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If they have sick, and are obliged to carry them, they paint litters (boyards) of the same number as the sick, because they carry only one on each litter.

When they are thirty or forty leaguesi from their village they send notice of their approach, and of what has happened them. Then every one prepares to receive the prisoners, when there are any, and to torment each as they deem proper.

Those who are condemned to be burnt are conveyed to the cabin which has been given them. All the warriors assemble in a war cabin and afterwards send for them to make them sing, dance, and to torment them until they are carried to the stake.

During this time two or three young men are preparing the stake, placing the fuel near and keep their guns loaded.

When every thing is ready, he is brought and tied to the stake and finally burnt. When he is burnt up to the stomach they detach him, break all his fingers, raise the scalp which was left hanging behind by a small tongue of skin to the head. They put him to death in these agonies, after which each takes his morsel and proceeds to make merry.

Explanation Of The First Designs.

A. This is a person returning from war who has taken a prisoner, killed a man and a woman whose scalps hang from the end of a stick that he carries.

B. The prisoner.

C. Chichicois (or a gourd), which he holds in the hand.

D. These are cords attached to his neck, arms and girdle.

E. This is the scalp of a man, what is joined on one side is the scalp lock.

F. This is the scalp of a woman; they paint it with the hair thin.

G. Council of war between the tribe of the Bear and that of the Beaver; they are brothers. H. A Bear.

I. A Beaver.

L. Is a belt which he holds in his paws to avenge the death of some one and he is conferring about it with his brother, the Beaver.

K. Council for affairs of state.

M. The Bear.

N. The Council fire.

0. The Tortoise; so of the other tribes, each ranges at its own side.

P. Canoe going to war.

Q. Paddles. They know herety how many men there are in the canoe, because they place as many paddles as there are men. Over these is painted the animal of the tribe to which they belong.

R. The Canoe.

S. This is a man returning from hunting who has slept two nights on the hunting ground and killed three does; for when they are bucks, they add their antlers.

What is on his back, is his bundle.

T. Deer's head. This is the way they paint them.

V. This is the manner they mark the time they have been hunting. Each mark or rather each bar is a day.

Y. Fashion of painting the dead; the two first are men and the third is a woman who is distinguished only by the waistcloth that she has.

As regards the dead, they inter them with all they have. When it is a man they paint red calumets, calumets of peace on the tomb; some times they plant a stake on which they paint how often lie has been in battle; how many prisoners he has taken; the post ordinarily is only four or five feet high and much embellished.

1 Three or four miles.—Colden*

a. These are punctures on his body.

b. This is the way they mark when they have been to war, and when there is a bar extending from one mark to the other, it signifies that after having been in battle, he did not come back to his village and that he returned with other parties whom he met or formed.

c. This arrow, which is broken, denotes that they were wounded in this expedition.

d. Thus they denote that the belts which they gave to raise a war party and to avenge the death of some one, belong to them or some of the same tribe.

e. He has gone back to fight without having entered his village.

f. A man whom he killed on the field of battle who had a bow and arrows.

g. These are two men whom he took prisoners, one of whom had a hatchet, and the other a gun in his hand.

g. g. This is a woman who is designated only by a species of waistcloth.
h. This is the w7ay they distinguish her from the men.
Such is the mode in which they draw their portraits.


A. This is the manner they paint the tribe of the Potatoe and not as it is on the other plate.

b. Is a stick set in the ground to the extremity of which two or three pieces of wood are attached, to note the direction in which they went when they are hunting; and on the nearest tree they paint the animal of the tribe to which they belong, with the numbers of guns they have; that is to say if they are three men, they paint three guns, if they are more and there are some who have a bow and no gun, they put down a bow.

When they return from hunting and are near the village they do the same thing and add the number of beasts they have killed—that is to say, they paint the Deer, and the Stag from the head to the neck; if some are male they add antlers; they paint the other animals entire; if they are some days at the chase they mark the number as you see on the other plate.

c. Club which they use to break the skull when they are at war

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[ Lond. Doc. III. ]

The Maquaes have four townes, vict. Cahaniaga, Canagora, Canajorha, Tionondogue, besides one small village about 110 miles from Albany.

Cahaniaga is double stockadoed round; has four forts, [ports'?] about four foot wide a piece, conteyns about 24 houses, and is situate upon the edge of an hill, about a bow shottfrom the riverside.

Canagora is only singly stockadoed; has four ports like the former, conteyns about 16 houses; itt is situated upon a fflatt, a stone's throw from ye waters side.

Canajorha is also singly stockadoed; and the like manr of ports and quantity of houses as Canagora • the like situacdn; only about two miles distant from the water.

Tionondogue is double stockadoed around, has four ports, four foot wide a piece, contains ab* 30 houses; is scituated on a hill a bow shott from ye River.

The small village is without ffence, and conteyns about ten houses; lyes close by the river side, on the north side, as do all the former.

The Maquaes pass in all for about 300 fighting men.

Their corn grows close by the River side.

Of the Situacdn of the Oneydas and Onondagoes and their Strength.

The Onyades have but one town, which lys about 130 miles westward of the Maques. Itt is situate about twenty miles from a small river which comes out of the hills to the southward, and runs into lake Teshiroque, and about 30 miles distant from the Maqua> s river, which lyes to the northward; the town is newly settled, double stockadoed, but little cleared ground, so thatt they are forced to send to the Onondages to buy corne; The towne consists of about 100 houses. They are said to have about 200 fighting men, Their Corne grows round about the towne.

The Onondagoes have butt one towne, butt itt is very large; consisting of about 140 houses, nott fenced; is situate upon a hill thatt is very large, the banke on each side extending itself att least two miles, all cleared land, whereon the corne is planted. They have likewise a small village about two miles beyond that, consisting of about 24 houses. They ly to the southward of ye west,

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