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REPORT OF THE BUTLER COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY.
The meetings of the Butler County Medical Society, with one xception, have been well attended the past year. They have all been held in the town of Butler, as it is the most convenient point for all. One great drawback to our fall and winter meetings is the almost impassable condition of our roads. Four new members, recent graduates, have been admitted to the Society within the last year, and two names were proposed for membership at our last meeting, which was perhaps one of the best attended for years. Our membership is now eighteen, and ought to be at least twentyfive; with proper effort we will undoubtedly reach this number ere the close of the present year. Although the past winter has been a very open one, yet contrary to all expectation, the county has been exempt from any epidemic whatever, and the past season has been an unusually healthy one. I have the same complaint to make this year as my predecessor, Dr. Towler, had last year, viz., our members do not write up and report their important cases. Το make a county society of mutual benefit, every extraordinary case should be reported in full at stated meetings. Properly conducted county societies are of immense value to practitioners, and more attention and interest should be given to them. Owing to the tardiness of members in reporting, I am compelled to give the cases of my own practice. In this immediate neighborhood (Millerstown) the prevailing diseases have been pneumonia, bronchitis, and scarlatina. I have had quite a number of cases of pneumonia during the winter and spring months. The treatment pursued in all my cases, consisted in the application of mustard and flaxseed poultices to the affected side in the early part of the disease, afterward the old fashioned fly blister, and the administration of opiates sufficient to allay pain, with from five to ten grains of carbonate of ammonia every four hours. To reduce temperature, I consider quinine of the greatest possible value. I never administer more than two doses in the twenty-four hours, and seldom but one; when the temperature runs from 20 to 31°, I give my patient five grains of quinine every morning; should the temperature rise above this, I then
administer from eight to fifteen grains in the morning, and repeat towards evening, if there is not a marked diminution of heat. Quinine is undoubtedly the best and safest antipyretic we have for pneumonia. I have been using it as such for the last two years, and I am sure my record of cases will compare favorably with any that has come under my observation.
Sixteen cases of scarlatina occurred in my practice during the winter, two of which proved fatal, both the fatal cases happened in the same family, where there were six suffering from the disease at the same time, and under the most unfavorable hygienic condition; the house was only about 10 by 16 feet, with a ceiling six or seren feet high, and four of the patients were crowded into one bed. My other cases occurred in families where the surroundings were very much better, and all made a good recovery. Of the fourteen cases that terminated favorably, six had scarlatina anasarca, two quite severely. The treatment followed, was the internal administration of tincture of chloride of iron, chlorate of potassa, and quinine, with the local application of carbolic acid to the throat. To reduce high temperature, the patient was placed in the warm pack. Inunction of unguent. aqua rosa and glycerina, 3j glycerine to one oz. of ointment, was applied freely from the first. For the anasarca, scoparius was invariably used with most flattering results. It was used in the form of decoction, made by boiling half an ounce of the tops to a pint and a half of water, this was boiled down to a pint, and from a tablespoonful to a wine-glassful, according to age and severity of symptoms, was administered every four to six hours. In the first years of my practice I used the old remedies for this trouble, bitartrate of potassa, spirits of nitre, etc.; but a couple of years since I was requested by my friend, Dr. R. S. Wallace, of Brady Bend, Pa., to give scoparius a trial; I did so, and I have never since found it necessary to use any other remedy for this trouble.
S. D. BELL,
REPORT OF THE CLARION COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY.
CLARION County is situated in the north western part of the State, and contains a population of thirty-five thousand inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by Forest and Venango Counties, south by Armstrong County, east by Jefferson and Forest Counties, west by Tenango and Armstrong Counties. The surface of the county is rolling and natural scenery abundant. It is well watered and timbered. The northern section is covered with extensive forests of hemlock, white and yellow pine. From this section of the country, large quantities of lumber and square timber are floated down the Clarion River into the Allegheny River, thence to Pittsburg, the lumber market for this region. In the southern portion the principal kinds of timber are oak, chestnut, maple, and hickory, with small quantities of pine along the streams. This is the agricultural portion of the county, and underlaid with large deposits of bituminous coal, limestone, iron ore, and fire clay. In the southwestern portion of the county there have been extensive developments of petroleum oil, extending from Parker's landing in Armstrong County, to within five miles of Clarion, a distance of eighteen miles, with an average width of three miles. The depth at which oil is found in this district is about 1000 feet. The daily production is 6000 barrels.
The principal streams are the Allegheny River, extending along the southwestern boundary of the county, and the Clarion River, running in a southwestern course through the middle of the county, in its course receiving many tributaries, on the largest of which are located some quite extensive mills for sawing lumber. There is very little river bottom along this stream.
Redbank Creek, the third largest stream, washes the southern boundary of the county and is the dividing line between this and Armstrong County; this stream is one of the outlets of the Jefferson County lumber trade. The extent of river bottom is very limited on any of our rivers, the greatest extent being along the Allegheny River.
The principal town is Clarion ; this is the county seat, and contains a population of fifteen hundred inhabitants; it is located near the centre of the county on a hill four hundred feet above the level of the Clarion River. It has a good water supply, the water being procured from the Clarion River and pumped a distance of 3300 feet, with an elevation of 508 feet into a reservoir,
thence distributed through cast iron mains throughout the town. The pumping work is said to be the greatest in the State.
We have quite a number of thriving towns : the principal ones are East Brady, with a population of 1500; St. Petersburg, with a population of 2000; Foxburg, population 1000; Edenburg, population 1500; Rimersburg, 1000; and New Bethlehem, 1200. Around the latter place there are extensive deposits of bituminous coal, the veins running from 4 feet to 14 feet in thickness. The Fairmount Coal Works at that place ship two hundred tons of coal daily. Mining in this county is still in its infancy, but preparations are being made to carry it on more extensively.
As there have been no mortuary tables kept, we are unable to give the number of deaths or their causes.
Prevalent Diseases.-In making this report we are compelled to make that too frequent apology of lack of interest from either thoughtlessness or indisposition by the members of this Society, therefore it is impossible to give in detail the sanitary condition of a larger portion of the county. For the past year no disease has prevailed as an epidemic to any great extent.
Pneumonia has always been the prevailing disease in all parts of the county, and this winter being a very open one, we bad more than usual of it, but very few of the cases terminated fatally.
Typloid fever prevails in certain localities of the lumber region, and along Redbank Creek, but for the last few years has assumed a milder form.
There is more or less of diphtheria every year, but of less malig. nancy for the last two years.
Of scarlatina this year there have been very few cases; during the months of July and August of last year, it ran as an epidemic over all the southern portion of the county, principally scarlatina simples and anginosa, with comparatively few cases of scarlatina maligna.
Rheumatism and neuralgia are met with in all sections of the county; the former is more frequent among the lumbering class, on account of their exposure to all kinets of weather, the most of their work being in the wet season of the year, spring and fall.
Catarrhal affections of all kinds are epidemic in certain sections of the county. Acute catarrh has been inore frequent the latter part of this winter and through the spring months than of former years, but with no serious results.
With this brief description of the county and its diseases, we will in conclusion state that we hope in the future the members of our Society will take a greater interest in its welfare, and strive to make it interesting and instructive by all lending a helping hand to push forward the cause of medical science in this county.
REPORT OF THE COLUMBIA COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY.
This Society was originally known as the Montour and Columbia County Medical Society, but in June, 1874, the members of the society from Montour County withdrew for the purpose of organizing a separate society.
Columbia County was formed from part of Northumberland County in 1813. In 1818 a small portion was cut off by the formation of Schuylkill County, and in 1850 Montour County, was taken off. The area of the county at present is about 400 square miles, and the population in 1870 was 28,766.
The north branch of the Susquehanna River flows through the county, entering at Berwick, and leaving at Roaring Creek. The other streams of importance are Fishing, Catawissa, and Roaring Creeks. The former pursues a southwesterly course and empties into the river at Rupert. The two latter flow in an easterly direction, and empty into the river Catawissa at the town of that name, and Roaring empties three miles further south.
The principal mountain ranges of the county are the following: north of the valley of the river are Knob Mountains, Montour Ridge, and other ranges of the great Appalachian System ; south of it are Long, McCauly, and Little Mountains.
The soil of the county varies from the richest to be found in any part of the State to the most barren and rocky. Iron ore and limestone are found in considerable quantities north of the river, while in the southern and eastern portions of the county, coal is mined to some extent.
Bloomsburg, the county seat, is situated on the river twenty-four miles from Northumberland. The town was laid out in 1802 by Ludwig Eyer, and had in 1870 a population of 3341. The Bloomsburg State Normal School, located here, is beautifully situated on an eminence overlooking the town. Catawissa, situated four miles south of Bloomsburg, on the same stream, was laid out in 1787 by Wm. Hughes, a Quaker from Bucks County. It had in 1870 a population of 1614. Berwick is situated on the river ten miles north of Bloomsburg. It was originally settled in 1783; the population in 1870 was 923. Centralia is a town of several hundred inhabi