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FRONTIER IN AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT
in the east. American democracy was born on | urged. The public lands along the frontier zone the frontier and received its initial strength became the subject of rival legislative profrom the frontier states. At the edge of practically "free land" the field of opportunity was open. The full meaning of this in American life became more apparent as the frontier and free lands drew to their close.
Significance in Eighteenth Century.-In the early part of the seventeenth century the frontier lay along the settled portions of the Atlantic coast. It was, in a sense, the frontier of Europe, where old world institutions were undergoing adjustment to the colonial wilderness. By the second half of the eighteenth century the frontier had reached the Berkshire hills of western New England, extended up the Mohawk Valley, in New York, and along the Great Valley of Pennsylvania, and its extension in Virginia lay as far west as the Piedmont, or upland, region of the South beyond the falls of the rivers. This frontier was modified by the presence of non-English stocks, especially Germans and Scotch-Irish, and by an increased independence not only from Europe, but also from tidewater settlements. In the course of the French and Indian War and the Revolution, the frontier crossed the Alleghanies. This frontier was that of the backwoods Indian fighters, devoted to local selfgovernment and democracy. In the period when the new Constitution was framed it aided in shaping liberal territorial relations and equality of statehood for the western com
posals of leading American statesmen, who now realized more fully their far-reaching influence upon problems of sectional rivalry, as well as upon the labor supply, wages and land values in the East. These economic influences of the frontier affected the whole structure of American industrial society. Thus a series of congressional legislative acts, increasing the power of the Federal Government, was undertaken; the frontier revealed its nationalizing influence in the field of domestic policy, as in earlier periods it had been a nationalizing force in calling out common action in the field of diplomacy and defence.
Sectional Effects.-On the other hand, as the settlements extended up the Missouri and into the forests of the Northwest and the cotton fields of the Southwest, the frontier advance gave new emphasis to the sectional differences in the matter of slavery. The Missouri Compromise illustrates the problem presented by slavery as a factor in frontier extension, demanding national decision of rival interests in the expanding sections.
The frontier as a debtor area had been in
fluential upon currency questions from colonial days. The rural democracy of the frontier zone objected to the national bank and demanded an expansion of credit. Jacksonian democracy represented the growing demand for popular participation in government on the part of the frontier and the regions whose ideas were
Early Nineteenth Century. By the beginning of the nineteenth century the frontier extended along the tributaries of the Ohio, bounding a peninsula of settlement thrust forward beyond the Alleghanies much as the fron- Effect on Diplomacy. By 1840 the frontier tier had bounded the Mohawk Valley in the had reached the meridian of the great bend of second half of the eighteenth century. Lying the Missouri and settlement was banking up beyond the Alleghanies, it was increasingly self- against the great plains as before it had against assertive, and its economic interests led it to the Alleghanies. In the course of the next resist the control which Spain exercised over decade the frontier was lodged on the Pacific the navigation of the Mississippi, the only exit coast, whither fur traders and missionaries had for its crops, and also to resist the preponder- preceded it. The diplomatic relations of this ance exerted by England, from her posts on period with reference to Texas, Oregon and the Great Lakes, over the Indians of the North- California were called out by the advancing West. The frontier became a powerful influence frontier, and the annexations were made posin foreign relations. The purchase of Louis-sible by the energy of frontier advance. iana and the War of 1812 with England defi- previously, the relation of slavery to this movnitely insured to the frontier new fields for ad- ing frontier was a factor of primary importvance north and south as well as to the west. In National Politics. Having, by 1820, passed from the backwoods stage of self-con
shaped by recent frontier experiences. Jackson embodied the nationalism, the democracy, the opposition to the control of capital, the directness and the vigor of the frontier.
ance, and it gave tone to the political contests
from that time to the Civil War.
Effect on Adventurous Characters.-The min
tained economic life, these trans-Alleghany set- ing society in California exhibited typical charbements now pressed for an outlet to the east acteristics of the frontier remote from con
by way of roads and canals across the Alle- trol of the government amid the excitement of ghanies. At the same time the advancing fron- gold discovery.
The of sudden
advantage of the internal trade of the rising individual competition introduced an element under the frontier freedom of empire of the West as a substitute for the into American life which was persistent and
waning foreign commerce. arguments for a
The home market protective tariff, as well as
influential. This factor received new empha
internal improvement projects were vigorously fields of the Rocky Mountains in the period
sis with the opening of the gold and silver
of the Civil War where new mining rushes re- Conservation. The reclamation of the arid peated the frontier experiences. Thus the fron- frontier and the conservation of natural retier exhibited an eastward as well as a west- sources also became significant as the frontier ward movement.
era terminated. Labor no longer found its In this period also the Indian frontier ac- safety in the existence of the free lands of the quired new importance, and the regular Army frontier, and sought increasingly to advance succeeded the frontier militia as the defenders its interests by national organization. In the of the settlers. This illustrated the growing same period the old expansive tendency of national energy applied to the frontier, and the American life which had been exhibited in the same energy was exhibited in the demand for advance of the frontier was continued in the railroad construction across the great plains as extension of settlement and investment of earlier across the Alleghanies.
American capital across the borders into CanEffect on Political Organizations.—Between ada and Mexico, and was given new expression 1870 and 1890 this intervening wilderness was by the expansion of the nation over-seas in the broken down by the formation of various new Spanish-American War, when it became a frontiers. The farmer's frontier advanced rap- world power with distant dependencies. idly across the trans-Mississippi prairies until American character has been deeply affected it met the check of the arid lands. As the In- by frontier experiences. Individualism, an orig. dians were conquered and forced into reser- inal humor, indifference to old world lessons, vations on either side of the newly opened con- optimistic faith and a bold and forceful recktinental railroad, the ranching frontier extend- lessness in the presence of its vast opportunied along the great plains. By 1884 the fron- ties, characterized the nation. Creative idealtier barrier of the great plains and the Rockies ism and largeness of design went side by side had been pierced by the Southern Pacific Rail with emphasis upon material development. road. An era of exceptionally low prices for These traits found expression in literature and crops and cattle followed. The farmers' move politics as well as in economic and social life. ment in the Granger agitation (see GRANGER With the passing of the frontier and its free CASES), the Greenback (see) contest, and the opportunities, the United States seems to exfree silver Populist uprising of the nineties (see hibit less assurance in respect to the excellence SILVER COINAGE CONTROVERSY), were indicative of its institutions, a more critical and disconof the recurrence of the influence of the frontier tented spirit, a greater attention to statistics, as a debtor region, as well as the over-confi- to the collective problems of society and to the dence and over-production which the rapid experience of other nations. frontier advance induced. By about 1890, when See BOUNDARIES, INTERIOR; INDIAN POLICY the frontier line was proclaimed at an end, a OF THE UNITED STATES; IRRIGATION AND IRRIgroup of new frontier states in proximity to GATED LANDS; POPULATION OF THE UNITED northern railroads (North Dakota, South STATES; PUBLIC LANDS AND PUBLIC LAND Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Policy; PhysICS AND POLITICS; PHYSIOGRAPHY Wyoming) had been
admitted to the OF NORTH AMERICA; TERRITORIES, ACQUIRED, Union, and thereby new frontier political in- STATUS OF; TERRITORIES OF THE UNITED STATES, fluence was created, as had been the case when ORGANIZED; WEST AS A FACTOR IN AMERICAN the earlier frontier states had been admitted POLITICS. between 1816 and 1821. The revolutionizing References: F. J. Turner, “Significance of of the Democratic party under Mr. Bryan in the Frontier” in Am. Hist. Assoc., Report, 1893, the election of 1896 was partly due to this in- 199, reprinted in Bullock, Readings in Ecofluence and is comparable to the wave of Jack-nomics (1907), “Problem of the West” in sonian democracy which rose in the thirties. Atlantic Monthly, LXXVIII, 289, “Contri
Economic Combinations.- In the more recent butions of the West to American Democracy" period the national development has been in ibid, XCI, 83; F. L. Paxson, Last American deeply influenced by the efforts to adjust the Frontier (1910), ch. i; E. C. Semple, Innation to the conditions imposed by the gradual fluences of Geographic Environment (1911), extinction of the frontier. The historic com- ch. vii, and index “Boundaries”; E. L. Godkin, petitive individualism of the frontier was sub- Problems of Modern Democracy (1896), ch. i; ordinated to control by combinations of capital, J. E. Cutler, Lynch Law (1905); H, Croly, on the one hand, and to increasing reliance by Promise of American Life (1910), ch. i; A. the former frontier areas upon national legis- B. Hart, National Ideals Historically Traced lation and popular political organization, on (1907), chs. i, iii; K. Coman, Econ. Beginnings the other, to preserve the old democratic ideals of the Far West (1913). of equality of opportunity. The political “in
FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER. surgency” of the West and the strength of the Progressive movement in the same regions, with FUGITIVE SLAVES. The problem of reits programme of direct popular government capturing fugitive slaves who had escaped into and political control of economic life, bear wit- another jurisdiction was a permanent accomness to the changing spirit which appeared as paniment of the institution of slavery. Arthe frontier era closed.
ticles providing for the rendition of fugitives
FUGITIVES FROM JUSTICE-FUNDAMENTAL LAW
were included in the New England Confedera- | return of fugitives, as did also the Ordinance tion of 1643, the Articles of Confederation of of 1787; and the Federal Constitution explicit 1781, and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. ly provides that “no person held to service The Federal Constitution (Art. IV, Sec. ii) or labor in one state” shall, if he escapes into guaranteed the return of fugitives from la- another, be there set free by the law in that bor, and Congress, in 1793, passed an act pre other community (Art. IV, Sec. ii, s 3). scribing the procedure to be used in reclaiming The phrase "fugitive from labor” in its them. After 1800 slavery became practically early use included indentured servants, and extinct in the northern states and a sentiment apprentices, but in practice was applied chiefly sprang up adverse to returning such fugitives to fugitive slaves. So long as slavery continfrom service. With the rise of the anti-slavery ued in several northern communities the promovement (see ABOLITIONISTS; SLAVERY Con- vision made little trouble; but after the growth TROVERSY), there developed a systematic cus- of organized abolition (see) agitation, public tom of assisting runaway slaves by sending sentiment in many of the northern states was them by night from one sympathizer to another. hostile to the recovery of fugitive slaves. Some This was known as “ the underground rail- acute difficulties occurred over the question of road” and was responsible for the loss of thou- what constituted escaping into a free state. sands of dollars worth of slaves annually to The fugitive slave law (see) was supplemented the northern slave states. As anti-slavery sen- by some state acts but fell into disuse during timent gained control of northern legislatures, the Civil War. many states passed “personal liberty laws" See ABOLITIONISTS; COMPROMISE OF 1850; (see) intended to prevent kidnapping of free SLAVERY AS AN ECONOMIC SYSTEM; SLAVERY negroes and also to hinder the recapture of CONTROVERSY. genuine fugitives. In 1850, in response to bit- References: M. G. McDougall, Fugitive ter complaints from the slave states, Congress Slaves (1891); W. H. Siebert, Underground passed a more stringent fugitive slave law Railroad (1898); A. B. Hart, Slavery and which placed the authority for rendition whol- Abolition (1906), ch, xix; William Still, Unly in the hands of federal commissioners and derground Railroad (rev. ed., 1883); Levi Cofleft the proceedings purely ex parte (see fin, Reminiscences (1876); S. G. Howe, Refu COMPROMISE OF 1850). In spite of this, the gees from Slavery in Canada West (1860). northern sympathy for fugitives was so strong
ALBERT BUSHNELL HART. that in the years before 1860 the new law was hardly enforceable in many localities. This FULLER, MELVILLE WESTON. Melville Dorthern refusal to carry out one of the ex. W. Fuller (1833–1910), Chief Justice of the press provisions of the Constitution was one United States Supreme Court, was born at Auof the leading causes assigned in 1861 for se- gusta, Maine, February 11, 1833. In 1855 he cession. The law was repealed in 1864. See was admitted to the bar, and for a time was SLAVERY CONTROVERSY. References: M. G. associate editor of The Age, a Democratic paMcDougall, Fugitive Slaves (1891); W. H. per published at Augusta. He was also presSiebert, The Underground Railroad (1898); | ident of the common council and city solicitor. J. C. Hurd, Law of Freedom and Bondage In 1856 he removed to Chicago, and practiced (1858–1862); T. C. Smith, Parties and Slavery law there until 1888. He was a member of (1906), index.
T. C. S. the Illinois constitutional convention of 1862,
and from 1863 to 1865 served in the lower FUGITIVES FROM JUSTICE. A fugitive house of the legislature. In 1864, 1872, 1876, from justice within the meaning of the Federal and 1880 he was a delegate to the Democratic Constitution (Art. V, Sec. ii, 1 2), providing national convention. His appointment as for interstate extradition of criminals, is any Chief Justice was dated April 30, 1888, but the one who “having within a State committed appointment was not confirmed until July 20, that which by its laws constitutes a crime, and he did not take the oath of office until when he is sought to be subjected to its crim- October 8. In 1899 he was chosen as one of inal process to answer for his offence, the arbitrators of the boundary dispute behas left its jurisdiction and is found within tween Venezuela and British Guiana; and he the territory of another.” Roberts vs. Reilly, was also a member of the premanent court of 116 U. 8. 80. See EXTRADITION, INTERSTATE. arbitration at the Hague. His influence upon
W. W. W. the court, in a period of fundamental economic
and political change, was conservative and FUGITIVES FROM SERVICE. The contiñ even reactionary. He died at Sorrento, Maine, pance of slavery always depended upon some July 4, 1910. See CHIEF JUSTICES. Reference: legal and effective machinery for recovering C. D. Walcott, “Melville W. Fuller” in Smith. runaway slaves. The English colonies had sonian Institution, Annual Report (1910). internal laws upon this point, and also inter
W. MACD. colonial agreements (see COLONIAL INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS). The first federal treaty FUNDAMENTAL LAW. See Law, FUNDA, with the Cherokees in 1778 provided for the I MENTAL.
FUR SEAL CONTROVERSY-FUTURES, DEALING IN
ticket being also in the field. In Virginia, the same year, Democrats and Readjusters both voted for the regular Democratic electors. Again, in 1896 Populists and Democrats combined and put out fusion tickets in twenty-six states, hoping to defeat McKinley. In some states Democrats fused with Populists, in others with "Silver" Republicans.
See PARTY, PLACE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF. References: E. Stanwood, Hist. of the Presidency (1898), 397, 515, 564; T. H. McKee, National Conventions and Platforms (1901), 198, 326; W. A. Peffer, "The Passing of the People's Party" in North Am. Review, CLXVI (1898), 12-23; E. P. Clark, "Populism in the Saddle" in Nation, LXX (1900), 372. JESSE MACY.
FUR SEAL CONTROVERSY. A difficulty for in Maine in 1880, a "straight" Greenback arising out of the claim of the United States to the exclusive right to take fur bearing animals in the eastern half of Bering Sea. The controversy practically begins with a memorandum claiming the Alaskan waters, written by acting Secretary French, March 12, 1881. In 1886 the matter was brought to a point by the capture of several Canadian sealers engaged in taking seals in these waters, a capture confirmed by a decision of Judge Dawson. From 1888 to 1893 there were negotiations between the two countries, culminating in the arbitration of 1893, which found against the contention of the United States but recognized the desirability of protecting the seals by international agreement. See ALASKA BOUNDARY CONTROVERSY; BOUNDARIES, EXTERIOR; BRITISH NORTH AMERICA, DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH; FISHERIES, INTERNATIONAL, RELATION FUTURES, DEALING IN. A mechanism GOVERNMENT TO; GREAT BRITAIN, DIP- of an exchange (see). To sell (or buy) a fuLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH; WATER BOUND- ture is to contract to deliver (or accept) at a AND JURISDICTION. References: stipulated time subsequent to the making of J. B. Moore, Digest of Int. Law (1906); Am. the contract, a stipulated quantity of a comHist. Leaflets, No. 6 (1892). A. B. H. modity (or stock or bond) at a stipulated price. The seller need not have the commodity in his possession; in fact the term has come to be associated with such speculative transactions. The seller contracts, believing that prices will fall and that he can buy for delivery at a profit; the buyer contracts, believing that prices will rise and that he can sell at a profit. Such organized speculation performs two important economic functions: (1) it serves society in general by its directive influence on prices through equalization in time; (2) it serves trade as such by its
FUSION. Fusion is the combination of two or more parties or factions to defeat a stronger one. Such coalition is more or less a temporary agreement for a specific purpose and is usually confined to a particular election. The chief parties often take warning from the manifestations of disaffection within their ranks, as when a faction withdraws to vote with an opposing partry or to aid in forming a new party, or when individuals vote independently against their party; and tend to reconsider the party principles, to restate the party doc-risk-bearing functions; e. g., it enables a mantrines, and to reshape the issues of the day in a manner to win back the disaffected or to prevent secession.
Many instances of fusion occur in American political history. In the presidential election of 1860 the two wings of the Democratic party had each a ticket in the field. Both wings were desirous of defeating Lincoln, and to that end it was arranged in certain states to present a fusion electoral ticket with names chosen partly from one faction and partly from the other. A fusion ticket made up of three Democrats and four Greenbackers was voted
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GADSDEN PURCHASE–GALLATIN, ALBERT
GADSDEN PURCHASE. When the commis. Many felt that anti-slavery agitation would sioners of Mexico and the United States at- cause the dissolution of the Union. May 26, tempted to mark the boundary line determined 1836, the House adopted a rule to the effect by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848, they that all petitions relating *o slavery, without found it vaguely described. and the map given being read, should be laid on the table. Sesthem as an official guide to be geographically sion after session for several years the gag incorrect. This caused a dispute over the laws were reënacted. The opposition insistownership of the Mesilla Valley, south of the ed that the right to petition given by the Gila River, which was keenly desired by the First Amendment, includes the right to have United States since it had been discovered to petition heard. These rules were finally be the only practicable southern route for a voted down in 1844. See SLAVERY CONTROVERrailroad to the Pacific. Another cause of fric- sy. References: A. B. Hart, Slavery and Abotion was the eleventh article of the treaty lition (1907), 259-271; J. B. McMaster, Hist. of 1848, which bound the United States to of the People of the U. S., VI (1906), passim ; prevent its Indian tribes from making depreda- J. F. Morse, John Quincy Adams (1887), 306tions into Mexico. This provision had been 308.
T. N. H. almost impossible to carry out; as a consequence much damage had been inflicted upon GAG RESOLUTIONS. The term is applied Mexicans for which their Government de to efforts by rules to put a stop to discussion manded compensation.
in deliberative bodies. The best known illusTo settle both disputes, James Gadsden, thetration is the struggle in the federal House of American minister to Mexico, was commis. Representatives from 1835 to 1844, to shut sioned to negotiate with that country. He out petitions regarding slavery. John Quincy signed a treaty Dec. 30, 1853, which, after be- Adams vigorously opposed these resolutions. ing amended in important respects by the The same object has been obtained in legislaSenate of the United States, provided for the tive bodies by the autocratic power of a prepayment, by the United States, of $10,000,000; siding officer or a committee on rules. See the cession by Mexico of 45,535 square miles, PETITION, RIGHT OF; RULES; SLAVERY CONTROwhich now form the southern part of New VERSY. References: A. B. Hart, Actual GovMexico and Arizona; the abrogation of the ernment (1908), 112, 116, Slavery and Abolieleventh article of the treaty of 1848; and the tion (1908), ch. xviii; John Quincy Adams, release of the United States from all claims for Memoirs (1877).
T. N. H. its non-fulfillment. As originally drawn the treaty included the cession of a much larger GALLATIN, ALBERT. Albert Gallatin territory and the payment by the United (1761-1849) was born at Geneva, SwitzerStates of $20,000,000. Unfortunately someland, January 29, 1761. He came to the Unitsuspicion of bribery and jobbery attaches to ed States in 1780, was an instructor at Harthe negotiations and the payment of the pur- vard College, and in 1784 settled in Fayette
Mexico accepted the Senate County, Pa., then claimed by Virginia, where amendments; Congress made the necessary he had taken up land. In the discussions over appropriations; and ratifications ex- the ratification of the Federal Constitution he changed, June 30, 1854.
allied himself with the Anti-Federalists, was See BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES, a member of the Pennsylvania constitutional HISTORY OF; CALIFORNIA AND NEW MEXICO, convention of 1789–90, and from 1790 to 1792 ANFEXATION OF; GUADALUPE HIDALGO, TREATY sat in the state house of representatives. In OF; MEXICO, DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH; 1793 he was elected United States Senator, PACIFIC RAILROADS.
but was unseated after a brief service on the References: E. J. Carpenter, Am. Advance ground of ineligibility. He was involved in (1993), ch. vii; J. B. Moore, Digest of Int. the preliminaries of the Whiskey Insurrection Lou, I (1906), 460–462; W. M. Malloy, Treat- of 1794, though opposed to violence, and inims and Conventions, 1776-1909 (1910), 1121-curred the enmity of the Federalists on that 1125. GEORGE H. BLAKESLEE. account. He returned to Congress in 1795,
and until 1801 was the recognized leader of GAG LAWS. The gag laws, or gag reso- the Republicans in the House. In 1801 he was lutions, were attempts to prevent the discus- appointed Secretary of the Treasury, in which sion of the slavery question in Congress. 'office he took a rank only second to that of