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dress, and iudustriously kept Charles at a distance from Aranda, the place to which the cardinal had removed. Through their suggestions, every measure that he recommended was rejected; the utmost care was taken to make him feei, and to point out to the whole nation, that his power was on the decline; even in things purely trivial, such a choice was always made, as was deemed most disagreeable to him. Ximenes did not bear this treatment with his usual fortitude of spirit. Conscious of his own integrity and merit, he expected a more grateful return from a prince to whom he delivered a kingdom more flourishing than it had been in any former age, and authority more extensive and better established, than the most illustrious of his ancestors had ever possessed. He could not, therefore, on many occasions, refrain from giving vent to his indignation and complaints. He lamented the fate of his country, and foretold the calamities it would suffer from the insolence, the rapaciousness, and ignorance of strangers. While his mind was agitated by these passions, he received a letter from the king, W which, after a few cold and formal expressions of regard, he was allowed to retire to his diocese; that after a life of such continued labour, he might end his days in tranquillity. This message proved fatal to Ximens. His haughty roind, it is probable, would not survive disgrace; perhaps, his generous heart could not bear the, prospect of the misfortunes ready to fall on his country. Whichsoever of these opinions we embrace, certain it is, that he expired a few hours after reading the letter. The variety, the grandeur, and the suc
cess of his schemes, during a regency of only twenty months, leave it doubtful, whether his sagacity in council, his prudence in conduct, or his boldness in execution, deserve the greatest praise. His reputation is still high in Spain, not only for wisdom, but for sanctity; and he is the only prime minister mentioned in history, whom his cotemporaries reverenced as a faint, and to whom the people under his government ascribed tie power of working miracles.
Of the famous Corsairs Horuc Barbarossa, and his brother Hayradin.
ABOUT the beginning of the sixteenth century a sudden revolution happened, which, by rendering the states of Barbary formidable to the Europeans, hath made their history worthy of more attention. This revolution was brought about by persons born in a rank of life which entitled them to act no such ill/lrious part. Horuc and Hayradin, the sons of a potter in the isle of Lesbos, prompted by a restless and enterprising spirit, forsook their father's trade; ran to sea, and joined a crew of pirates. They soon distinguished themselves by their valour and activity; and becoming masters of a small brigantine, carried on their infamous trade with such, conduct and success, that they assembled a fleet of twelve galleys, besides many vessels of smaller force. Of this fleet Horuc, the eldest brother, called Barbarossa from the red colour of hi§ beard, was admiral, and Hayradin second in command, but with almost equal authority. They C 3 called called themselves the friends of the sea, and the enemies of all who fail upon it; and their names soon became terrible, from the straits of the Dardanelles to those ol Gibraltar. Together with their fame and power, their ambitious views opened and enlarged; and, while acting as corsairs, they adopted the ideas, and acquired the talents of conquerors. They often carried the prizes which they took on the coasts of Spain and Italy, into the ports of Barbary; and enriching the inhabitants by the sale of their booty, and the thoughtless prodigality of their crews, were welcome guests in every place at which they touched. The convenient situation of these harbours lying so near the greatest commercial Hates, at that time in Christendom, made the brothers wish for an establishment in that country. An opportunity os accon.p'.istiing this quickly presented itself, which they did not surfer to pass unimproved. Eutemi, king of Algiers, having attempted several times, without success, to take a fort which the Spanish governor of Cran had built nor far from his capital, was so ill ad\ ised as to apply for aid to Barbarossa, whose valour the Africans considered as irresistible. The active corsair gladly accepted of the invitation; and leaving his brother Hayradin with the fleet, marched at the head of five thousand men to Algiers, where he was received as their deliverer. Such a force gave him the command of the town; and observing that the Moors neither suspected him of any bad intention, nor were capable with their light-armed troops of opposing his disciplined veterans, he secretly murdered the monarch whom he
had come to assist, and caused him-, self to be proclaimed king of AU giers in his stead. The authority which he had thus boldly usurped, he endeavoured to established by arts suited to \he genius of the people whom he had to govern; by liberality, without bounds, to those who favoured his promotion, and by cruelty, no less unbounded, towards all whom he had any reason to distrust. Not satisfied with the throne which he had acquired, he attacked the neighbouring king of Tremecen, and having vanquished him in battle, added his dominions to those of Algiers. At the fame time he continued to invest the coasts of Spain and Italy, with fleets, which resembled the armaments of a great monarch, rather than the light squadrons of a corfair. The devastations which these committed, obliged Charles, about the beginning of his reign, to furnish the Marquis Jc Corr..nares, governor of Oran, with troops sufficient to attack him. That officer, assisted hy the dethroned king of Tremecen, executed the commission with such spirit, that Barbaroffa's troops being heat in several rencounters, he himself was shut up in Tremecen; after defending it to the last extremity, he was overtaken in attempting to make his escape, and stain while he fought with an obstinate valour, worthy of his former fame and exploits.
His brother Hayradin, known likewise by the n.;me of Barbarossa, assumed the sceptre os Algiers with the fame ambition and abilities, but with better fortune. His reign being undisturbed by the arms of the Spaniards, which had full occupation in the wars among the European powers, he regulated, with admirable admirable prudence, the interior police of his kingdom, carried on his naval operations with great vigour, and extended his conquests on the continent of Africa. But, perceiving that the Moors and Arabs submitted to his government with the utmost impatience, "and being afraid that his continual depredations would, one day, draw upon him the arms of the Christians, he put his dominions under the protection of the grand seignior, and received from him a body of Turkish soldiers, sufficient for his security against his domestic, as well as his foreign enemies. At last, the fame of his exploits daily increasing, Solyman offered him the command bf the Turkish fleet, as the only person whose valour and skill in naval affairs entitled Mm to command against Andrew Doria, the greatest sea-officer of that age. Proud of this distinction, Barbaroffa repaired to Constantinople, and with a wonderful versatility of mind, mingling the arts of a courtier with the boldness of a corsair, gained the entire confidence both of the sultan and his vizier. . To them he communicated a scheme that he had formed of making himself master of Tunis, the most flourishing kingdom, at that time, on the coast of Africa, which being approved of by them, he obtained whatever he demanded for carrying it into execution.
His hopes of success in this undertaking were sounded on the intestine divisions in the kingdom of Tunis. Mahmed, the last king of that country, having thirty-four sons by different wives, named M\ ey-Hascen, one of the youngest among themj his successor. That weak prince, who owed his prefe.
rence not to his own merit, but to the ascendant which his mother had acquired over an old doating monarch, first poisoned his father in order to prevent him from altering his destination; and then, with the barbarous policy which prevails wherever polygamy is permitted, and the right of succession is not precisely fixed, he put to death all his brothers whom he could get into his power. Alrafchid, one of the eldest, was so fortunate as to escape, his rage; and finding a retreat among the wandering Arabs, made several attempts, by the assistance of some of their chiefs, to recover the throne, which of right belonged to him. But these proving unsuccessful, and the Arabs, from their natural levity, being ready to deliver him up to his merciless brother, he fled to Algiers, the only place of refuge remaining, and implored the protection of Barbaroffa; who, discerning at once all the advantages that might be gained by supporting his tide, received him with every possible demonstration of friendship and respect. Being ready, at that time, to set sail for Constantinople, he easily persuaded Alrafchid, whose eagerness to obtain a crown disposed him to believe or undertake any thing, to accompany him thither, premising him effectual assistance from Solyman, whom he represented to be the most generous, as well as most powerful, monarch in the world. But no sooner were they arrived at Constantinople, than the false corsair, regardless of all his promises to him, opened to the sultan a plan for conquering Tunis, and annexing it to the Turkish empire, by making nse of the name of this exiled prince, and by means of C 4 .the the party ready to declare in his favour. Solyman approved, with too much facility, of this perfidious proposal, extremely suitable to :he character of its author, but altogether unworthy of a great | rince. A powerful fleet and numerous army were soon assembled; at the fight of which th- credulous Alrafchid flattered himself that he would soon enter his ca;'i>l in triumph.
But just: as this unhappy prince was going to embark, he was arrest; 1 by order of the sultan, shut up in the seraglio, and was never heard of more. Barbarossa sailed with a fleet of two hundred and fifty vessels towards Africa. After ravaging the coasts of Italy, and spreading terror through every part of that country, he appeared before Tunis; and landing his me ,, gave out, that he came to assert the right of Alraichid, whom he pretended to have left sick aboard the admiral's galley. The fort of Goletta, which commands the bay, soon fe'l into his hands, partly by his own address, and partly by the treachery of its commander; and the inhabitants of Tunis, weary of Muley-Hascen's government, took arms, and declared for Alrafchid with such zeal and unanimity, as obliged the former to fly so precipitately, that he left all his treasures behind him. The gates were immediately set open to Barbarossa, as the restorer of their lawful sovereign. But whenAlraschid himself did not appear, and when, instead of his same, that of Solyman alone was heard among the acclamations of the Turkish soldiers marching into the town, the people of Tunis began to suspect the corsair's treachery; and their suspicions being soon converted into certainty, they ran
to arms with the utmost fury, and surrounded the citalel, into which Ba-barossa had led his troops. But having foreseen such a revolution, he was not unprepared sot it; he immediately turned against them the artille-y on the ramparts, and by 'vie brisk discharge of it, and of his small arms, he dispersed the numerous, 1 ut undirected assailants, and forced them to acknowledge Solyman as their sovereign, and tq submit to him as his viceroy.
Of the great Admiral, and celebrated Patriot, Andrew Doria.
OU R author having given an account of the condition of the French army under Lautrec, at the siege of Naples, after the Imperial fleet had been destroyed and the Viceroy killed ar the mouth of the harbour by Doria's nephew, proceed;, as follows:
These unexpected events retarded the progress of the Fr.nch, and discouraged both the general and his troops; but the revolt of Andrew Doria proved a' fatal blow to all their measures. That gallant officer, the citizen of a republic, and trained up from his infancy in the sea-service, retained the spirit os independence natural to the former, and the plain liberal manners peculiar to the latter. A perfect stranger to the arts tof submission or rlattery necessary in courts, and conscious at the fame time of his own merit and importance, he al-, ways offered his advice with freedom, and often preferred his com. plaints and remonstrances with boldness. The French ministers, unaccustomed to such liberties, determined to ruin a man who treated
themthem with so little deference; and though Francis himself had a just sense jf Doria's services, as well as an high esteem for his character, the courtiers, by continually representing him as a man haughty, intractable, and more solicitous to aggrandize himself than promote the interest of France, gradually underrained the foundations of his credit, and filled the king's mind with suspicion and distrust. From thence proceeded several affronts and indignities put upon Doria. His appointments were not regularly paid; his advice, even in naval affairs, was often slighted; an attempt was made to seize the prisoners taken by his nephew in the sea-fight off Naples; .all which he bore with abundance of ill-humour. But an injury offered to his country, transported him beyond all bounds ofpatience. The French began to fortify Savona, to clear it? harbour, and, removing thither some branches of trade carried on at Genoa, plainly (hewed that they intended to render that town, long the object of jealousy and hatred to the Genoese, their rival in wealth and commerce. Doria, animated with a patriotic zeal for the honour and interest of his country, remonstrated against this in the highest tone, not without threats, if the measure were not instantly abandoned. This bold action, aggravated bv the malice of the courtiers, and placed in the most odious light, irritated Francis to such a degree, that he' commanded Barbefieux, whom he appointed admiral of the Levant, to sail directly to Genoa with the French fleet to arrest Doria, and to seize his galleys. This rash order, of whish the most profound secrecy alone could have
secured the execution, was concealed with so little care, that Doria got timely intelligence of it, and retired with all his galleys to a place of safety. Gualto, his prisoner, who had long observed and fomented his growing discontent, and had often allured him by magnificent promises to enter into the emperor's service, laid hold on this favourable opportunity. While his indignation and resentment were at their height, he prevailed on him to dispatch one of his officers to the Imperial court with his overtures and demands. The negociation was not long; Charles, fully sensible of the importance of such an acquisition, granted him whatever terms he required. Doria sent back his commiffion, together with the collar of St. Michael, to Francis, and hoisting the Imperial colours, sailed Vith all his galleys towards Naples, not to block up the harbour of that unhappy city, as he had formerly engaged, but to bring them protection and deliverance.
His arrival opened the communication with the sea, and restored plenty in Naples, which was now reduced to the last extremity; and the French, having lost, their superiority at sea, were soon reduced to great straits for want of provisions. The prince of Orange, who succeeded the viceroy in the command of the Imperial army, (hewed himself, by his prudent conduct, worthy ot that honour which his good fortune, and the death of his generals, had twice acquired him. Beloved by the troops, who remembering the prosperity they had enjoyed under his command, served him wish the utmost alacrity, he let flip no opportunity of harassing the enemy, and by continual alarms