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tels, established among the Europeans in their wars, together with the pride and disdain of the janizaries, prevented a capitulation from being desired, or any proposal made to lay down their arms. The slaughter was accordingly prodigious. We have no account what number of prisoners were made; but as they were only taken singly, and in the heat of action, they tould not be very numerous; probably they were mostly officers. Not only the field of battle, but the river, over which some few hundreds of Turks made their escape by swimming, was for several iniles covered with dead bodies. The Ruffians took 64 pieces of cannon, and above {50 colours and horse tails.

The agitation of mind and distress, which the Ottoman soldiers roust suffer, who were the unhappy spectators on the opposite shore, of the cruel slaughter of their friends, way possibly be conceived, but cannot be described. Perhaps to a feeling mind, the momentary agony was more poignant to the looker on, than to him who was the immediate sufferer. While the contest continued, the whole army ■was buried in a profound silence; but when the slaughter was finished, and all hopes and fears were now at an end, they expressed their rage and grief, by the loudest cries and lamentations, and the bitterest curses and imprecations upon the vizir. Under this impulse ofgrief and fury, they immediately broke up the camp, and casting off all obedience to a command which they despised and detested, abandoned the strong fortress of Choczim, with all its (lores and a' numerous artillery 3

and retired tumultuously towards the Danube.

The following extraordinary instance is said to have been given upon this occasion, of the unconquerable strength and violence of those passions, which in certain situations take possession of the whole human mind; and is a more apt illustration of the temper that prevailed in the Turkish army at the time, than any description of it that could be attempted. A thousand Turks, under the influence of a blind rage and fury, after the action was intirely over, crossed the river upon rafts in the face of the conquering Russians, and there became voluntary sacrifices in this unavailing effort to revenge the loss of their friends.

Thus was the fortune of the war totally changed, and the grand Turkish army intirely ruined in the space of one short month, by the folly and temerity of a single man. And thus the Russians have finiihed a doubtful, if not a losing campaign, with great advantage and glory, and have struck a panic through the whole Turkish empire. Cast down by repeated misfortunes and disgraces, the haughty Ottomans seem to have lost all spirit and resolution j and in the engagements that have since happened, their numbers .have only added to their loss and disgrace. It was computed that they lost 28,000 of the best and bravest of their troops, within little more than a fortnight: and that 40,000 more abandoned the army, and totally deserted, in the tumultuous retreat to the Danube. As it may be considered the greatest misforr tune. that could befal the grand ■' vi^ir,

vizir, to survive the fatal efFecfls of his misconduct; it is no less surprizing that he did not fall a victim to the fury and violence of the soldiers. His fortune was however not only superior to this danger in she camp, bu t also to that of the bow-string at home; a punishment ■which has so often, in this country, been the fate even of great ability and bravery, when attended by ill success.

Two hundred Rusfian,grenadiers having crossed the river on a float, were surprized to find themselves masters of the important fortress of Choczim, which had been so long the bone of contention, and the scene of so many considerable actions. A few Turkish women and children were the miserable guards they found in a strong town, with great magazines, and twq hundred pieces of cannon. The reyolt in the army was so general, and the despair and disorder sS great, that they did not even set the town on fire, or attempt to destroy any thing. . ~

Prince Gallitzin placed a garrison of spur regiments in the fortress, under the command of colonel Weilman, and dispatched the generals Elrnpt and Prosorowskl, at the head of large detachments, in pursuit of the enemy. He then resigned the command of the army to geneial count Romanzow, and returned covered with laurels to Petersburg. Count 'Panin at,the same time took the command of the army lately commanded by general Romanzow.

In the mean time the Ruffians over-run the great province of Moldavia, and general Elmpt en-, tered and took possession of the <apital city of Jassy, (situated on

the river Pruth, about an hundred miles to the south-east of Choczim) without opposition. As the Greek natives of this province had always secretly favoured the Ruffians, they now took this opportunity of their success, and the absence o'f the Turks, to declare themselves openly. The principal inhabitants accordingly assembled at the capital, where the general received their homage in the name of the empress, and the oaths of fidelity which they voluntarily tendered to her. He then took the necessary measures for the administration of justice, and for the interior government of the province.

In the meantime, as the Turkish army was retired to the other side of the Danube, the Russians carried on their incursions to the borders of that river, and over-run the greatest part of the province of Walachia, Prince Prosorowiki having taken Bucharest the capital, and made Gregorio Giko the prince of that country, with all his family and court, prisoners. The Greek inhabitants also submitted, whereever the Ruffians appeared, with the fame facility that those of Moldavia had done.

As soon as order could be in any degree restored in the Ottoman camp, attempts were made to retard the operations of the Ruffians in Moldavia and Walachia, by sending considerable detachments of Turks over the Danube to oppose their progress. In these attempts they have been very unsuccessful, having been generally worsted with great loss, and by very inferior numbers. In consequence of one os these engagements, the Russians made themselves masters of Galaes, an important portant post in Moldavia, situated en the river Pruth, near its confluence with the Danube. They however met with loss upon some other occasions, particularly in an unsuccessful attempt upon the strong citadel of Brailow, deservedly esteemed as the key of the principality of Walachia, and one of the most important passes on the Danube.

On the side of the Ukraine and Tartary, count Panin has failed in his attempt upon Bender: he has however successfully ravaged the neighbouring countries ofBudziac, and the Little Tartary, from whence his parties drove a prodigious prey of cattle. On the other hand, the calga, or brother to the khan of the Tartars, has made a successful irruption into the Ruffian territories on the left of the Boristhenes, from whence he is said to have carried above ten thousand unhappy people into captivity. Such is the cruel aspect of war among these fierce nations.

General Romanzow has fixed his head-quarters at Laticzew in Podolia, and has cantoned the bulk of his army along the banks of the Niester. In this situation he keeps the confederates in awe, and is hear enough to support the generals Proiorowfki and Elmpt, in the superiority which they have acquired in Moldavia and Walachia: a position absolutely necessary, as the Turks will undoubtedly make the most vigorous efforts as soon as the season will admit, for the recovery of these fine provinces. Count Panin's army is stationed on the borders of the Ukraine, in such a situation as most effectually to cover that and the adjoining Rus

sian provinces, from the incursion* of the Tartars.

It may however seem strange, that general Romanzow did not advance with the bulk of his army into the newly acquired provinces, or even push on to the banks of the Danube, and endeavour to become master of the principal posts upon that river, while the terror and disorder of the Turks operated in its highest degree. It is little to be doubted that this measure was thought of, and it is as probable that there were strong reasons against the adopting of it. It might have been objected, that Poland would by this means have been in a great measure abandoned to the licentiousness of the confederates and the fury of the Tartars. That the safety of the grand army would be endangered, at such a distance from its posts and magazines, and with such enemies as the Tartars, besides the numerous garrisons of Bender and Oczakow, in its rear; and that the army commanded by count Panin, which had an extensive and difficult frontier to defend, would thereby be entirely exposed. It is also to be imagined, that notwithstanding the natural fertility of these provinces, the miserable havock that was made in them both by friends and enemies for a full year, must make them utterly incapable of providing subsistence f<jr a considerable army.

No satisfactory account has been published of the progress of the Ruffians on the side of Georgia. The famous count Tottleben, so remarkable for his disgrace in the last war, having in consequence of a most suppliant petition, been re

ceived into the empress's savour, has been employed upon this expedition. As this general had be-' fore served in the countries adjoining to the Caspian, he seems to have been well qualified for this service, and it is said that he has been joined by prince Heraclius, and that they have committed several hostilities on the side of "Armenia. It does not however appear, that their operations have hitherto been productive of any very extraordinary effects.

The misfortunes of the last campaign, do not seem to have sunk the Grand Signior's spirit. The preparations for war both by sea and land are carried on with unremitted ardour; 2nd it is said that lie refuses to listen to any terms of accommodation, that are at all degrading, or inconsistent with his dignity. In this spirit he has received judicial informations in the divan, from the civil officers of Moldavia and Walachia, of the facility with which the Greek inhabitants of those provinces submitted to the Ruffian government, and has thereupon declared them rebels, and according to the cruel mode of the eastern nations, ordered man, woman and child to

be extirpated. It is also said, that he has signified to the republic of Venice, in a high and haughty tone, that their observing a hare neutrality, would not in the present state of affairs be deemed sufficient; but that they must avow themselves, either as friends or enemies.

The unfortunate Moldovani Ali Pacha has been degraded and banished to one of the Greek islands, and Halil Bey, of whom we have no prior account, is appointed grand vizir in his room, it is said that the sultan intends to command the army in person, and thai, the Turks, dispirited by their ill success, and their fears worked upon by some ancient prophecies, are very unwilling to serve, and form dismal apprehensions of the event of the war. It is not to be wondered at, that the imaginations of a people, so excessively credulous and superstitious as the Turks, should in such circumstances be easily worked upon. The weakness of the government, the licentiousness of the soldiery, and the want of able and experienced officers, are however the real prognostics that forbode danger to their empire.

CHAP AS the Ruffians were obliged to withdraw their principal force from the interior parts of Poland, to oppose the designs of the Turks and Tartars upon the frontiers, so the ruined and almost expiring confederacies began, immediately upon their departure, to revive and shew new signs of vigour in every part of the kingdom. Among the earliest and most active upon this occasion, were the nobility of the grand dutchy of Lithuania, who had so lately been obliged to submit to whatever terms the Russians were pleased to prescribe. The opportunity of their M , absence was now eagerly aS embraced for the hold'"' ing of a general meeting, where a new confederacy was formed, and Mr. Sickanowicko appointed their grand marshal. At the fame time they published a strong and spirited manifesto, in which, after charging the Ruffians with numberless infractions of the laws of nature and nations, they declare with great energy, " That as they are attacked in their honour, abridged of their liberty, mined in their fortunes, and drives

CHAP, IV.

New confederaciesformed in Poland upon the departure of the Ruffian troopi to the frontiers. Spirited manifesto by the nobility of the grand dutchy of Lithuania. Great number of engagements between the Ruffians and confederates; dreadful excesses committed on both fides. King of Poland fends ministers to the guarantees of the treaties of Cartoixnts and Olivia. Harmony at present subsisting between the great powers of the empire. Emperor's journey to Italy; makes a considerable stay at Milan; on his return reforms many abuses in the government of that dutchy; 'uifitstae king ofPruffii at Neifs. Aix la Chapelle taken and quitted by the eleStdr Palatine's forces. Marriage concluded upon between the dauphin and the archdutchefs Maria Antonia.

from their houses; and that having no other resource than' despair or a glorious death, they are determined to spill the last drop of their blood, in defence of their civil and religious liberties."

It probably would not be speaking correctly, to say that this example was followed; the impulse was general, and the effect seemed equal in every part, as soon as the restraint was taken off. New confederacies were accordingly every where formed, and the country afforded, during the whole year, a continued scene of anarchy, bloodshed, and misery. It is however probable that all these evils were increased, by a cruel and ill judged manifesto pubiilhed early In the spring by prince Gallitzin, in which it is declared, that temporizing, or a seeming neutrality, shall afford no protection; that the Poles must avow their principles and intentions, and that Russia was determined that country should contain only friends or declared enemies. This unjust, if not impolitic declaration, must have urged many of the grandees, who intended to enjoy the quiet and safety

of

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