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Last spring he sent one De la Croa with fifty soldiers & one hundred young men of Canada to the North West passage where as I am certainly informed from Canada they have taken three forts. About two years since there came a thousand men from France to Canada with the new Govr & three hundred came the year after. But the most part of them as I hear are since dead the country proving too cold for them. We need not feare them soe long as the Indians continue to bee our friends & the less if we can prevail with the Indians that are Christians to come from them to us? they being generally the youngest & lustiest men. The number of Last year there was a list brought into the new Gov1" of-17000 French Inhabitants in

French in

Canada. Canada, men women & children of which 3000 fit to bear arms.

It will be very necessary for us to encourage our young men to goe a Beaver hunting as the French doe.

I send a Map by Mr. Spragg whereby your LopPs may see the several Governmts &c how they lye where the Beaver hunting is & where it will be necessary to erect our Country Forts for the securing of beaver trade & keeping the Indians in community with us.

Alsoe it points out where theres a great river discovered by one Lassel a Frenchman from Canada who thereupon went into France & as its reported brought two or three vessels with people to settle there which (if true) will prove not only very inconvenient to us but to the Spanish alsoe (the river running all along from our lakes by the back of Virginia & Carolina into the Bay Mexico) & its believed Nova Mexico can not be far from the mountain adjoining to it that place being in 36d North Latitude if your Lops thought it fit I could send a sloop or two from this place to discover that river.

In Jlnswer to the Fifth The strength This query is for the most part answered in the precedent what is not answered followneighbors eth here

Connecticut according to the nearest conjecture I can make may have about 3000 men able to bear arms

In it there are but few Indians having been generally destroyed or removed into this government in the time of the last warrs

They have but a small trade, what they have is to the West-Indies Boston and this place.

They have not above a Ketch or two and about 6 or 7 sloops belonging to the place.

The country is very good accommodated with several good harbors & two considerable rivers New London is & very good harbor for shipping where they ride secure from all winds As for

their timber its the same as ours here.

To the Sixth The Correspondence wee hold with our neighbors is very amicable & good wee on all occasions doing to each other all the offices of Friendship & Service weecann; which has soe much endeared them to us that they desire nothing more than to be a part of this Govern^ those of Connecticut choosing far rather to come under this Goverm* than that of Boston for the reason afore mentioned and the Jerseys wishing the like as having once been a part of us. And seeing that in this separation they are not soe easy nor safe, as they might expect to bee, were they re-united to us

To the Seventh whatarms,&c It is answered in the answer to the Fourth

To the Eighth b^undar?eshe For the longitude latitude and contents of this Governs I refer yo' Lops to the afore lalifud^&c0 mentioned Map wherein you will gee in what narrow bounds we are cooped up

The land of this Government is generally barren rocky land except the land wee have right to on the Susquehanna river & up into the country amongst our Indians where there are great quantities very good

What was goo.d & did lye convenient and near the sea for ye most part is taken from us by Connecticut East and West Jersey

What is left is pretty well settled, as your Lops will perceive by the list of patents Mr. Sprag has with him

When I come to the Government, I found very little quit-rent reserved to his Maty however I have got the people with their own consent to the payment of a certainty as yoT Lops may perceive by the afore mentioned list of patents. Such as pay noe quit-rents I bring into the aforementioned court for his Matys rents & revenues where in a short time they are easily induced to doe it, & I hope his Maty will have considerable revenue by it

To the Ninth The principal towns within the Goverm1 are New York Albany & Kingston at E?opus All the rest are country villages the buildings in New-York & Albany are generally of stone & pnucipliVwnsbrick. In the country the houses are mostly new built, having two or three rooms on a floor The Dutch are great improvers of land New York and Albany live wholly upon trade with the Indians England and the West Indies. The returns for England are generally Beaver Peltry Oile & Tobacco when we can have it. To the West Indies we send Flower, Bread Pease pork & sometimes horses; the return from thence for the most part is rumm which pays the King a considerable excise & some molasses which serves the people to make drink & pays noe custom There are about nine or ten three mast vessels of about 80£or 100 tons burthen two or three ketches sw s & v s ^ Barks of about 40 Tun: and about twenty sloops of about twenty or five & twenty Tun sels belonging to the Go verm1 All of which trade for England Holland & the West Indies

except six or seven sloops that use the river trade to Albany & that way

^hspiv The Tenth is answered in the answers to the four & twentieth

cincts &c

To the Eleventh A thousand ships may ride here safe from winds & weather, I send herewith to your Lodp a Map wimt rivers from the coming in of Sandy Hook to the northermost end of this Island wherein the roLis&c Soundings are markt by which youil perceive the coming in & conveniency of this harbor Quit along the north side of Long Island are very good harbors & roads but on the south side none at all

To the Twelfth whatcommo- What account I <?an at present give of this is for the most part contained in my answer dity &c j0 the fourth of your Lops Queries

To the Thirteenth Both our neighbors and we have conveniency sufficient either for transporting timber or building what timber And for tryal if your Lodp think fit, I will send over boards of what dimensions you

mast & other

materials please the three inch planks I have for the Batteries cost me fifteen shillings the hundred foot

To the Fourteenth I can give yr Lo noe account at present but by the next I may. I will make a diligent enquiry whether salt about it & when I have got any thing worthy of your Lops knowledge I will acquaint

Petre&c] you with it

To the Fifteenth Concerning the number of the Inhabitants merchants English and foreigners, Servants Slaves & how what number many ^le to bear arms it is not possible to give an exact account but in order to my being of inhabitants. certainly informed I have issued forth several warrants to the Sheriffs within this government requiring them to make an inquiry thereof & to return the same to mee on which returns I shall not fail to give your LordP3 the account required.

To the Sixteenth. I believe for these 7 years last past, there has not come over into this province twenty English what number^00*0*1 or *r*sk famitys- ^ut on ^e contrary on Long Island the people encrease soe fast scoJcifidsh tnat ^ey complain for want of land & many remove from thence into the neighboring hafeToeme\eorsProvince. But of French there have been since my coming here several familys come both from St. Christophers & England & a great many more are expected as alsoe from Holland are come several Dutch familys which is another great argument of the necessity of adding to this Govern^ the Neighboring English Colonys,that a more equal ballance maybe kept between his Matys naturall born subjects and foreigners which latter are the most prevailing part of this Government I send herewith a petition of the new come naturalized French

number of For answer to the Seventeenth #* Eighteeenth.

christenings I must refer your Lops to my next by which time I doubt not but to be able to give ye

and what num ° J

ber of people desired account having to that end issued forth the like warrant to the Sheriff as aforesaid

dyed &c °

To the Nineteenth. As concerning ye vessels belonging to this place it is already answered in the answer of oTshipT^ade yr vs n*nth Qnerie & for others they are but few which are either from England New &c England or the West Indies

To the Twentieth. 2f&0cSlruc" What obstructions do you find to the improvement of trade &c.

JLns. a great obstruction to our trade is the hindring the importing Tobacco from the three lower Countrys in Delaware as I have already given your Lops an account in answer to the fifth of your queries

It is likewise a great hindrance to our trade here & an inconveniency to the ships that come out of England and the fishery that his Maty keeps not an officer at Newfoundland for formerly there went every year Sloops with provisions thither & gave the provisions in exchange for their fish who again sold them to the Shipps for Bills of Exchange to England which made good returns from this place procuring back from England English goods which paid his Maty custom there

For the regulation of our trade we have made several rules among ourselves, the chief of which is that noe goods of the product of Europe or West Indies bee imported into this province unless it were directly from England or such part of the West Indies where such commoditys were produced, without paying as a custom to his Maty 10 per cent

To the one and Twentieth.

What advantage

mayTe^IS'to This querie is sufficiently answered in the foregoing answers

your trade

To the two and Twentieth concerning the Revenue dmyes&c68 and I shall give your Lops an exact answer to this querie as its possible for me, and wherein I am deficient I shall acquaint your Lops with the true causes of it

The Revenue except that of the Quit-Rents has been settled upon his Maty then his Royal Highness & his heirs by act of Assembly payable in manner folloving viz*

For every Gallon of Rum Brandy & distilled liquors to bee imported into the province & its dependencys fou pence currant money of the province

For every pipe of Madera, Fyal St George Canary Malaga Sherry & all sweet wines the summ of forty shillings current money aforesaid

Upon all other merchandizes imported into the province & dependencys the summ of forty shillings current money aforesaid for every hundred pounds valued at the prime cost except those hereafter specified viz*

Salt, Brick, Pan-tyles, Goals, Fish, Sugar Molasses, Cottonwool Ginger, Logwood, brasalette, ffustyk west-India hydes, Tobacco bullion & Plate

Upon all merchandize commonly called Indian Goods as Duffels, Strouds, Blanketts, plains, halfthicks, Woolen Stokins, White Ozenbriggs, kettles, hatchetts, hoes, Red Lead, vermillion, Cotton, Red Kersey, Knives, Indian Haberdashery & other Indian goods the sum of ten pounds current money aforesaid for every hundred pounds value prime cost carried up Hudsons river in any vessel sloops boats or canoes or any other way

Upon every baril of powder twelve shillings

Upon every lb. weight of lead six shillings

For every Gun or Gun Baril with a lock six shillings

For every GalP. of Rum, Brandy or distilld Liquors that shall bee carried up Hudsons river aforesaid four pence current money aforesaid

And likewise by the said act is settled upon his Maty, his heirs & successors an excise upon all liquors (beer and cyder excepted) retailed under five gallons the sum of twelve pence current money, aforesaid within ye city & county of New York per gallon as alsoe the excise of twelve pence current money aforesaid upon each gallon of liquor carried up Hudsons river. And also an excise of twelve pence on liquors retailed throughout the whole province& Depencies (beer and cyder only excepted)

As alsoe the custom & duty upon every beaver skin commonly called a whole Beaver, nine pence

And that all other furs & peltry bee valued accordingly that is for two half beavers nine pence for four lapps nine pence three drillings one shilling sixpence ten ratoons ninepence four foxes ninepence, four fishers nine pence, five catts ninepence, four & twenty mees-catts nine pence, ten mailers ninepence, twenty-four pounds of Moose & Deer Skin ninepence. And all other Peltry to be valued equivalent to the whole beaver exported out of this Province (bull & cowhides excepted)

And alsoe that all Indian traders throughout the whole province & dependencies doe pay for the value of each hundred pounds prime cost they traffick with the Indians for, ten pounds money aforesaid.

And for all Beer& Sider retailed throughout the Province & dependencies six shillings per baril, and for each baril of beer or sider that is sold to the Indians six shillings as if retailed As for the Quit Rents at my arrival they were very inconsiderable most made by Sr Edmund AnQuit Rents^ dros, the greatest part whereof in Delaware River the most part of the patents granted by my predecessors were without any reservation of any Quit-Rents or acknowledgement to his Maty or very inconsiderable such as several of Sr Edmond Andros's grants to great townships reserving the Quit-rent of our Land only & were but confirmations of former grants & Indian purchases, These people have renewed their patents under a greater Quit-Rent as will appear by the list sent herewith most of these patents granted by mee were confirmations alsoe

The methods that I took for the obliging them to this was finding several tracts of land in their townships not purchased of the Indians and soe at his Matys disposal. They were willing rather to submit to a greater Quit Rent than have that unpurchased land disposed of to others than themselves

The persons that have had the collection receipt & management of his Maty's revenue for these three years past & upwards are Mr Lucas Santen by commission from his Ma^ then his Royal Highness, Collector & Receiver. John Smith one that he brought out of England was his deputy bookkeeper & surveyor for about three years & one John Harlow a servant of his, waiter & searcher santon I gave order to Mr Santon that for the good management of this small revenue to ye best advantage hee should not make any journey into the country on pretence of the King's business whereby to put him to charge, but that when any thing occurred hee should acquaint me with it that I might order the sheriffs or Justices of the Peace of the Place to take care of it. And alsoe went up to Albany mysell on purpose to settle his Maty8 business there where I made one Robert Livingstone Collector & Receiver, with fcrder to ace1 wth & pay into Mr Santer wl money he shod receive for which he was to have Is per Pound of all such moneys as should pass through his hands, k alsoe made him Clerk of the Town that both places together might afford him a competent maintenance.

At Esopus one Thomas Garton was by Mr. Santon made collector & receiver who as I find by Mr Santons account had not accounted with him for these three years past. Upon wch I was forct to send an order of Council for his coming hither with his accts who when hee came gave in a scrole of paper containing a confused acct of about <£200. pretending that his accts together with a great deal of corn & Peltry by him collected & received for his Maty8 customs excise & Quit-Rents were burnt in his house so that all the council & I could get from him for three years & on half past was a bond of <£200.

Since that I have set the Excise of that country alone to Mr. Pawling sheriff for <£110.

As for the county of Richmond I have noe acct thereof, as your Lops will see by the audit.

And for the county of West Chester one Collins is Collector & Receiver there, whoe (as your Lops may likewise see by the audit) has not given any account—only this Mr Santen tells me that in Septr last hee took two bonds for money payable in March next which I look upon to be nothing, & all the Revenue of that County lost the man having hardly bread to put in his mouth.

The first year there was <£52. offered for the Excise of Long Island, but I thought it unreasonable it being the best peopled place in this Goverm1 & wherein theres great consumption of Rumm & therefore I gave commission to Mr Nicolls & Mr Vaughton to gather it with whom I made this agreement that out of it they should have forty pounds, & that they should account with Mr Santon for the remainder.

Since that for these two years past one Henry Fillkin has been Collector & for his pains has a salary of <£30 per ann. What returns he makes I referr to the audit most part of the people of that Island especially towards the East End are of the same stamp with those of New-England, refractory & very loath to have any commerce with this place to the great detrm* of his Maty8 revenue & ruin of our merchants. To prevent which the aforementioned act of Assembly imposing 10 pr cent upon all such goods as should be imported from any colony where such goods were not produced passed, which was intended chiefly to hinder their carrying their oyle to Bostou & bringing goods from thence into this Goverm*.

They thought it a hardship to be obliged as formerly to come to this citty to enter & clear & on their application were allowed to have a port where I made Mr Arnold Collector & Receiver, with order to be accomptable to Mr Santen—What returns he has given I likewise referr to the audit

I allowed him for 3 years & half past but <£52 with which hee was well satisfied having had some Pquisits by Entrys & clearing there. Notwithstanding the desire of theirs was readily granted they refused to take our merchants money or goods & carried away their Oyle private to Boston & brought back goods from thence as formerly. Therefore with the advice of the Council I made an order that all people before they goe there shall enter & clear here and also I have bought a Bark that cruseth there with a master, two seamen a sergeant & six soldiers from the Garrison for which the soldiers are allowed no more than their pay except a little provision more than their former allowance, the master & two seamen I have listed in thd-Company alsoe & allow them something more than soldiers pay.

[vol. I j 14

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