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muff of the same kind, which entirely hides her arms.

Charles II.

THE Monmouth, or military cock of the hat, was much worn in this reign, and continued a considerable time in falhion.

The periwig, which had been long used in France, was introduced into England soon after the Restoration.

There is a tradition, that" the large black wig which Dr. R. R. bequeathed, among other things of much less consideration, to the Bodleian library, was worn by Charles II.

Some men of tender consciences were greatly scandalized at this article of dress, as equally indecent with long hair; and more culpable, because unnatural. Many preachers inveighed against it in their sermons, and cut their hair snorter, to express their abhorrence of the reigning mode.

It was observed, that a periwig procured many persons a respect, and even veneration, which they were strangers to before, and to which they had not tlhe least claim from their personal merit. The judges, and physicians, who tho* roughly understood this magic of the wig, gave it all the advantage ""length, as well as size.

The extravagant fondness of some men for this unnatural ornament » scarce credible: I have heard °* * country gentleman, who employed a painter to place periwigs "P<"i the heads of several of Vand)'ck's portraits.

Mr. Wood informs us, that Nath. Vincent, x>, j>. chaplain in. ordi

nary to the king, preached before him at Newmarket, in a long periwig, and Holland steeves, according to the thect fashion for gentlemen; and that his majesty was so offended at it, that he commanded the duke of Monmouth, chancellor to the university of Cambridge, to see the statutes concerning decency of apparel put in execution; which was done accordingly.

The lace neckloth became in fashion in this, and continued to be worn in the two following reigns.

, Open sleeves, pantaloons and shoulder-knots, were also worn at this period, which was the æra of shoe-buckles: but ordinary people, and such as affected plainness m their garb, continued, for a long time after, to wear strings in their shoes.

The clerical habit, which before it is grown rusty is a very decent dress, seems not to have been worn in its present form, before the reign of Charl»s II.

The ladies hair was curled and frizled with the .nicest art, and they frequently set it off with heartbreakers. Sometimes a string of pearls, or an ornament of ribband, was worn on the head; and in the latter part of this reign, hoods of various kinds were in fashion.

Patching and painting the face, than which nothing was more common in France, was also ^too common among the ladies in England. But what was much worse, they affected a mean betwixt dress and nakedness; which occasioned the publication of a book, intitled, "A just and seasonable repre* hension of naked breasts and "shoulders, with a preface by Ri*« cbard "chard Baxter."—I scarce "ever see a portrait of a lady by Sir Peter Lely, but I think of the following passage of Seneca: "Video ser cas "vestes, si vestes vocandæ sum, "irl quibus nihil est quo defendi "aut corpus, aut denique pudor "poflit: quibus fumptis, mulier "parum liquido nudam fe non esse "• jurablt."

It appears from the "Memoires ** de Gramraont," that green stockings were worn by one of the greatest beauties of the English court.

If any one would inform himself of the dresses worn by our ancestors, he should make his observations in country churches, in remote parts of the kingdom; where he may fee a great variety of modes of ancient standing. It is not unusual, among people of the lower classes, for a Sunday coat to descend from father to son; as it is put on the moment before the wearer goes to church, and taken off as soon as he returns home.' I have seen several old women in beaver hats, which I have good reason to believe were made in the reign of Charles the second.

Of the Origin of Navigation. By the President de Gouget.

SEVERAL conjectures present themselves concerning the origin of navigation. Various accidents and events might have given birth to that art. The sea-coasts in many places are full of islands, at no great distance from rhcxcontinent. Curiosity would naturally inspire men with an inclination to pass over into these islands. As this passage would not .appear either

very long or very dangerous, she/ would attempt \U Success hi ow of these attempts would encourage to a second. Pliny relates, that anciently they failed only among islands, and that on rafts.

Fishings to which several nations applied themselves in the earliest ages, might also contribute to the origin of navigation. I am, how. ever, most inclined to think, that the first ideas of this art were owing to those nations which were seated near the mouihs of rivers, where they fell into the sea. As they sailed upon these rivers, they would sometimes be carried out to sea* either by the current, by a storm, or even by design. They would be terrified at first at the violence of the waves, and the dangers with which they threatened them. Bet when they had got over these first teirors, they would soon be sensible of the great advantages which the sea might procure them, and, of consequence, would endeavour to find out the means of sailing upon it.

In whatever way mankind became familiar with that terrible element, it is certain that the first essays in navigation were made in the most ancient times. Moses informs us, that the grandsons of Japhet passed over into the islands near the continent, and took possession of them. It is also an undoubted fact, that colonies vetysoon sailed from Egypt into Greece. Sanchoniatho ascribes the invention of the art of building ships, and the glory of undertaking sea-voyages, to the Caberites. The ancient traditions of the Phœnicians make the Caberites cotemporary with the Titans. .,

Experience soon convincing tbem, that that ships designed for navigating the seas ought to be of a different construction from those intended for rivers, they would make it their study to give such a form and solidity to ships designed for sea, as would enable them to resist the impetuosity of its waves. They would next endeavour to find out a method of guiding and directing them with ease and safety. Sculls and oars were the only instruments that occurred to them for some time. It must have been long before they thought of adding the helm. The ancients imagined, that it was the fins of fishes that first suggested the idea of oars, and that the hint of the helm was taken from observing how birds direct their flight by their tails. The shape of strips, excepting the fails, seems to me to he copied from that of fishes. What the fins and tails are to fishes, that the oars and helm are to (hips. But these are onlv conjectures more or less probabb, and not worth examining to the bottom.

The action of the wind, whose effects are so sensible and so frequent, might soon suggest the use of sails. But the manner of adjusting and managing them was more difficult, and would not be so soon discovered.. This, I am persuaded, was the very last part of the construction of ships which was found out. I am confirmed in this opinion, by the practice of the savages and other rude nations, who make use onlyofoars, but have no fails. It would be the fame in the first ages, she first navigators only coasted, and cautiously avoided losing fight of land. In such circumstances, fails would have been more dangerous than useful. It required the experience of several ages to teach

navigators the art of employing the wind in the direction of ships.

If we believe, however* the ancient traditions of the Egyptians, this art of using the wind by means of masts and fails, was exceeding ancient. They gave ,the honour of this discovery to Isis. But over and ahove the little credit which is due to'the greatest part of the history of that princess, we shall see by and by, that this discovery cannot be ascribed to the Egyptians.

Men must soon have endeavoured to find out some method of stopping ships at sea, and keeping them firm at their moorings. They would at first make use of various expedients for this purpefe, such as large stones, hampers or sacks full of sand or other heavy bodies. These they fixed to ropes, and threw into the sea. These methods would be sufficient in. the first ages, when the vessels they used were only small and light barks. But as navigation i improved, and larger ships were built, some other machine became necessary. We know not at what time, or by whom the anchor, that machine at once so simple and so admirable, was invented. We find nothing certain on this subject in ancient authors. Only they agree in placing this discovery in ages greatly posterior to those we are now examining. They ascribe this invention to several different persons. I imagine the anchor, like several other machines, might be found out in many different countries, much about the fame, time. It is certain, that the first anchors were not made of .iron, but of stone, or even of wood. These last were loaded with lead. We are told this by several writers, and amongst others by Piodorus. This author


relate*, that the Phœnicians, in their first voyages into Spain, having amassed more silver than their ships could contain, took, the lead from their anchors, and put silver in its place. We may observe fur. ther, that the first anchors had only one fiook. It was not till many ages after, that Anacharsis invented one with two.

All these different kinds of anchors are still in use in some countries. The inhabitants of Iceland, and of Bander-Congo, use a large stone, with a hole in the middle, and a stick thrust through it. In China, Japan, Siam, and the Manillas, they have only wooden anchors, to which they tie great stones. In the kingdom of Calicut they are of stone. The ignorance of the first ages, and of many nations to this day, of the art of working iron, has been the occasion of all these rude and clumsy contrivances.

Though the first navigators coast-" ed along the shores, and took all possible pains not to lose sight of land, yet, in the very first ages, they must frequently have been driven off to sea by storms. The confusion and uncertainty they found themselves in when these accidents happened, would put them upon studying some method of finding where they were in these circumstances. They would soon be sensible, that the inspection of the heavenly bodies was the only thing that could afford them any direction. It was in this manner, probably, that astronomy came to be applied to navigafien.

From the first moment men began to observe the motion of the heavenly bodies, they would take

notice, that in that part of the heavens where the fun never passes, there are certain stars which appear constantly every night. It was eafy to discover the position of these stars in respect of our earth. They appear always on the left hand of. the observator, whose face is turned to the east. Navigators were soon sensible that this discovery might be of great advantage to them, as these stars constantly pointed out the fame part of the world. When they happened to i>e driven from their course, they found, that, in order to recover it, they had only to direct their ship in such a manner, as to bring her into her former position, with respect to those stars which they saw regularly every


Antiquity gives the honour of this discovery to the Phœnicians, a people equally industrious and enterprising. The Great Bear would probably be the first guide which these ancient navigators made choice of. This constellation is easily distinguished, both by the brightness and peculiar arrangement of the stars which compose it. Being near the pole, it hardly ever sets, with respect to those places which the Phœnicians frequented. We know not in what age navigators first began to observe the northern stars, for the direction of their course; but it must have been in very ancient times, "ste Great Bear is mentioned in the book of Job, who seems to have conversed much with merchants and navigators. The - name by which that constellation was known among the ancient inhabitants of Greece, and the tales which they related about its origin, prove that


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it was observed for the direction of navigators in very remote ages.

But the observation of the stars in the Great Bear was a very imperfect and uncertain rule for the direction of a Jhip's course. The truth is, this constellation points out the pole only in a very vague and confused manner. Its head is not sufficiently near it, and its extremities are more than forty degrees distant from it. This vast extent occasions very different aspects, both at different hours of the night in the fame season of the year, and in the same hour in different seasons. This variation would be considerably increased, when it came to be referred to the horizon, to which the course of navigators must necessarily be referred. They must have made an allowance for this variation by guess; which could not but occasion great mistakes and errors in those ages, when they /vere guided only by practice instead of geometrical rules and tables, which were not invented till many ages after.

It must have been long before navigation arrived at any tolerable degree of perfection. There is no art or profession which requires so much thought and knowledge. The art of sailing is of all others the most complicated; its most common operation depends upon various branches in different sciences. It appears, however, that, even in the ages we are now examining, some nations had made some progress in maritime affairs. These discovers can be ascribed to nothing, "it that love to commerce with w"ich these nations were animated, and their great ardour for the advancement of it.

Vot. XII.

Origin of the Custom of saluting thnse 'who sneeze. From Dr.

Nugent's History of France.

TH E common practice of saluting those who speeze, is generally dated from the age of Brunehaut, and the pontificate of Gregory the Great. It is said that in the time of that holy prelate there was so contagious a malignity in the air, that those who unluckily happened to sneeze, expired directly. This made the religious pontiff enjoin the faithful certain prayers, accompanied with wishes, that they might be saved from the dangerous effects of the corruption of the air. This is a fable, invented contrary to all the rules of probability; it being certain, that this custom subsisted from the most remote antiquity, in all parts of the known world.

We read in mythology, that the first sign of life given by the man whom Prometheus formed, was sneezing. This pretended creator, as we are told, stole part of the rays of the fun, and with them filled a phial, which he sealed her-' metically. He then returned with speed to his favourite work, and presented to it his flask o; en. The solar rays had lost nothing of their activity j they immediately insinuated themselves into the pores of • the statue, and made it sneeze. Prometheus, transported at the success of his machine, had recourse to prayer, and uttered wishes for the preservation of that extraordinary being. His creatiire heard him; he remembered the wishes, and took particular care, upon similar occasions, to apply them to his descendants; who, from father to son>

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