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cell'mus, to the noise of an agitated sea dashing against the rocks.
The conquest of the Gauls, by the Romans, the dovvnfal of Druidism, which followed it, the forced trade of the Gauls with their new roasters, had but little affected their music, at least that of the northern Gauls; for, near four hundred years after that conquest, the emperor Julian, bantering with a friend of his on a composition ■which he was sending to him from the farthest part of Gaul, said, comparing it to those of the musical poets of this country, TaDT» c-ot
Two of Theodoric's letters, written by Caffiodorus, among whose works they are to be read, .inform «s, that the Gaulish music continued still the same at the time of th: conquest of the Gauls by Clo•*is. This prime, intending to retain musicians in his palace, qui sot Jtatts sun gloriam ol>lecinrent, had -desired Theodoric, magno opere, magnis firecibus, ,to fend him one of the ■fingers belonging to his chamberband. In the first of the abovecited letters, Tiie 'dork orders one of his best performers to be selected cut cum dulci Jono gentilium corda domet; and, in the second, he acquaints Clovis with the artist's being set out.
The gravity of the Christian religion, for a long time allowed, in ■public worship, only a pseknody which differed but little from common speeth. After the conversion cf Gonst?.ntine to Christianity, St. Athanasuis had excluded from the cliurch of Alexandria the chanting which was getting footing there. St. Ambrose afterwards countenanced it in the church of Milan, sancti.
fying, among the profane tnnei of paganism, such as had solemn graces comporting with the dignity of divine worship.
This regulation, being justified by the tears which the ambrosial mode of singing drew from St. Augustine, soon spread throughout the church. St. Gregory devoted part of the cares of his pontificate in introducing into the Roman church the singing known by the name of the Gregorian chant.'
The Gallican church authorised by general example, gradually adapted to public worship many of its ancient national tunes, which tradition had preserved. In trie latter times of the Roman empire, the entertaining arts, with which music may unquestionably be classed, being driven out of Europe by the incursions of the barbarians, now existed only in re. memb'rance, tradition, and a rote that could fnrnish nothing new to the performances which this revoution in the discipline of the church required.
Rome was the best provided: for St. Gregory collecting the remains of taste which Rome ftill retained under its ■ ruins, and borrowing from she Greek, and the principal Latin churches, the airs whieii he thought most suitable to the office of tfie church, composed and pricked down, with his own hand, the antiphonary, which on that account he called Atitiphinar:um centonem, and by which the singing of the Roman church is to this day regulated.
This antiphonary contained only the substance of the singing, and that indicated rather for recollecting then learning it. In order to settle and perpetuate this modula
tion, St. Gregory founded a school of singers, as a nursery for this part of the ecclesiastical office, and of which he himself was the first master.
What St. Gregory did for Rome, Claudian Mamert, brother to the bishop of Vienne, who instituted the rogation days, had already done for part of the Gauls, at least, according to the epitaph consecrated to his memory by bidonius Apollinaris.
Psalmorum hie modulator et' Phonascus Ante altare, gratulante fratre, Inflruilas docuit fonare clajj'is.
History gives us no insight into the state of the Gallican singing till the eighth or ninth centuries. Abbe Lebeuf conceives, that in that early epocha it had borrowed icertain modulations from the Roman fiuging, which likewise had borrowed from the Gallican. But some it had of its own growth, absolutely peculiar to itself, and of which not a few are transmitted down to our times: such are the melodies, triomphes, tropes, or laudes, still sung in some French cathedrals, before the epistle, on the, great festivals.. In some places they are called laudes epifeopi, and fung by regular canons, who, we may be sure, formerly shone in this part of the singing: their gratuities for this performance are paid by the bishop.
It would be quite needless to inform the reader, that the premises relate only to plain church singing. Mnfic in parts, if the Romans and Greeks were at all acquainted with it, had been buried with the fine arts under the ruins of the empire. fa birth or revival, call it which
you please, is of a much later date than the time we are speaking os. So early as the ninth century, the Roman singers, according to abbe Lebeuf, had taught the Gaulish, singers. The multiplication of the concords, their several combinations, the organisations in duplo, in triplo, in q.iadruplo, the fauxbourdon, the dechant, and the counter-point, at length, after four centuries of trials, feelings, and endeavours, produced our present music. By means of the diatonic scale, invented in the twelfth century by an Italian monk, it became a particular language, independent of all national idioms, and in which harmonists could fix their ideas, revise them, communicate them to others, and transmit them to posterity.
A learned Roman prelate has proved, that the arts depending on 'design, are indebted to the christian religion for the preservation of their manual practice, and their revival in Europe; and if we apply the same kind of proofs to music, it would be still more easy to demonstate that it owes all it is to that fame religion.
On a retrospect to the state os it in Europe, before the ninth century, we find it established in the Roman and Gallican church, but with all the different modulation* naturally arising from the different genius of the two nations, the difference of language and organs, the ancient Roman ' urbanity, and the prejudice of a nation, which, after the most vigorous resistance against the Roman yoke, defended its music as it had defended its liberty.
The Merovingian kings, not having Clovis's taste for music, were obliged, even for their chamber, ber, to make use of church-singing performed by priests and clerks., Gregory: of Tours relates* that being, in 585, at king Gontran's court, that prince desired, at dinner, that the gradual might be repeated by the deacon, who had fung it at the mass in the morning; and that, being much delighted with it, he immediately caused the same psalm to be sung out, in a full chorus, by all the priests and clergy who had attended their bilhop to court.
Under these kings of the first race, the popes had only a very remote influence, even in the churchaffairs of the French nation; till mutual services connecting the first Carlovingtan kings with the court of Rome, the popes took advan^ tage of these connections to extend to ecclesiastical concerns,' that im-> mediate influence which had been lately given to them in one of the most important state affairs. They endeavoured to introduce the Gregorian singing, instead of the old Gallican moods, and in this were effectually seconded by Pepin and Charlemagne, who, having been several times at Rome, were become prepossessed in favour of the Roman singing.
Towards the middle of the eighth century, Pepin/had already sent to Rome some monks to be instructed in the Gregorian chaiif> in St. Gregory's school, under the inspection of pope Paul I. "In 787, on the "celebration of Easter at Rome «' before Charlemagne, the singers "ofhis chapel were for singing in "the choir with the fingers of the"pope's chapel; it ecce orta eft "contentio! the French affirmed «« they fang the best and most cor"rcctly; the Romans, on the o
"ther haridj claimed the witoli! "advantage to be On their fids, "and charged the French witi *' being utterly ignorant of the "way of hitting a note, besidej "their rude enunciation. The "dispute being laid before the "emperor, and the French making "themselves sure of his protec"tion> grew mote vehement in "asserting their superiority. The "Romans, proud of their profound "knowledge and their regular stu"dies in this kind, called the "French clowns, dunces, afles. "The monarch, . having decided "the contest in favour of the Re "mans, desired of the pope twelve "choristers of his chapel, whom "he distributed in France to teach "the Roman note, or the Grego"rian chant."
Whether it was malignity, or the want of "skill in them, or obstinaej in the French, these instructions, far from answering the end desired,' spread in several parts of France a mode of singing, so ridiculously motleyed, as to be neither Roman nor Gallican. On Charlemagne'! complaints, Adrian II. recalled those choristers, punished their misbehaviour with imprisonment, and prevailed on the emperor to leave two of his singers at Rome, whose instructions he himself would take care of. When they were become masters of the Roman mood, he sent them back to Charlemagne, who kept one for his chapel, and sent the other to his son Drogon, bishop of Metz.
The instruction of these men, backed by the emperor's repeated orders, at length established the Roman chant in France: the French, whose name has since been given to this note, expressed it tolerably
well, especially at Metz, except the iuefii, the B flat, and the cadences, which the stiffness of their organs turned into a kind of braying.
This ingenuous confession of a French writer, to the disadvantage of his nation, John, deacon of the church of Rome, aggravates in unseemly terms in his life of St. Gregory: "These septentrional
"throats," fays he, " tan ex"press only the explosions of "thunder, and the roar of storms: "when their rigour aims to bring "itself to any agreeable modula"tion, instead of the cadences, the "trills and diminutions, required "in such a modulation, you hear "the rumble of heavy carts jolt"ing down a rugged slope; and "thus, instead of pleasing, they |* deafen the ear." National prejudice furnished the colourings of this picture. John was for revenging his nation of the reproaches cast on it by the French* that they had spoiled singing by loading it with primnesses and puerilities; and his recrimination he concludes with this reflection suggested by the like odious principle: Hac retulerim neindiscujsam Gallorum Icvitatem vide ar prœtermijifst:.
Amidst these endeavours for introducing the Gregorian chant into France, Charlemagne had greatly at heart the retaining some pieces of the Gallic singing, which tradition had preserved in old military songs: he was even a composer in this kind; and certainly no man in his whole kingdom more capable, isp as abbe Lebeuf affirms, though without quoting any authority, both the music and the words of Veni Creator are his.
Italy, in those early times, had jaculatores, or poetical musicians,
since known in France by the names of Trowveres, Min'flrels, &c. Father Le Brun, and M. Du Clos (in his memoir on the scenic games) have collected several articles of the capitularies and canons of councils held in France in the ninth century, against priests, abbots, and clerks, countenancing by their presence the buffooneries (joca obfcenat •verba turpiaj of the jongleurs (joculatores) or who even bore a part in them. Supposing these laws to have been general, it would follow, that the shows pointed at prevailed not only in France, but even in Germany, as well as Italy.
Charlemagne, coming down the Alps into Lombardy, in 774, was met by a Lombard poet, who fang to him a copy of verses, which he had composed in his praise.
The troubles during and subsequent to the reign of Lewis the Debonnaire, the wars in which both the empire and the French sceptre were wrested from the hoase of Charlemagne, deprived the muses of the necessary leisure and quiet for carrying on their labour* with any success. Besides the ge. neral evils in which France and Italy became involved, the former suffered extremely from the inroads and depredations of the Normans. These calamitous times caused, in the history of the music of the two nations, a void of between two and three centuries, in which nothing relating to music shews itself, but a few endeavours of the clergy and monks for preserving the old church music from those adulterations, which an ignorant love of novelty was introducing.
This void throws us back to the twelfth century: the cities of Italy availing themselves of the anarchy in which the public misfortunes had left the Italians and French, set up the standard of liberty, and erecting themselves into independent states, rose by agriculture, arts, trade, a numerous population, and all the advantages ,of which liberty, directed by good laws, is productive, to a very flourishing degree of prosperity.
The fine arts caught the ardour of these revolutions. About the beginning of the twelfth century, Guy Aretin having opened a way for carrying music to perfection, the Italians came into it in crowds, whilst the French declared for the ancient method.
Abbe Lebeuf, on the contrary, thinks that it does net appear in history, that Aretin's method met with any opposition, and that the worth of lit was not perceived: but Du Cange, in the word tiota, quotes a , passage of LetalJ, whom he makes coteniporary with Guy Aretin, (qui, eodemjœculo vixit.J In this passage, which is taken from the life of St. Julian, bishop of Mans,- Letald, the author of his life, mentions the office of that fame, faint, the words and music of which he had composed, and concerning which he gives to understand, that he has preferred the ancient method to the new, the first essays of which were but little agreeable to French cars (barbaram et imxpertamj. "For my part," adds the French monk, "these novelties are my "aversion, their own merit being "a deviation from our ancient "masters."
Instead of taking on me to settle these claihings of authorities, I shall only mention this perplexity in which their opposition leaves me.
This perplexity would be re
moved, were the passage, id which' John of Salisbury complains of the new music being introduced into the churches, applicable to the churches of England and France: that new music, according to his description of it, differs but little from the most laboured music of the present times; which looks as if he had in his eye the country where this music had but recendy made its appearance; that is, Italy.
On this passage of John of Salisbury, the abbe grounds two assertions, i. That this singing, verj different from the Gregorian chant, and adapted for private use, ot profane assemblies, is not admitted into the church: z. That its admission is very late.
'J he former little agrees with tie English writer's complaints of that singing being introduced in ««fpectum Domini, in ipjis penetralibns janiiuarii. The second, for which one may rely on the abbe Lebeuf'l particular knowledge in the rites and the rubricks of the churches of France, is a direct proof that John of Salisbury in this passage meant only Italy, whither he had travelled.
From the churches it spread among the people, and soon became the soul and band of those schools and societies of the mirthful science, to which both the Italians and the French equally owe their language, their poetry, and their music.
Provence was the nursery of these schools for both nations: the pure air of this charming country; the fire of the men, and the soft liveliness of its females; the neighbour, hood of the many polite courts in South France; an hereditary taste lor aits, in a house which for a long