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out lengthening or setting it off with futile trills, even in those pieces where it is left to its own liberty. They who have heard, at Rome and Naples, some of the pieces which the organ plays at the Elevation, mention them as pieces composed and executed in that noble simplicity, which characterises and ever accompanies the sublime.

In all other compositions, the present Italian mustc is a continual struggle against difficulties arising one from the other. When no more difficulties shall remain to overcome, when the glory of getting the better of them shall cease, when they (hall be smoothed to ail symphonists, the love of change will necessarily bring back music to simplicity; and a melody, disencumbered from the noise which drowns it, will be felt by every ear.

This revolution perhaps is not far off; all instruments are carried in Italy to a point, which seems a ne plus ultra: hut the most brilliant execution there cannot deceive the ears of eminent connoisseurs; with them, the noise which astonishes the sensitive organs, is very different from the melody which should speak to the soul, i :•. ■

Naples has, for a long time, been the school and seminary of the best violins; yet they question their skill till they have been tried by the renowned Tartini, so that they flock to Padua purely to court his approbation. Tartini coolly hears tnem; and, aster' very attentively listening to what they propose to execute, "That's fine," soys he, or "that is very difficult; that is f* brilliantly executed ;■ but," adds he, putting his finger to his breast, f it did vot reach hither."

father Martini Valotti of Padua,

an intimate friend of Tartini, and of the fame taste in music, has formed a scheme for bringing the art and artists to true principles; and it is carried on by himself, Tartini, monsignori Giustiniani, and Marcello, Venetian nobles. This scheme comprehends the book of Psalms tranflated into Italian verse, as literally as could be, without injuring the poetry, and set to a music as simple as Lully'* plaints composition. I have seen the first production of this scheme, in two volumes, excellently engraved. Thir music, at first fight, appears,to be common church music.

Whilst the Italians are closdr furling the sails of music, France spreads them all, and improvM every ■ wind to forward its cowft through the rocks, sands, and dangers, of a sea noted for wrecks. That which it seem« to defy, would perhaps be rather advantageous than hurtful to it; as thereby it would only lose the refuse of the Italian warehouses, of which it has hastily made up its cargo.

To speak ■ lainly, when the revolution in Italy, of which the endeavours above-mentioned seem a commencement, snail be accomplished; when Italy, excluding (torn music those concetti, which its present poets and orators are no left careful to avoid rhan those os the last century were studious to afitct; the French, notwithstanding their language, will be found hampertd In all the bcllowings of which the Italians have rid themselves, ami which France "ill likewise aside-in time, either from reflection Dr satiety. >''-v"'

Of this the consequence will ht, that . two nations, so like one another in so many amiable qualities

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will for a long time greatly differ with regard to music; that the endeavours of the French to close with the Italians may only widen the difference;, and lastly, that those two nations, though running the fame race, may perhaps never meet at the goal.

An Account of the Fair of Sinigaglia; from Grostey's Observations on Italy.

SINIGAGLIA has retained the name of the Senonese, settled in this part of ancient UmMia. Senonum de nomine Setian, fays Silius Italicus. It belonged to the dukes of Urbino, who had sheltered it from the insults of Turks and pirates by some fortifications still subsisting. In 1758 its circuit was enlarging, in order to which its works on the west fide were raised, and new ramparts built like the former, which the labour of pulling them down shewed to be os a very strong construction.

The enlargement of this city, on account of the vast concourse of people at the fair time, and the foreigners, whom the great business done at this fair might induce to fettle here, had long been necessary, so that we must suppose there were seme political reasons against it. she difference between pope Benedict and Venice having diminished the weight of these reasons, the apostolic chamber made choice of that juncture to take the works in hand, and very briskly were they carrying on under Monsignor Merlini, president of Urbino, who had signalized himself by an expedition against' 'he smugglers; an expedition which W determined Pope Benedict to

suppress the farming of tobacco in his dominions, and bring this ar» tick again into the common course pf trade.

The air of this eity, however, cannot boast of more salubrity than, that of all this coast of the Adria. tic. Boccace, speaking of a young woman, eke Hob mai em fenza mat a" occhi, con un col',r -verde e gialh, adds, che parevn cb.- non a Fiefole ma a Sinigaglia hwvcjse fqtta In state, Nov. 4. giorn. 8. /, r. '" Who "was continually troubled with "sore eyes, and her complexion "green and yellow," adds,." that "she looked as if she had spent "the summer at Sinigaglia, and not "at Fiefole."

Sinigaglia affords nothing remark-^ able either in its public or privata edifices. We indeed saw some paint!. ings by Barocci, and, in a small church in the high street, a picture quite,, new, which struck us extremely, by the exact resemblance os St. Charles, the person it re presented, to a French prelate, whom we had heard preach at Paris before the assembly of the clergy.

We reached Sinigaglia time enough for the opening of the fair, which holds the eight last davs of July. The ihore, along which we had come from Fano, was lined with culverines, cmnon, loop-holes, old arquebuses, a!l pointed towards the sea; likewise with parties of soldiers in barracks at regular distances, besides some ships of the pope, lying in the offing. In short, nothing had the apostolic chamber omitted for the safety of the fair.

Mr. Merlini was there in person, and kept o, en house for the neighbouring nobility. All this nobility, men, women, and chil

M 4 dren,

dren, for whom this fair is a party of pleasure, throws a pleifing variety and a kind of tranquillity amidst die perpetual bustle of crowds of people of all nations, eagerly looking out for one another, or hurried in removing goods from the harbour br road to the city, from the city to the harbour or road; in unpacking or packing up, in embarking or landing: not a single beast of carriage or draught is made' use of for this business; the whole is done by faebitti, or porters, who, with equal dexterity and strength, carry the greatest burdens whether in weight or bulk. This sight puts one in mind of a fire, with multitudes got together, ibrhe quenching the flames, and others clearing .the houses. The streets are all (haded by tents.hung across, and wetted from time to rime; and, for the conveniency of carriage, the ground is boarded. Palaces, houses, the whole city is a warehouse; the harbour, the quays, the streets, are one continued stiop, and, in the midst of them, a thousand little ambulatory shops moving backwards and forwards. What sweating the heat of the dog-days, amidst such bustle and such a crowd, and in such a climate, must occasion, may easily be imagined. The ditches, the glacis, arid the outworks of the city, are covered with tents, huts, kitchens, and horses standing at pickets; and in every little cottage are stowed several families. T*he people of fashion shelter themselves in the coffeehouses, where abbes arc always gallanting the ladies, and these tricked up in all their finery in the French mode.

The basis of this fair is formed by the, islands and all the coasts of

the Adriatic, Sicily, and a past of the Archipelago. The Albanians and Archipelago Greeks bring li^ht jackets, waistcoats, shirts, caps, babouches, or large puppets, wax, honey, &ct. An Albanian vessel had a lading of tar in goatskins, the greater part of which, whether ill made or rotten, burst in bringing them from the harbour to the road; so that this part of the fair was all over tar, and crowded with people scrambling for it.

Nigrior Illyrica tune sice portus ertt.

The Greeks speak Italian, or make use of the Lingua Franca: a harsh compound of Greek, Italian, and Provencal, the threp smoothest languages now in being. By their air and countenance they appear as go'od people as oot would wish to deal with: eory one lay dozing on the pavement, his body being a kind of fenct to his little shop, and thus ftW away, without changing his situation. In all other dealers tie nafcmal air might be distinguished at first sight. The Lombard, the Swiss, and the Lyonese, called to every one that passed by to sec what they liked, eagerly displayed all his shop, exacted beyond all reason, but very complaisantly thanked the least customer. The Hollander w* wholly taken up with the disposition of his shop, placing, aid brushing, and cleaning ever)' p'.e* The Romancse and Sicilian, leaning with his belly against his counter, with his hat thrust down to his eyes, and his hands across in the sleeves of the opposite arm, was ruminating On his accounts. The

sullen and haughty Engl>*nttB

shewed shewed what goods were asked him, at the fame time naming the price, and, on any appearance of haggling, hastily put them tip' again, and took t'other turn in his (hop. I saw two Frenchmen there, one an abbe, taken up, like us, with viewing th* fair; the other having bought a fillet of a pretty Grecian woman, was for adding to it two small ribbons, and desired her to favour him so far as to few them to the two ends ps the large ribbon. These worth were no sooner out of his mouth, than out came, over the Grecian beauty's shoulder, a brawny arm naked to the elbow, holding up to the abbe's nose a fist, with the fore-finger erect, and at the same thhe accompanied with a fierce voice, Signer no, from her indignant husband, to whom that ugly arm belonged.

'On the third day of the fair she Venetian commander of the gulph appeared off Sinigaglia in his proper ship, accompanied with some smaller gallies. Every year he fliakes this- appearance, under presence of protecting the fair, but rather to receive a settled fee paid Mm by the apostolic chamber, and which by Venice is looked on as an acknowledgement from the pope of its sovereignty over the gulph. In a \>retty keen expostulation about this fee, a pope asking the Venetian ambassador wbere were the republic's vouchers for the sovereignty of the gulph; they are to be] found, holy father, answered he, on the back of Constantine's grant. Formerly the commander of the gulph came ashore at Sinigaglia with a numerous retinue, and spent two et three days there, during which the governor was to enter

tain him as a sovereign. By a new agreement, the governor goes aboard of the commander, and fettles with him there: by this agreement every hody is a gainer; the Venetians fit out but a very flight squadron, and it only shows itself at a distance; and the governor is rid of the irienmbrance and expence of entertaining the comT minder and his train at Sinigaglia. If any ave losers, it is the mere spectators, this agreement having made a considerable diminution ia the variety of the show,

Mortifying Certmouy to iuhi-:h the Jeiui afejubjed'/'aRome.

THE censor of books*pfmrc"4 at Rome, and in the eccleT fiastical state, forms the 'department of the master of the sacred, palace. This post is annexed to, the Dominican order. The person) who filled it while we were at Rome was father Orsi, eminent for his birth, talents, and . works, among which it is sufficient to name his Ecclesiastical History. In his appearance, and in every thing about him, there was a simplicity, modesty, and candour, which would have surprised even a novice* At his house I was a spectator ofa scene which, for its singularity, deserves relating.

At the time of the poffcffo the Jews in Rome are subject to a very mortifying ceremony, ibut strictly kept up. Near Titus's triumphal arch, the rabbis and elders of the Ghetto stand in a place fitted up at their expence. As the pope is on his solemn procession to St. John de Lateran, they step forth, and on their knees offer to him the Pentateuch tateuch in a bason full of gold and silver coins. The pope, making a flop, touches the bason with a wand, and performs the like ceremony on the head or shoulders of the chief rabbi, in token that he accepts of the Jews homage, and allows them to remain in Rome during his pontificate. The Jews, that their homage to Clement XIII. might be the more taken notice of, had purchased some original sonifrts, and printed them in a large letter and paper, _ like proclamations, and hung part of, their station with these testimonies of their allegiance. The author of these sonnets, in expectation of farther gain, digested them into a collection, to be fold on his account. The rabbi, who bad paid for them,.estimating their merit by the poet's expectation, seized -the edition, as having originally purchased the pieces of which ij consisted. The matter' being brought before the master of the sacred palace, he summoned the parties; and I had the pleasure of hearing them dispute their claims, with all the vehemency of elocution and gesture to which the hope of gain could rouse a rabbi and an Italian poet, to whom the point in dispute was no small matter. Both parties being heard, P. Orsi adjudged the edition, paying the expence of it, to the rabbi, who exulted at the decision, whilst the. poet hung his head, When they' were withdrawn, I took the liberty to espouse the poet's cause, as connected with that of religion: "Why," fays P. Orsi, smiling, " I "have given it on the fide of re"ligion. All the money that the *• poet had got from the rabbi he "has laid out in printing this cols' lection, .of which he would, not

"have fold half a dozen copies: "he would have been just like the "dog in the fable, losing its prey "in running after the-reflexion of "the moon. My verdict against "him was in fact for him."

Translation of a Letter from Arena 'to Michael Angelo, on painting the Last Judgment.

OU R author, Mr. Grosley, introduces this remarkable let. ter with the following observations. —To conclude the article of painting in a manner agreeable to the connoisseurs, arid useful to the artists, I shall insert a letter written by the famous Aretin to Michael Angelo on the report, at Venice, that he was going to paint tie Last Judgment in Sixtus the IVth's chapel at the Vatican. This great piece was finished by the time Michael Angelo received the letters for which he thanked Aretin, acknowledging that the ideas which he suggested of that grand subject were superior to those of his own growth. Let artists and connois? seurs judge whether there was mote truth than politeness in this deck, ration of Michael Angelo, who accompanied it with several designs by his own hand, of which Aretin returned him thanks in a letter of the 20th of January, 1538. The letter in question is of the 15th of September, of the foregoing year, What Aretin fays of painting in the beginning of this letter, he unquestionably wrote as dictated by the celebrated Titiaq, his godfather apd intimate friend. It may be accounted a masterly commentary qn the 6th chapter of the 35th book of Pliny.

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