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IDAHO. The territory now embraced in the The constitution fixes a form of state governstate of Idaho was first explored by white men ment in the usual American manner, with exwhen the expedition of Lewis and Clark ecutive, legislative, and judicial departments. crossed and recrossed it in 1805-06. There Executive officers comprise a governor, lieuwere early settlements by fur traders and mis- tenant-governor, secretary of state, state audisionaries (1810 and 1834). The discovery of tor, state treasurer, attorney general, and gold in 1860 led to permanent settlement. A superintendent of public instruction, each population of 14,999 in 1870 has increased to 325,594 in 1910.

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elected for two years. The governor is vested Iwith the supreme executive power and "must

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Boundary of Idaho

Terr. organized 1863


33 Longitude

from Washington



BOUNDARIES OF THE STATE OF IDAHO, SHOWING TERRITORIAL CHANGES For government purposes Idaho was a part | see that the laws are faithfully executed." IIe of Oregon Territory from 1848 to 1853. In has a suspensive veto on acts of the legislathe latter year the northern part was attached to Washington Territory, the southern part continuing in Oregon Territory. The admission of Oregon as a state in 1859 left the whole of Idaho as part of Washington Territory. In 1863 the Territory of Idaho was organized, including what is now part of Wyoming until 1868, and what is now Montana until 1864 (see BOUNDARIES, INTERIOR). Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, under a constitution adopted the preceding year.

ture, including items in appropriation bills. A two-thirds vote of the members present in each house is necessary to override a veto. The governor, secretary of state, and attorney general, constitute a board of pardons, a board of prison commissioners, and a board of examiners. These three officers, together with the superintendent of public instruction and the state auditor, constitute a board of land commissioners to administer public lands. The superintendent of public instruction, the secretary of state, and the attorney general, consti


tute a board of education for the general su- Public education is provided by a uniform pervision of public schools.

and thorough system of free public common The legislature meets biennially, its mem- schools; by free public high schools; by a bers being elected for two years. The number unified state university; and by public normal of senators must never exceed twenty-four, and schools. The public school fund must remain of representatives must never exceed sixty, inviolate, only the interest being expended for each county always to have at least one maintenance of schools. representative. The compensation of each The state administration was controlled by member of the legislature shall not exceed five Republicans from 1890 to 1897. For the next dollars per day or three hundred dollars for five years Democrats, Populists, and Free any one session.

Silver Republicans were in power. Since 1902 The judicial power of the state is vested in Republican state officers have been elected. a court of impeachment—the senate-a su- In 1892, 1896, and 1900 the state gave its preme court, district courts, probate courts, electoral votes to Democrats, or to Democrats and inferior courts. The supreme court con- and Populists in fusion. In 1904 and 1908 the sists of three justices, elected by the votes of Republican national ticket was successful. In the state at large for terms of six years. 1912, the state went Democratic. There are five district courts, the judges being Recent and present day problems of governchosen for terms of four years.

ment relate to such subjects as child labor Both men and women are entitled to vote. (see); regulation of labor in mines, strikes The amendment giving the right of suffrage and other labor troubles; employers' liability to women was adopted on November 3, 1896. (see); control of liquor traffic by county opllomen may also hold office and perform jury tion; primary election laws; conservation duty.

(see); and national forest policies. The prob. County, municipal, township, and precinct lem of the Latter Day Saints is much less organizations are provided by the constitution acute than formerly, now that this sect com. and laws. In the last twenty years the details prises only about one-tenth of the population, of county and inferior local governments have References: H. H. Bancroft, Washington, been altered seven times by constitutional | Idaho, and Montana (1890), 333-588; W. B! amendments. No county shall be formed Hepburn, Idaho Laws and Decisions, Annotat. which shall have an area of less than four ed and Digested (1900); F. N. Thorpe, Federal hundred square miles or taxable property of and State Constitutions (1909), II, 904–954. less than one million dollars.



The Illinois Country, 1673–1784.—The first of peace with Great Britain and with the white occupants of Illinois were the French, Indians (1814–1816) stimulated immigration who, after 1673, established a number of mis- and prepared the way for statehood. The ensions, trading posts and forts in the Illinois abling act was approved, April 18, 1818; the country. In 1717 the Illinois villages were state constitution was adopted August 26; and attached to Louisiana; but in 1763 the Treaty on December 3, 1818, the state was admitted of Paris transferred the sovereignty to the to the Union. The enabling act, disregarding British who maintained their political control the Northwest Ordinance line through the from 1765 until the outbreak of the American scutherly bend of Lake Michigan, fixed the Revolution. In 1778, Kaskaskia and the ad- northern boundary at 42° 30', thus securing jacent villages were conquered by George for Illinois an adequate frontage on the lake. Rogers Clark (see), acting for the state of Another departure from the Ordinance of 1787 Virginia; but the county government then in was the acceptance of a constitutional prostituted was soon allowed to lapse and in 1784 vision permitting the temporary and partial the l'irginia title was transferred to the United continuance of slavery.

First Constitution; Early Years of StateTerritorial Administration, 1784–1818.—The hood, 1818–1848. The constitution gave the Ordinance of 1787 (see) included Illinois in suffrage to adult white males, provided for a the “Territory Northwest of the River Ohio;" governor and a lieutenant-governor, each electbut in 1800 it was set off in the new territory ed for four years, and for the usual bicameral of Indiana, and, in 1809, the Illinois Territory legislature. Except for the customary bill of was organized for the whole region west of rights, there were few limitations on the legis. the Wabash River. In 1812 it was advanced lature, which had the right to appoint judges to the second stage of territorial government and a number of other officers. An ineffective with a legislature elective in both branches. veto was given to a council of revision conThe Anglo-American immigration was small sisting of the governor and the judges. Dur. until after the War of 1812. The restoration ing the next thirty years, Illinois passed grad58






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ually out of the frontier stage. The Black | who is elected for four years, the lieutenant Hawk War (1832) marked the end of the governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, Indian problem. The Erie Canal and steam attorney general, and state superintendent of navigation on the great interior waterways public instruction. The growth of population stimulated immigration, not only as hereto- and industry has also made necessary the creafore, from the southern and border states, but tion of a large number of officers and boards, also from the northeast and from foreign usually appointed by the governor, with the countries, notably Germany and Ireland. consent of the senate, and responsible to him, Population increased from 55,211 in 1820 to Recent legislation, notably the Civil Service 851,470 in 1850—an increase which was most Act of 1911, has brought many of the minor strongly marked in the northern counties. appointments within the classified service with During this formative period, an unsuccessful attempt was made to revise the constitution in the interest of slavery; and, in the face of

TERRITORY great financial distress resulting from unwise banking and internal movement measures, the public credit was successfully defended against the advocates of repudiation. Nevertheless,

UP B the experience of the frontier period showed the need of constitutional revision; a new convention met in 1847, and the second state constitution was ratified by the people in 1848.

The Second Constitution; Development, 1848– 1870.- The new constitution abolished slavery but kept the color line for citizenship and the suffrage. The council of revision

WISCONSIN abolished and the governor was given an independent veto, subject, however, to reversal by majorities in both houses. Judges and other officers previously chosen by the legislature were hereafter to be chosen by the people, and the constitutional limitations on the legislature were considerably increased. Finally, the "Yankee" settlers of the northern counties secured a constitutional provision authorizing township organization. Illinois now entered upon a period of bitter sectional controversy reflecting, in the conflict between northern and

ILLINOIS southern elements within the state, the sectional politics which characterized the nation at large. In 1861, the state as a whole stood firmly for the Union; but, in 1862 and 1863, there was some wavering, with the tide running strongly against the anti-slavery policies of Lincoln's administration. At the close of the war, however, the dominant party in Illinois accepted fully the new doctrines of negro citizenship and suffrage; the "black code" was


SHOWING TERRITORIAL CHANGES repealed and five years later the color line was eliminated from the constitution. In competitive examinations under the directions spite of the severe strain of the war, popula- of the Civil Service Commission. The govertion increased with great rapidity. The census nor's veto can now be overruled only by a figure for 1850 doubled in 1860 and nearly two-thirds vote, and since 1884 has been ap. tripled in 1870, while Chicago increased from plicable to single items in an appropriation less than thirty thousand in 1850 to nearly bill. The members of the legislature are chosthree hundred thousand in 1870. Agriculture en in fifty-one senatorial districts, each electwas still the dominant interest, but manufac- | ing one senator and three representatives, on tures were increasing rapidly, and in 1870 Illi- a plan of cumulative voting which ordinarily nois stood first among the states in railway secures to the minority party at least one mileage. New and complex problems of indus- member in each district and frequently pretrial organization again demanded constitu- vents any real contest between the two leadtional revision, and the third state constituing parties (see MINORITY REPRESENTATION). tion was ratified by the people in 1870. Constitutional limitations on the legislature

The Constitution of 1870.-The executive de have been still further increased, notably by a partment now includes, besides the governor I sweeping prohibition of local and special leg.

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islation on such subjects as elections, local | its first comprehensive and effective school law government, and corporate charters; and the in 1855 and its first constitutional article on referendum principle has also been applied to the subject in 1870, but the law now recognizes certain kinds of legislation. Especially signif- the general principle of gratuitous, state-supicant are the articles on "Corporations” and ported, and compulsory education. The sys"Warehouses" which prepared the way for the tem is administered, first, by elected boards comprehensive railroad and warehouse legis in the various school districts. There are some lation of the seventies. Judicial jurisdiction variations, as in Chicago (see), where the above the county court is entrusted to circuit school board is appointed by the mayor. The and appellate courts and to a supreme court school township organization is still mainnow sitting at Springfield. Circuit and su- tained for tlte administration of certain school preme court judges are elected by the people funds. Certain supervisory functions are endirectly for terms of six and nine years, trusted to elective county superintendents and respectively, while the appellate judges are the state superintendent of public instruction. selected by the supreme court from the cir. There are five normal schools for the training cuit bench.

of teachers, and in 1867 the legislature, having Local Administration.—Notwithstanding the accepted the federal land grant of 1862 (see general constitutional regulations which aim MORRILL GRANT), chartered the Illinois at uniformity, Illinois has three different kinds Industrial University, now the University of of county government. Seventeen southern and Illinois. central counties are governed on the old county Revenue System.-State and local governcommissioner plan, without township organi- ments are supported chiefly by the “general zation. All the other counties except Cook property tax," assessed upon real and perhave the township system with county boards sonal property at a supposed valuation of oneconsisting of supervisors elected by the towns. third of its "fair cash value.” In Cook County In Cook County, the township organization has and the counties not under township organizalargely broken down and the governing board tion, the assessment of taxes is mainly a county ccnsists of fifteen elected commissioners. The affair; elsewhere it is entrusted to the town county judge, clerk, sheriff, and coroner ap- assessors. Assessments are subject to revision pear in all of these groups of counties. The by a county board of review and the state town is still an important unit in most board of equalization. Other sources of revecounties, furnishing through its annually nue for the state are the inheritance tax and elected collector and assessor the machinery a special tax on the Illinois Central Railroad; for the collection of state and local taxes. In for municipal governments there are licenses Cook County, however, the town has almost and similar charges. disappeared under the pressure of metropolitan Political Parties and Issues.—Well-defined conditions and even elsewhere in the state it is party organizations began in Illinois with losing its relative importance through the the conflicts between Jacksonian Democrats marked development of urban population, re- and Whigs and until 1854 the Democrats were quiring more highly organized municipal ad- continuously in control of the state governministration.

nient. The repeal of the Kansas-Nebraska Municipal Administration. Under the mu- Bill, the consequent emphasis on the slavery nicipal code of 1872, small urban areas within issue, and increased immigration from the townships may be organized as villages and northeast brought radical changes in state governed by elective boards of trustees. Com- politics, and in 1856 the new Republican party munities having at least one thousand inhabi- elected its candidate for governor, though the

may become cities, choosing ordinarily presidential vote was Democratic. During the å mayor and a board of aldermen, though a succeeding period of sectional conflict and civil few cities have recently adopted the so-called war (1857–1865), the state was closely con“commission form of government” (see). tested by the Democratic and Republican Some concessions have been made to the parties led, respectively, by Stephen A. Doug. metropolitan requirements of Chicago (see), las (see) and Abraham Lincoln (see). In the especially since the adoption in 1904 of a con- senatorial contest of 1858 and in the legislastitutional amendment permitting a consid- tive and congressional elections of 1862, the erable range of special legislation for that Democrats were successful; but in the presicity; but the mutual jealousies of metropolitan dential and state elections of 1860 and 1864 and "down state” elements have materially the Republicans won decisive victories. Since limited the scope and effectiveness of such 1864, Illinois has generally been Republican, legislation. Throughout the state, important though there have been some strong independrounicipal functions are withheld from city ent movements, notably the Liberal Republican and village authorities and assigned to other (see) and Granger (see) movements of the administrative units, such as school, park, and seventies. In the past fifty-three years, exdrainage districts.

cept in 1892 and 1912, the Republicans have Public Education.-In public education, always won the electoral vote of the state. Illinois was comparatively backward, enacting Democratic success in 1912 was largely due to





the formation of the new Progressive party. | census of 1900 shows that 10.7 per cent of the Party organization and procedure are now total population over ten years of age were closely regulated by law and a comprehensive illiterate. This is 2.6 per cent improvement "direct primary" (see) law was enacted in over the condition in 1890. Statistics for the 1910. The following political issues of recent whole United States are misleading, for the years are especially significant: the "direct percentage of illiteracy in the South is greatly primary," "corrupt practices” (see) legisla- increased by the presence of the negroes and tion, civil service reform, the initiative and the lack of schools in the mountain regions; referendum (see LEGISLATION, DIRECT), town, while the changing character of foreign imi. ship and county option in the regulation of the gration alters the situation greatly in such liquor traffic, state control of public service states as Pennsylvania. corporations, and Chicago charter legislation. Some striking peculiarities are to be noted On all of these subjects the lines have been as follows: of white persons born of native drawn, not so much between leading parties parents the percentage of illiteracy is 5.7 and as such, as between opposing factions within of natives born of foreign parents only 1.6. the recognized parties. In 1913 the suffrage This may be accounted for by noting that the was partially extended to women.

immigrants in general settle in states and Population.—The population of the state, cities where there are well developed school 1860–1910, has been as follows: 1860, 1,711,- systems and compulsory education, while the 951; 1870, 2,539,891; 1880, 3,077,871; 1890, native whites in greater proportion live in 3,826,352; 1900, 4,821,550; 1910, 5,638,591. rural surroundings, and include the inhabit. The last decade shows a marked reduction in ants of the southern mountain region. the rate of increase and in fifty of the one As indicating the effects of the educational hundred and two counties an actual decrease. systems of the different states it should be Urban population has increased 30.4 per cent noted that of all white children of native born but the rural population remains about sta- parents, from 10 to 14 years old, the illiteracy tionary. Of the total population in 1910, is only 2 per cent in Massachusetts, Con. 43 per cent were persons of foreign birth or necticut, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Da. parentage.

kota, Nebraska, Utah and Washington; over See ConstiTUTIONS, STATE, CHARACTERISTICS 2 per cent and less than 1 per cent in all New OF; STATE GOVERNMENTS, CHARACTERISTICS OF. England states except Maine, in Ohio, Indiana,

References: E. B. Greene, The Government Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Kansas, and in of Illinois; Its History and Administration all the states of the western division except (1904); J. Moses, Illinois, Historical and Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. While at Statistical (2d ed., 1895); Secretary of State, the other extreme for the same ages of whites Bluebook of the State of Illinois (1911); Re- is Virginia, 9.3 per cent, North Carolina, 16.7 vised Statutes of Illinois (issued biennially by per cent, South Carolina, 15 per cent, Tennesthe Legal News Publishing Company, Chi- see, 11.9, per cent, Alabama, 15.7 per cent, cago); Starr and Curtis, Annotated Statutes Louisiana, 17.4 per cent. of the State of Illinois (1896); Illinois State Statistics of negro illiteracy show great Historical Library, Collections (1903 to date); progress; of children 10 to 14 years old, 20.1 "Population of Illinois” in Thirteenth Census per cent illiterate in 1910 as against 52 per of the U. 8., Abstract with Supplement for Illi- cent for those from 35 to 44 years old. nois; F. N. Thorpe, Federal and State Consti- See BENNETT SCHOOL LAW; EDUCATON AS A tutions (1909), II, 955–1052; J. A. Fairlie, FUNCTION OF GOVERNMENT; EDUCATION, COM"County and Town Government in Illinois” in PULSORY; EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS; FOR Amer. Acad. of Polit. and Soc. Sci., Annals, EIGN ELEMENTS


References: Scientific American, XCV, Sept. ILLITERACY. The term illiteracy is com- 8, 1906, 174; Outlook, XCI, Jan. 16, 1909, monly understood to mean the inability of 114; Nelson's Encyclopedia (1906), VI, 370; adults to read. In some countries the basis U. S. Bureau of the Census, Twelfth Census of calculation is the number of men and women (1890); Survey, March, 1911, 987; Littels married who cannot sign the register; in Living Age, Sept. 30, 1911, 882. others the ability of army recruits to read;

GEORGE E. FELLOWS. therefore no trustworthy comparison can be made between different countries on this ques. ILLUMINATI. A name given to certain tion. In the United States a person is techni- religious societies claiming perfection or encally called illiterate if over ten years of age lightenment in religious matters, applied especand unable to read and write.



ially to a body of mystics in southern France According to the latest available statistics, in the 18th century whose deistic and repub. illiteracy of adult males in Germany and in lican doctrines the American Federalist leadSweden was as low as .11 per cent, and as ers, about 1798, claimed had been adopted by high as 28.1 per cent in Hungary, and 61.7 per the “Democratic societies" in the United States. cent in Russia. In the United States the

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