. C., secs. 8, 9, 10, 15.)
313. Vacation on request of designation as “contract market"; redesignation.-Any board of trade that has been designated a contract market in the manner herein provided may have such designation Facated and set aside by giving notice in writing to the Secretary of Agriculture requesting that its designation as a contract market be vacated, which notice shall be served at least ninety days prior to the date named therein as the date when the vacation of designation shall take effect. Upon receipt of such notice the Secretary of Agriculture shall forthwith order the vacation of the designation of such board of trade as a contract market, effective upon the day named in the notice, and shall forthwith send a copy of the notice and his order to all other contract markets. From and after the date upon which the vacation became effective the said board of trade can thereafter be designated again a contract market by making application to the Secretary of Agriculture in the manner herein provided for an original application. (Sept. 21, 1922, sec. 7, 42 Stat. 1002; 7 U. S. C. sec. 11.)
314. Investigations and reports by Secretary, generally. For the efficient execution of the provisions of this Act, and in order to provide information for the use of Congress, the Secretary of Agriculture may make such investigations as he may deem necessary to ascertain the facts regarding the operations of boards of trade, whether prior or subsequent to the enactment of this Act, and may publish from time to time, in his discretion, the result of such investigation and such statistical information gathered therefrom as he may deem of interest to the public, except data and information which would separately disclose the business transactions of any person and trade secrets or names of customers: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Secretary of Agriculture from making or issuing such reports as he may deem necessary relative to the conduct of any board of trade or of the transactions of any person found guilty of violating the provisions of this Act under the proceedings prescribed in section 6 of this Act [7 U. S. C., sec. 9] : Provided further, That the Secretary of Agriculture in any report may include the facts as to any actual transaction. The Secretary of Agriculture, upon his own initiative or in cooperation with existing governmental agencies, shall investigate marketing conditions of grain and grain products and byproducts, including supply and demand for these commodities, cost to the consumer, and handling and transportation charges. He shall likewise compile and furnish to producers, consumers, and distributors, by means of regular or special reports, or by such methods as he may deem most effective, information respecting the grain markets, together with information on supply, demand, prices, and other conditions in this and other countries that affect the markets. (Sept. 21, 1922, sec. 8, 42 Stat. 1003; 7 U. S. C., sec. 12.)
315. Violations; punishment.—Any person who shall violate the provisions of section 4 of this Act [7 U. S. C., sec. 6), or who shall fail to evidence any contract mentioned in said section by a record in writing as therein required, or who shall knowingly or carelessly deliver for transmission through the mails or in interstate commerce by telegraph, telephone, wireless, or other means of communication false or