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Two pair of shoes, four (hillings peace to her who always sheweth

tight-pence. good will toward all men.

One pair of stockings, two shillings eight-pence. So resteth thy loving master,

A felt hat and band, five shillings five-pence. John Haringeton.

Apparel for a common soldier in winter.

A cassock of Kentish broad cloth lined with cotton, and trimmed with buttons and loops, seventeen shillings fix-pence.

A doublet of canvass, with white linnen lining, twelve shillings sixpence.

A hat cap coloured, seven shillings.

Two shirts of Osanbridge holland and bands, eight shillings.

Three pair neats leather shoes, two shillings four-pence each, seven shillings.

Three pair of kersey stockings, eight shillings. . „

One pair Venetians of Kentish broad cloth, with buttons, loops, and lining of linnen, thirteen shillings four-pence.

In Summer.

Two shirts of Osanbridge and two falling Holland bands, seven shillings. /

Two pair of neats leather shoes, four shillings eight-pence.

One pair of stockings, two shillings eight-pence.

A hat cap coloured, three shillings.

Thus, friend Thomas, her majesty, with wonted grace, hath graced our bodies, and may Jheaven's grace cloath her in everlasting robes of righteousness, and on earth

A Letter from King James the First, to Sir John Haringeton, in the original spelling. ,

To our trusty and Wcll-helovedc Sir Johne Haringeton, Knight.

RYGHTE truftie and welbelovite frinde, we greete yow heartily weiil. We have raissavit , your lanterne, with the poesie yow fende us be owr servaride Williame Hunter, gevinge yow hairtie thankes; as lykewaysc for yowr laste letter, quhawin we persaife the continuance of yowr loyall affectione to' us and yowr servyce; we shall not be unmyndefule to extende owr princelie favoure heirafter to yow and yowr pevticulers, at all guid occasions. We commute yow to God.

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y"o our much honoured and •worthie Frund, J. H. Esi; at his house at Kelston nsnr Bathe.

Wortbie Sir,

OU T pf the Jong experience we have had of your approved worth and sincerity, our citie of Bathe have determined and settled their resolutions to elect you for burgess of the house of corajnons, in this present parliament, for our said citie, and do hope you will accept the trouhle thereof; which if you dp, our desires is, you will

not fail to be with us at Bathe, en Monday next, the eighth of this instant, by eight of the clock in the morning, at the furthest, for then we proceed to oar election. And of your determination we in. treat you to, certifie us by a word or two in writing, and fend it by the bearer to

'Your assured loving friends,

John Bigg, the Maj»r,

William Chapvait, Bathe, Dec. 6, 1645,

Literary

Literary and Miscellaneous Essays.

Cmfarative History of the Italian and French Music.

THE love of song, which nature has annexed to the human organisation, was, according to the poets, what first formed societies.

Sylvefires homines, &c.

The first lispings of melody, as directed by philosophy, enthusiasm, cr the passions, where the first vehicle of laws, tenets, and soft emotions.

To follow ancient music through its developments and progresses, in a nation whose heart and organs Were open to every''object of sensibility, does not belong to my subject: besides nothing can be added to the several details on this head given by M. Burette. Let me only be permitted to desire, that some capable person, eqjally conversant with Greek, and the theory of music, would, from the lights scattered in the memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions, in the didactic treatises of Greek musicians, and in the learned Meibomius's commentaries on those treatises, compose a connected history of ancient music: such a work would be highly acceptable to the scholar and the harmonist, as it may open freso views; and though it be, partly, ho more than picking from the above monuments, yet it is a picking which requires a masterly hand.

From Plutarch's Treatise, and M. Burette's comment on it, f shall produce some facts which belong to my subject, and are preparative to it.

In the country which the Greeks and their first colonies occupied, each tribe being equally enamoured with the beautiful, and the har* roony from which it results, struck out different ways in tiie pursuic and attainment of it. Hence that difference of dialects in prynOuncing one common language, which they enriched in varying it;. hence that variety in the orders, the standards of architectonic beauty; hence likewise that diversity of modes, into which musical melody was modelled.

Whether this diversity be attributed to the climate, or the different conformation of the organs; whether it be accounted' the mere effect of chance, or the force of habit; it must dispose us to see, without astonishment, what is doing among us and among our neighbours. Let us therefore not be surprised, that the fame taste sot singing does not unite nations, qf an extent far beyond the narrow limits of Greece; nations speaking different languages; in a word, nations no less discordant in their manner, of feeling, than in their way of seeing and thinking.

It is natural that each nation soould impart to its singing and music the stamp of that national characteristic, which distinguishes

its its genius, manners, usages, and customs: it is natural, from the analogy of relations and conformities between speaking and singing, {the latter being only pronunciation more varied, and more strongly articulated) that, the speech of these nations being different, their singing should likewise be different: lastly, it is natural, that each nation, being as jealous of its music as of its language, should have an exclusive esteem for it, preserve it with like care, and oppose any too sudden and striking innovations.

Music, which for a long time had, among the Greeks, been confined to the worship of the gods, and to education, no sooner began to step out of the circle to which the primitive artists had limited it, than a general outcry was raised against the innovators. Austere Sparta banished Therpander, for having added two strings to the lyre; the Argians imposed penalties on those who should presume to go about the like attempts; and, pursuant to the notion that music liad a direct influence on the manners and the government, most of the Greek republics loudly declared against every appearance of raising it from that masculine and vigorous simplicity, to which tradition attributed its strongest impressions.

These measures failed of their effect, when Greece, inebriated with its prosperity, was carried away by a passion for shows. Music having got possession of the theatre, , Poetry, by which it had before been ruled, became the musician's mercenary slave: words were sacri- ficed to sounds energy, to extrayagant modulations; the pleasure

of the soul, to the astonishment of the ear; in short, Music, which till then had flowed like a gentle stream between fixed banks, gradually became a torrent without banks, and without bottom.

Plato, who was himself a great musician, strenuously opposed the torrent, but in vain; and to at little effect was he seconded by Aristotle. The disciples of those two great masters, unable to do any more than lament the depravation of the musical art, confined their endeavours in its behalf, to disquisitions on the causes and the degrees of this depravation.

The theatre fided with them. We owe to Plutarch the fragment of a comedy of Pherecrates, where Music, all in rags, and beaten to mummy, scomes before rthe magistiates with a complaint, against one Menallippides, for beginning to enervate it; against Cynefias, the Athenian, who had disfigured it by strained prolongations of the voice, without either expression ot harmony; against Phrynicus, who with his arbitrary strains, passages, and diminutions, had made it quite unnatural; lastly, against Timothus, who, by his mincings and hashings, had reduced it to extravagant quavers. Philoxenes had «scaped this censure; but that of Aristophanes fell the heavier on him, charging him with having made music more flabby, mare flexile, more rumpled than a cabbage-sprout, JustsJeding melody iuith a squeaking, sit only for loiv-li-ved ears. (t All the "other comic poets," added Plutarch, "joined with the general "outcry."

The revolution which occasioned it, dates its æra from Greece's fine age j from that age, when eloquence, queries, poetry, and all the polite arts, had been brought to perfection, by efforts and innovations, which were justified in the consequences, gradually leading artists to the exact imitation of fair nature, whilst the fantastic efforts of the musicians threw them at a greater distance from it.

Had the general outcry, caused by the latter, been the outcry os temporary jealous)', it would not have imposed on the sagacious equity or posterity; whereas Plu. tarch, together with most of the Greek musicians who had reached us, and who were posterior to the age in question, form as it were a perpetual concert of praise on ancient music, of threnodies on its depravation, and of complaints against the innovators.

From whence it seems to follow, that objects of taste, as music, have a point, quod ultra citraque nequit (onfistere re8um; that the fame Jove of novelty, whkh leads to it, hinders one from stopping at it, insensibly leading on to deviations; that posterity is the only competent judge of the success or miscarriage of artists; in a word, that, as to arts, every age may be compared to a passenger in a boat, who often imagines he is goirtg forward, when in reality he is losing ground.

By the light of arjciept facts, and of maxims resulting from them, we (hall illustrate some particulars relating to the French and Italian music.

Long before the French name made any figure in Europe, the Gauls, pur ancestors, had a national music, which, like that of the Greeks, was connected with their religion and politics; and the more intimately, being performed exclu

sively by a class of that singular order of priests, who, having wormed themselves into the several branches of government, had insensibly .got into their hands the highest prerogatives of the sovereignty. The history of the Gaulish nation throws no light on the beginning, nor consequently on the duration, of this phenomenon: all we know is, that the authority of this body, the whole force of which lay in the close union of its. rnembers, was founded on ignorance and superstition; that is, on the exclusive possession it had assumed of literature, the sciences, and religion; on an intolerance with sword in hand; lastly, on their horrid sacrifices, as the choice of the human victims was easily made to fall on those who had presumed to give the order any umbrage or offence. The Bards a class, incorporated with the Druids, were th« poets and musicians of the nation. Their labours in both kinds, being subordinate to the interest, and directed by the views of the fraternity, precluded all the improvements to which the rivalry of artists, the desire of pleasing, the love of novelty, &c. gave birth.

These poetical musicians were posted at the head of armies, and, in the heat of battle, fang the prowesses of the nation's demigods. To judge of their music from the account which the Romans have left us of their martial chantings, every circumstance in it savours of barbarism: some, comparing it to the bellowing of enraged elephants, called it barritum: the emperor Julian compares it to the dismal cry of owls and screechowls; nqif3.Z3hY,<Tia. Txis x\a.yficTs rut T«Yii $<swrwi ifYiHvt '■ Mafcelli'ius,

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