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Analysis of Urine, February 3, 1880.

Quantity in 24 hours
Specific gravity
Crea

Case I.

976 1013

13 grammes

Case II.
1500
1010
24.3

Case III.
1300
1012
17.55

The color was in each case reddish-yellow; reaction acid; phosphates about one-half the normal; chlorides and sulphates were only examined for qualitatively, but were estimated as nearly normal; crystals of triple phosphates were present; no albumen or sugar.

The diet for the day was as follows: Breakfast, stewed potatoes, bread and butter, and coffee; dinner, cold tongue, potatoes, blanc mange, milk, apples, and crackers; supper, bread and butter, and tea.

Analysis of Urine, May 4, 1880.

Quantity in 24 hours
Specific gravity
Urea

Case I. 1230 c. c. 1016

20 grammes

Case II.
1080 c. c.
1018
22.5

Case III. 1000 c. c. 1021

27

Examination for color, reaction, phosphates, etc., gave practically the same results as February 3d.

Diet: Breakfast, eggs, bread and butter; dinner, farina, bread and butter, corn-starch, milk; supper, arrowroot, and milk.

On February 3d and May 4th, 1880, an investigation of the urine in our cases was made by Dr. D. W. Jefferis, assistant superintendent to the Institution for Feeble-Minded Children. The patients, while under observation, were kept in a warm room, under the constant supervision of a watchful attendant, so that the whole quantity of urine passed in twenty-four hours was carefully collected.

THE SALISBURY PLANS IN CONSUMPTION-PRODUCTION IN ANIMALS—RATIONALE AND TREATMENT.

By EPHRAIM CUTTER, M.D.,

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.

PRELUDE.

The writer is a witness. As such he feels compelled to state the truth. If the testimony proves a testimonial, it is still testimony. As the subject is one of the most momentous that can engage the mind of a medical man, it demands a fair hearing, and a suspension of judgment until the evidence is all in.

It is estimated that one-quarter of the human deaths is caused directly or indirectly by what is commonly called consumption. Taking man to comprise 1,500,000,000 of individuals living on this globe, and the rate of annual mortality to be one in fortyfive, there is a total of 33,333,333 yearly deaths. One-quarter of this number gives 8,333,333 annual victims offered on the altar of consumption. The intellect is unable fully to comprehend this vast number. Allow us to try to measure it by some common gauges. I find I can write my name readily ten times in one minute. It would take me 833,333 minutes to write it as many times as there are annual consumptive deaths. That is, it would take 1 year, 213 days, and 16 hours of unintermitted writing simply to inscribe the names of this host, if on an average they consisted of thirteen letters.

Suppose the vast company could be marshalled in rows four deep and two feet apart, this host would reach 770 miles in length, and occupy 10 days and 17 hours in passing a given point at a continuous rate of three miles an hour.

If the coffins of this host averaged three feet in length, and could be placed end to end, they would reach 24,999,999 feet, or about 4733 miles, or farther than from here to Liverpool.

Their funerals, at an average cost of ten dollars, would sum up $83,333,333.

Bringing the matter down to the United States, with a popu. lation of 45,000,000, we have 250,000 annual deaths from consumption. A mortality of 20,000 deaths in the late epidemic of yellow fever convulsed the nation and cost $27,000,000. How can we estimate our annual monetary loss from one-quarter of a million deaths from consumption? If the deceased had been associated in an organization, it would take its secretary to call off the roll, at the rate of 36 names a minute, 4 days, 19 hours, and 44 minutes of continuous phonation.

The paper on which this essay is written is about 1-365 of an inch thick. Yet 250,000 of such sheets would make a pile 57 feet and 1 inch high.

The literature of this disease is immense. It is traced through history. Millions of medical minds have grappled with it, notably in inaugural theses and the profoundest efforts of the fathers of medicine. Seas, mountains, languages, customs, dress, manners, religions, and localities may separate nations; conditions, castes, wealth, birth, capacities, endowments, professions, colors, and vice may separate communities into classes ; but the oneness of humanity is made evident by a common union in death from consumption. For ages prose and poetry have labored to express the sincere sentiments of hopes blighted, feelings wounded, hearts broken, expectations unrealized on the part of orphans and widows and bereaved parents. How many of the brightest and most promising jewels have been shorn from the diadem of our own profession by this disease! Personalities in this connection should not be offensive; but if the future can be judged by the past, one-fifth of my audience will die of consumption. As a witness I stand then between the living and the dead. Am I wrong in claiming that the subject is one of the most momentous that can engage the mind in a numerical, biological, monetary, politico-economical, domestic, sociological, literary, scientific, and religious point of view?

It is proposed, first, to give a brief account of Dr. James H. Salisbury's experiments on animals that resulted in producing consumption, and verified by autopsies. I have found nothing like them in history, in number, extent, and decision. In my opinion they throw new light on the real hidden source of this hitherto inscrutable disease. Second, having given the general grounds on which the theory is based, it is proposed to give the Salisbury rationale of consumption. Third, to present cases of

actual treatment that have come under Dr. Salisbury's and my own care.

At the outset, to anticipate queries that are apt to arise, it may be proper to state that Dr. Salisbury is a gentleman of wealth who bas devoted himself to the investigation of the causes of disease for more than thirty years. He graduated at Union College in the arts, and at Albany Medical College in medicine. The list of his published works shows the variety and extent of his labors.

As to myself, I speak from a personal knowledge of this plan of more than thirteen years, and of many cases. I testify what I believe to be the truth; having done this, whatever my reception, I shall be satisfied that I have acted up to my convictions of duty in trying to make known what I know about the plans. I dislike to be thus personal, but I know that dicta are generally judged by the character of the speakers more than by the character of the communications. While then I cannot show more ability and skill, I pray those who may be interested, to look more to the facts presented than to the means of their presentation. It is possible to present a good cause badly and a bad cause ably. Thus evil may, on the ordinary modes of acceptation, be received sooner than good. But when a quarter of a million of us die yearly of a certain disease, it ill becomes one to refuse to throw any new light on it by recounting the modes in which it has been artificially produced, verified, and also has been cured, if any organic disease has been cured.

Production of Consumption in Animals.-In 1858 Dr. Salisbury had a work ready for the press detailing the experiments he made. He took two thousand swine and arranged them in lots, suited to the size of the pens. In one pen he had 624, and in an adjoining pen 404. These two pens were for testing the effects of' fermenting food and the products of fermentation when used as an exclusive aliment. The balance of the swine were placed in pens for studying upon them the effects of the various mixed foods. The two pens containing 1028 swine joined two pens of 1100 swine that had been fed on the fermenting food for eleven weeks and had ceased to die. Not a bog in these pens took the disease. While, during the first ten weeks of feeding, out of the 1028 swine 246 died. After the tenth week none died. Of the 246 that died, 104 of them were subjected to a careful examination after death. In all these cases he

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