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There are in the village about ten Miamis who bear in their arms, a Crane, - - 10 Eight Illinois Kaskakias are also included whose device is a feather of an arrow, —T^*x^^j^~- notched; (+) or two arrows supported one against the other in saltier (like a St. Andrew's cross.) These are the nations best known to us as well along the great river of the Outawas as north and south of Lakes Superior and Michigan. I propose now proceeding again from Montreal by way of the Lakes to Missilimakinak. From Montreal on the Lake route, I spoke of Sault St. Louis, on the first sheet.
Toniata. Some Iroquois, to the number of eight or ten men have retired to this quarter. Their device is without doubt, like that of the village from which issue the Deer, the Plover, &c, as hereafter, - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10
Lake Ontario, or South of Frontenac.
and at Matchedach, -.-- ---150
The principal tribe is that of the Crane.
North of Lake Ontario.
South of Lake Front enac.
the top of a mountain, - - 200
The Mohawks, towards New-England, not far from Orange (Albany) are eighty men, and
have for device of the village a Battefeu [ a Steel ] and a flint, 80
The Oneidas, their neighbors, number one hundred men or a hundred warriors, - - 100
a very large Calumet, ----- 120
The Senecas form two villages in which are three hundred and fifty men. Their device is a
big mountain, 350
Besides the arms of each village, each tribe has its own, and every man has his particular mark to designate him. Thus the Oneida designates his village by a Stone [ in ] a fork—next he designates his tribe by the bird or animal, and finally he denotes himself by his punctures. See the designs which I had the honor to send you in 1732 by Father Francois, the Recollet.
The five villages which belong to the same tribe, have for their arms in common, the Plover, to which I belong ;i the Bear, the Tortoise, the Eel, the Deer, the
Beaver, the Potatoe, the Falcon, the Lark, and the Partridge.
1 M. De Joncaire, the supposed author of this Report, is here thought to be alluded to. He was adopted at an early period by the Senecas, among whom he had much influence.
I doubt not but the other nations are as well distinguished, but our voyaguers,
having little curiosity in these matters,have not been able to give me any information.
The Tuscarorens have a village of two hundred and fifty men near the Onondagoes, who
brought them along. I know not their hieroglyphics, 250
The Iroquois have some cabins at the Portage, (Niagara, Lake Ontario.)
Lake Erie and Dependancies on the South Side. The Chaouanons towards Carolina, are two hundred men, ------ 200
The Flatheads, Cherakis, Chicachas, Totiris, are included under the name of Flatheads by
the Iroquois, who estimate them at over six thousand men, in more than thirty
villages, ._....- 6000
They have told me they had for device a vessel, (un Vaisseau.)
because they understand each other—may be fifty men. I am ignorant of them. 50 The Miamis have for device the Hind and the Crane. These are the two principal tribes.
There is likewise that of the Bear. They are two hundred men, bearing arms. - 200 The Ouyattanons, Peanguichias, Petikokias, are the same Nation, though in different villages.
They can place under arms three hundred and fifty men. ----- 350 The devices of these savages are the Serpent, the Deer, and the Small Acorn. The Illinois, Metchigamias at Fort Chartres, number two hundred and fifty men. - - 250 The Kaskakias, six leagues below, have a village of one hundred warriors. - - 100
The Peorias, at the Rock, are fifty men. --50
The Kaokias, or Tamarois, can furnish two hundred men, 200
All those savages comprehended under the name of Illinois have, for device, the Crane, the Bear, the White Hind, the Fork, the Tortoise.
River of the Missouris.
This only as a note, not knowing any thing of these Nations except the name.
Lake Erie—The Detroit.
The Hurons at present are two hundred men, bearing arms. 200
They mark the Tortoise, the Bear and the Plover. The Pouteouatamis have a village there of one hundred and eighty men.* They bear for device the Golden Carp, the Frog, the Crab, the Tortoise. (See South of Lake Michigan-. River St. Joseph.) ----------180
The Outawas there have two villages, composed one of the tribe of Sinagos; the other of
Kiskakous, and may count two hundred warriors. 200
They have the same devices as those of Missilimakinac; that is to say, the Bear
and Black Squirrel.
Note in Orig. Instead of 180, only 100 men must be counted.
15815 Lake St. Clair, which leads to Lake Huron.
At the end of the Little Lake St. Clair, there is a small village of Mississagues, which num-
They have the same devices as the Mississagues of Manitouatin and of Lake
I have spoken before of the Missisagues who are to the North of this Lake.
men, and for device the Bear and Squirrel. 80
15955 Less, ------- go
All the Northern Nations have this in common; that a man who goes to war denotes himself as much by the device of his wife's tribe as by that of his own, and never marries a woman who carries a similar device to his.
If time permitted, you would, Sir, have been better satisfied with my researches.
I would have written to the Interpreters of the Posts, who would have furnished me with more certain information than that I could obtain from the Voyageurs whom I questioned. I am engaged at the history of the Scioux, which you have asked from Monsieur de Linerot*
PRESENT STATE OF THE NORTHERN INDIANS
IN THE DEPAR* OF SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON BART., COMPREHENDED UNDER THE SIX NATIONS AND OTTAWA
[ Lond. Doc. XXXVI. ]
All these nations reside on the west side of .These nations are at present in alliance with
La Baye at Lake Michigan and in the neighborhood of the fort there.
MIAMIS OR TWIGHTWEES.
Near the Fort on the Miamis river.
These nations reside in the neighbourhood of the Fort at Wawaighta, and about the Walache river.
Residing through all the extejat of country from the Lakes to the Great Ottawa river, and about Lake Superior, ettc.
This Nation has a great influence over the rest, and has been greatly instigated by the neighbouring French to commit acts of hostility.
With these and the above Indians are joined several others, who form a flying camp under Pondiac, an Ottawa Chief.
The Ottawas in the neighbourhood of Michilimakinac are well attached to us for the most part.
These are the most numerous of all the Ottawa Confederacy and have many villages about Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, ettc. whose numbers cannot at present be ascertained with exactness.
the Ottawa Confederacy, but appear inclined to our interest, nor did they take the Fort at La Baye, the officer abandoning it on the news of the rupture, as he could make no defence.
The Twightwees were originally a very powerful people, who having been subdued by the Six Nations were permitted to enjoy their possessions. There are many tribes and villages of them, but these are all who are perfectly known.
This is the most exact computation that can be made of these numerous people, who are scattered throughout the Northern Parts and who having few places of fixed residence, subsisting entirely by hunting, cannot be ascertained as those of their confederacy, residing near the outposts.