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tions. To these he has added a selection school-book which would explain the from his papers, so as to furnish the more difficult parts of arithmetic, in a present volume. His object in all of manner sufficiently familiar for the comthem is, in some degree to develope “ the prehension of youth, and yet sufficiently union of Life and Literature ; or, in other accurate and attentive to principles to be words, the devotion of Literature to worthy of being considered an explanaSocial Interests ;” and to do this in the tion. We have paid considerable attencourse of a few miscellaneous papers, to tion to this volume of Mr. Calder's, and be read rather in half-hours of leisure, hesitate not to say, that, although the than in hours of study, but which, while plan of the work is confessedly difficult furnishing an agreeable relaxation, shall, and novel, he has happily succeeded, and at the same time, minister to information made the connexion between ordinary and improvement. In too much of our and algebraic arithmetic at once easy lighter miscellaneous literature, very de- and comprehensible. leterious elements are to be found; 80 The Voice of many Waters. A Tale that not only does it not nourish, but it for Young People. By Mrs. David does poison. To this censure Mr. Gos Osborne : with Illustrations, by R. tick's papers are far from being liable. Cooper, R.A., and A. W. Cooper. In the lightest there is what suggests 16mo., square, pp. 184. Effingham very serious reflection.

Wilson. The object of this elegant A familiar Explanation of the higher though small volume is, we are informed, Parts of Arithmetic, comprising Frac- “ to relate a few interesting particulars tions, Decimals, Practice, Proportion, connected with the various oceans, seas, and its Applications, fc., &c. With an and rivers, which occupy, at least, threeAppendix. Designed as an Introduction fourths of the surface of the globe." We to Algebra. By the Rev. Frederick are pleased with the execution of the Calder, B.A., Head Master of the work, inasmuch as the language is atGrammar School, Chesterfield 12mo., tractively simple, and a spirit of evangepp. xii, 167. Whittaker and Co. lical piety pervades every page. In our The object and end of this unpretending editorial labours, we shall at all times but most useful work are detailed in the hail with pleasure and cordiality the preface. It is to supply a want which re-appearance of Mrs. Osborne in the he, as a Teacher, has experienced, of a literary world as an author.



Sheffield Town Hall, before R. Bayley, any other person or persons going to or

Esq., Magistrate, Tuesday, September returning from his, her, or their usual 5th, 1848.

place of religious worship tolerated by John HEPWORTH, Toll-Collector at law.” It was on this latter exemption Hunter's-gate bar, was summoned on the that he relied, which did not require that complaint of Mr. John Unwin, with hav- the place of worship should be within ing illegally taken toll from him, when the town or parish where the person going to preach, as a Local Preacher in claiming exemption resided. In the old the Wesleyan Connexion. Mr. Dixon Acts of Parliament, the exemption was for the complainant, and Mr. Chambers only for persons going to their own parish for the defence.

church or chapel. But the Act of the Mr. Dixon stated, that by the Act 3d Geo. IV. gave much greater latitude. 3 Geo. IV., c. 126, sect. 32, “no toll He should show that Mr. Unwin was shall be demanded or taken by virtue of going to his usual place of religious that or any other Act or Acts of Parlia- worship tolerated by law; and then, he ment, on any turnpike-road, of or from apprehended, the defendant would be any person or persons going to or return. liable to a penalty, though the object was ing from his, her, or their proper paro- not a penalty, but only to decide a ques. chial church or chapel ; or of or from tion of considerable importance. In the VOL. IV.--FOURTHI SERIES.

4 N

Wesleyan system, the country was divided gig to Grindleford-Bridge, to preach two into Districts, each of which contained Sunday-school sermons. He had a per. several Circuits, which had no respect to son with him to assist in driving, in concounty or parochial boundaries. There sequence of an infirmity in his arm. At were various rules and regulations; and Hunter's-bar, Hepworth demanded toll. every Preacher belonging to the body He stated the purpose for which he was was bound to discharge his duties undergoing, and claimed exemption. Hepthe sanction of the Superintendent of his worth, however, required him to pay, Circuit, Mr. Unwin had been appointed and he paid 6d. ; but gave notice that he to preach sermons on the 27th of August, should claim exemption from it. He on behalf of the Sunday-school at Grin went with the consent of the Superindleford-Bridge, with the consent and tendents of the Sheffield and Bakewell authority of the Rev. Mr. Farrar, Chair. Circuits, Mr. Farrar at Sheffield, and man of the District, and Superintendent Mr. Harrison at Bakewell. He went to of the Sheffield West Circuit, and of the preach in conformity with the rules of Rev. Mr. Harrison, Superintendent of the Wesleyan society..... Cross-examined the Bakewell Circuit, which also belongs by Mr. Chambers. Had passed toll-free to the Sheffield District. Grindleford. through this bar two years ago, when Bridge is in the Bakewell Circuit. As going to preach at Great-Hucklow, in a Local Preacher, therefore, he was the Bradwell Circuit. Could not say if clearly within the words of the Act of Hepworth asked his name; but if so, he Parliament. His (Mr. Dixon's) client told it. Hepworth asked to see the had been taken by surprise by the de. Plan. He had it not with him; but mand of the toll-keeper; for since the told Hepworth that the appointment was bar was erected, he believed no such des not in the Plan. His name was in the mand had been made before ; and he Plan of the Sheffield West Circuit, should call Mr. Longden to prove, that now produced, as an accredited Local for many years he had been accustomed Preacher. According to that Plan, he to go through the bar, on similar occa was appointed to several villages about sions, toll-free. He would quote the Sheffield, for August, September, and opinion of Mr. Fitzroy Kelly, Q.C. His October ; but he was appointed to Grinopinion was, “ that the exemption in the dleford Bridge by special arrangement, Act is not confined to persons attending in accordance with the rules and usages one place of worship, but extends to all of the Connexion, in addition to the persons going to all places of public others. He had two other similar apworship to which they usually resort, pointments in the Bakewell Circuit, at according to the customary forms of Beeley and Youlgreave...... Re-examined their religion ; and, consequently, that by Mr. Dixon : In addition to the apthe Itinerant and Local Preachers above pointments set down for him in the Plan, mentioned are entitled to the exemp he was bound to discharge this duty tion.” Mr. Unwin had been publicly when appointed by his Superintendent ; advertised to preach ; and he was going and where he was bound to go was his to preach in consistency with the rules of usual place. the society to which he belonged. This Mr. Dixon then called Henry Longplace, to which his duty called him, den, Esq., who has been nearly fifty must be taken to be his usual place. If years a Local Preacher, and is the Mr. Unwin had been intruding himself oldest in the Circuit. He has preached into another Circuit contrary to rule, it at Grindleford-Bridge since this tolle would have been another matter. Sir bar was erectedMr. Longden stated N. C. Tindal, too, when Solicitor-Gene that the evidence of Mr. Unwin was corral, said that “if the Wesleyan Minister rect as to the practices of the society : attends the chapel according to the usage and in cross-examination by Mr. Champrescribed and observed by the rules of bers, he said he had never paid toll when the particular persuasion to which he going to preach out of the Sheffield Cir. belongs, I think such chapel may be cuit. It is not usual to forward Plans considered as, to him, the usual place of to the toll-keepers. The Plans are pube religious worship, when he is attending lished, and the toll-keepers can purchase it, on the day so prescribed.” That them if they like, might therefore be considered as being for the defence, Mr. Chambers put it to them their usual place.

to the Bench, whether it could, by any Mr. Dixon then called Mr. Unwin, fair construction of terms, be held to be who proved that he was a Local Preacher Mr. Unwin's usual place when he was in the Wesleyan Connexion ; that on going by extraordinary and special arthe 27th of August he was going in a rangement to preach at a distant place,

This Act was designed to relieve a large it appeared, had not been demanded in class of persons from toll in attending such cases for fifty years. Toll-keepers their regular places of worship. Under were protected against fraud by heavy the old Act, persons were exempt only penalties incurred by persons who made when going to their parish church or a false statement. chapel. By a subsequent and local Act, The case was then decided in favour the exception was enlarged ; and in the of Mr. Unwin. As po penalty was asked case of Lewis v. Hammond, it was held for, Hepworth, the bar-keeper, was conthat persons were not exempt when going victed, and ordered to pay the costs, out of their own parish. But the Act which were 48. Mr. Unwin subsequently 3d Geo. IV. went further; and now the returned the costs to the bar-keeper. Dissenter going out of his parish to his (By this decision, all Wesleyan usual place of worsbip, was exempt. Preachers are exempt from toll when But if persons going to preach at extra- going to conduct services beyond the ordinary and unusual places were exempt, bounds of their own Circuits, when such persons travelling anywhere about the services are properly appointed to be country had only to state they were going held by them, under the sanction of the to their place of worship to be exempt Superintendent in whose Circuit they from toll. But why should this be be- reside, and the Superintendent of the lieved without some proof? He sub Circuit where the services are held. The mitted, that after Mr. Unwin's admission, rule under which this is permitted is the that he had never been to Grindleford- following :-“Let no Local Preacher be Bridge before as a Preacher or a wor permitted to preach in any other Circuit shipper, it could not be held to be his than his own, without producing a reusual place.

commendation from the Superintendent Mr. Albert Smith, the Magistrate's of the Circuit in which he lives; nor Clerk, said the case was the same as that suffer any invitation to be admitted as a of any other person going to preach on a plea, except from men in office, who act special occasion a charity sermon.

in conjunction with the Superintendent Mr. Chambers : How are toll-keepers of that Circuit which he visits."-See to protect themselves ? Are they to be Leaders' Class-book, Rules relating to the at the mercy of every one who says he is Officers.) a Preacher ? If so, what a door is opened for fraud !

ANOTHER CASE. The Magistrate : The bar-keeper can demand the person's name; and if he

(From the Watchman" Newspaper.)

(f"n gives his name, he is liable to a very At the Petty Sessions held at Amptheavy penalty if he has practised fraud. hill, Bedfordshire, on Thursday last,

Mr. Dixon replied: The case of Lewis John Higgs, the bar-keeper at Houghton and Hammond, which was an action for gate, was summoned for illegally exact. money had and received, was in 1818, ing a tolt of the Rev, James Clapham, while the Act 3 Geo. IV. was 1822. Wesleyan Minister, on Sunday, August Besides, Lewis v. Hammond was de 27ch. Mr. Edward Handscomb appeared cided under a local Act, and it was held as Attorney for the complainant; and that the word “parochial” applied to Mr. John Greene, as Attorney for the the whole clause; but it was obviously gate-keeper. It appeared that the comintended to be omitted in the enactment plainant had resided at Ampthill, as a under which he claimed exemption. The Wesleyan Minister, upwards of two exemption for members of the Church years; that on every third Sunday he was when going to their parochial church had to conduct divine service at Bedford ; or chapel; but Dissenters enjoyed it that on such occasions he had always when going to their ordinary place, in passed toll-free through the Houghton whatever parish that might be situated. gate; that, on the day in question, he They therefore had a privilege beyond was in a gig belonging to Mr. W. ArmChurchmen. He submitted, that where strong, whose servant was driving; that, in the rules of a religious society required coming to the gate, toll was demanded ; its members to go to a particular place at that, notwithstanding the claim of exempany time, that was the usual place for tion made by the complainant, on the them,

ground that he was going to his usual place The Magistrate thought if a Preacher of worship, the demand was still insisted had duties to perform at any place, he upon; and that the toll was at length was exempt from toll. They could not paid under protest....... Mr. Handscomb construe the Act very rigidly: it was then cited the following cases ; namely, evidently designed to be liberal. Toll, that of the late Rev. Joseph Sanders, at Merthyr-Tydvil, reported in the Wes- plainant ought not to be received, inas. leyan Magazine for 1832, p. 135 ; that much as he was the informant, and, as of Mr. W. Bennett, at Hemel Hemp- such, entitled, on conviction, to a moiety stead, in February, 1833; that of Mr. of the penalty ; that the claim of exempG. Parrott, at Guildford, reported in the tion was not sufficiently explicit ; that, “ Watchman" of April 220, 1846; and as the vehicle was driven by an attendant, that of Mr. J. Unwin, of Sheffield, re- the claim of exemption could not be ported in the “ Watchman” of Septem- maintained ; and that, at all events, the ber 13th, 1848.

toll could be demanded of the driver, on He also referred the Bench to the his return the same morning....... At this opinion of Mr. Fitzroy Kelly, and to the stage of the proceedings, the Magistrates still more weighty opinion of the late Sir suggested that, as the complainant had Nicholas Tindal, copies of which are to disclaimed any wish to enforce the pebe found in the Wesleyan Magazine for nalty, the better plan would be for the 1841, p. 375. He also produced the litigant parties to submit to the recom« Minutes ” of the last Wesleyan Con- mendation of the Bench, without a formal ference, to show that his client was regu- conviction. The Attorneys, having conlarly appointed to the Bedford and ferred with their respective clients, conAmpthill Circuit, between which places sented to this arrangement; and the the toll-gate stands; and he produced a Bench then required the toll to be reprinted Plan of the Sunday appointments funded by the gate-keeper, and that the for that Circuit, by which it appeared court fees should be paid by the parties that, on the day referred to, the com- in equal moieties. The gate-keeper was plainant was going to Bedford in the then informed by the Magistrates, that ordinary course of his ministerial duty. the law was quite clear on the point, and ...... The defendant's Attorney argued, cautioned against exacting toll under such in reply, that the evidence of the com- circumstances for the future,





SYMPATHY VALUED_FAVOURABLE King of kings and Lord of lords. We

CIRCUMSTANCES — CONTINUED are inspired anew with courage when we HOSTILITY OF THE COUNCIL OF think of the faithful perseverance of your STATE-GRATIFYING STATE OF fraternal love, of which we have already THE PERSECUTED CHURCHES received so many evidences. We feel NEW FIELDS OF LABOUR OPENED assured that so many prayers cannot fail TO THE BANISHED PASTORS of efficacy : it is to them that we ascribe PROGRESS OF THE EVANGELICAL the indwelling peace and joy we possess, ALLIANCE.

through God's mercy, in the midst of our

troubles. We scatter the good seed of Motiers-Travers, Neuchâtel, the word of God in the midst of those August 17th, 1848.

who are committed to our care with more DEAR AND HONOURED BRETHREN, confidence, when we reflect that it is _With the deepest gratitude to God did watered by your fervent supplications ; we learn, from your letter of the 25th of and if the present moment be gloomy, we July last, the resolution of the British look forward to the future with greater Conference with regard to the persecuted hope, assured that one day the Lord will Christians of the Canton de Vaud. This enable us to gather in an abundant har. new evidence of your Christian sympa- vest, wherein we shall both rejoice togethy, which confirms all those we have ther. We are particularly affected by received from your various Committees, your prayers on behalf of the people and is especially valued by us, because we of the rulers who govern us; for never are thereby assured of the communion of have we borne them with more affection your prayers, and of the continuance of on our hearts than since the time they your intercession, on our behalf, with the have repulsed us. God, indeed, has

given us grace to submit to our trials in to give in his resignation as member of a spirit of patience and meekness, to bear the Grand Council. He wished to unour persecutors in mind before Him, dergo a new election. Although the under the conviction that they are more party of the Council of State had skilto be pitied than ourselves, and that their fully selected as his competitor an honarbitrary measures have done us much ourable man and a friend to religious more good than harm. Continue then, liberty, M. Schopfer was nevertheless rebeloved brethren, to pray for them and elected. He is thus pledged by this for us.

very fact to persevere in the defence of We trust, that the hopes you express those principles for which he first raised in your letter will be speedily realized, his voice. as much for the honour of our country T he tribunals called upon to decide as for our own quietude : our path, how on those cases which were remitted to ever, is still darkened with respect to them by the decree of the 28th of March, external circumstances, nor can we anti- have just taken a position which appears cipate, with any certainty, the time of to promise greater tranquillity for the our deliverance. On our mountains, one future. Four police tribunals, those of is sometimes assailed with a sudden gust, Lausanne, in the case of M. Scholl and at the very moment when the heavens Madame Vinet; of Aigle, in the case of seem to assume the most serene aspect. M. Pilet; of Payerne, for M. Clement; It may very probably be thus with regard and more recently of Echallens, in the to our present position as a church. The affair of M. Germond, have, it is true, Lord would teach us to go on from day decreed fines for the offence of prayers in to day, and to rely on Him alone.

dwelling-houses; but the tribunal of It is true that more than one favour. Vevey has had the honour to enter on a able circumstance appears at present to better path. Interpreting the decree of announce the return of a healthier feeling the 28th of March as not interdicting, on the part of our population. In the either in the letter or the spirit, any other first place, our meetings are not the occa than politico-religious meetings, which sion of any disturbance by the populace. might be the cause of disturbances, it

They would, generally speaking, be left has pronounced in my case, that the undisturbed, without the intervention of meeting at which I presided, in my own the agents of authority. In the only house, not having any connexion with instance in which there has been latterly politics, and not having caused any disa little disturbance, one word from the turbance, there was no need to enforce Prefect of Vevey sufficed to put a stop, on me the penalty imposed by that dein a moment, to a tumult which was cree. The public administration aponly attempted under the favour of night. pealed to the Court of Cassation against It becomes more and more evident that this releasing sentence. Unfortunately, our meetings will no longer be disturbed an error of form, which compelled the in any way, since the Council of State Court of Cassation to reject the appeal, desires that it should be so. On the prevented it from pronouncing judgment other hand, the Council of State, one of on the basis of the question itself: but whose members does not scruple to mani. more recently it had the opportunity of fest his sympathy with the insurgents of pronouncing such judgment, in conseParis, and another takes every opportu quence of an appeal by M. Germond, nity to avow the doctrines of Socialism, against the sentence of the tribunal of daily loses its hold even on those who Echallens. The Court of Cassation then raised it to power, and has received cer- declared, in freeing M. Germond, that tain checks from the Grand Council the decree of the 28th March was only during the last sessions. Thus, for applicable in those cases where there had instance, the town of Yverdon, which been disturbance. Since then, the trithe Council of State had placed under bunal of Vevey has absolved five persons adıninistration, has been replaced by the committed to its decision, without any Grand Council under the regular govern appeal on the part of the public adminisment of the communal authorities named tration. It is, therefore, probable that by the majority of the citizens. You the Council of State will make no more are aware that M. Schopfer, on accepting use of its decree, and will no longer send the Presidency of the Grand Council, those to the tribunals who may be surfrankly declared himself in favour of prised in the misdemeanour of attending religious liberty. More recently, at the religious meetings. In this sense the close of a disagreeable scene in public, in decree of the 28th March has no doubt which he was involved through M. received its death-blow. Druey, Counsellor of State, he was led But, nevertheless, the Council of State,

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