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quently is the diagnostic sign. Reported a Dr. McGuire thought sulphur a good disincase where there seemed to be no other symp- fectant, and said it had been used successfully toms and yet the skin peeled off. As to age during the epidemic here, not a single case of of occurrence of the disease thinks it may oc- scarlet fever occurring in the houses so disincur at any age after birth. Had seen the fected and afterwards occupied by new eruption in the throat spoken of by Dr. Mc- tenants. Clintock. Having asked as to whether the urine was a carrier of contagion, Dr. R. E. Mc- Sanitary Instruction in Schools and Colleges. Vey said it was.

Dr. Stewart spoke of the many eruptive diseases that had an eruption similar in appearance to that of scarlet fever, as eczema, erythema, strophulus or red gum &c., and quot- BY W. L. SCHENCK, M.D., OF OSAGE CITY, KAN. ed Murchison as saying that the only way in which the diagnosis can be made sure is by its

[Having heard Dr. Schenck deliver the adbeing the medium of contagion thereafter. dress on "Sanitary Instruction in Schools and The diagnosis is made easier in very young Colleges,” a portion of which is published in children from the fact that generally they the present number, the remainder to appear are exempt from the disease.

in the next issue, though intended for a Dr. Munn spoke of a family where there popular audience, we feel sure that those who were four children between the ages of four read it will appreciate its presentation in the months and ten years. The baby, after all the JOURNAL.-J. E. m.] others had had scarlet fever, had sore throat,

Macaulay tells us, in his history of England, temperature of 106° and died, in coma. A

that in 1690 “one-third part of Scotland was young woman after confinement with her first in a state not less savage than New Guinea.” child was visited by a girl who took scarlet He also informs us that Sir John Dalrymple, fever, later the baby less than three months minister for Scotland, thought he was doing old had sore throat, fever, and an eruption service to God and his country when he wrote thought to be scarlet fever.

to the general commanding the Scotch army, Dr. Peers in closing did not insist that there - Your troops will entirely destroy the counwas always sore throat. When is there the try of Lochaber, Lochiel's lands, Keppock's, most danger of contagion gives rise to the Glengairy's and Glencoe's, and I hope the solquestion, when is there the most poison in the diers will not trouble the government with system? and at what time is the poison most

prisoners." And the “most dastardly and liable to be given off? The less danger

The less danger in the perfidious assassination” of Maclan and his early stages is due more to the fact that the clan at Glencoe, leaves the inference that patient does not come in contact so nearly

many of the other two-thirds were not much with other persons. Does not believe that

more advanced in civilization. Yet this wild scarlet fever arises de novo and believes that people, less civilized in many respects than if it was once stamped out it would not occur any of the nations of Europe, poor as they again without importation. The contagion is

were rude, from an impulse born of a religion contained in the blood and not alone in the whose spirit of evolution they did not comepithelium. Also the eruption he thinks in- prehend, in 1696 established the first system volves the whole mucous tract.

of national education, ordering that every Dr. Stewart on being asked said the patient parish should provide a commodious school should be isolated and those in attendance house, and pay a stipend to the schoolmaster. should not be allowed to go out. Advised!

In less than a generation, notwithstanding putting sulphur in water and keeping a steam her inclement climate and barren soil, in agribearing sulphur. Remove carpet, clothing, culture, manufactures, commerce, science and curtains and every nidus for contagion. Physicians before visiting other patients should civilization, Scotland stood first among the nadisinfect themselves.

tions of the world; and wherever her common people went, and in whatever they engaged, longs life, and thus secures the benefit of libthey easily rose to the first rank, and demon- erty and the pursuit of happiness. What libstrated to all christendom the beneficence of erty to him who is bound by the chains of national education. Two centuries have wit- disease, and miserably deprived of life? What nessed great progress in educational methods happiness when fevers burn and ague freezes, and results; but great as has been the ad- when the body is racked with pain and the vance the question remains, what lack we soul tortured with anxiety? Americans need yet?

a proper conception of the value of health and The highest civilization is that which most life, and a knowledge of the means by which sacredly protects the life, health and develop- they may be secured and preserved. ment of man. Civil rights, science, agricul- While the old idea that the spirit is good ture, all earthly blessings and endowments, and the body bad, to be mortified and perseare secondary and subsidiary to human life, cuted by fasting and flagellation has passed health and happiness.

away. Is not the body still considered a sort of “We hold these truths to be self-evident, poor relation? Dispute as we may about the that all men are endowed by their Creator comparative rank in the scale of being of with certain inalienable rights; that among body, mind and soul, neither mind nor soul these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of hap- are capable of perfect development and manipiness.” Life first, for without it we know no festation while associated with diseased bodies. rights, we possess no endowments. Nothing Though all analogical reasoning concedes the of this world follows beyond the grave. Lib- immortality of the spirit, we know of no other erty, prosperity, glory, are all incident to life. medium through which it can acquire force A nation's might and majesty is in the life, and character, or receive and communicate health and development of its citizens. mental and moral impressions. The intellect

Whence comes the greatest danger to life, ual and moral man must be so educated that and its greatest destruction? Not from the it shall have power to keep within due bounds midnight assassin, not from armed legions in every carnal appetite and desire, but it must battle array, but from "the pestilence that recognize in the body an active, imperious and walketh in darkness, and the destruction that necessary help-meet. Healthy bodies are eswasteth at noonday" — from consumption, sential to the healthy growth and activity of cholera and yellow fever, small pox, typhoid mind and soul, and it is hence the duty of the fever and scarlet fever, diphtheria, dysentery, educator to comprehend the laws of both and other diseases largely incident to civiliza- physical and spiritual life and growth, and to tion, and preventable by civilization. Filth instruct the pupil how the health of both soul accumulation, water contamination, deterior- and body can best be secured and preserved. ated food and drugs, defective systems of Perhaps we can find no better illustration heating, ventilation and sewage, the hydra- of the influence of matter upon mind than in headed sequents of alcoholics and narcotics, the action of alcoholics. It has long been nostrum venders and quack doctors, with va- known, and is a matter of every day observarious other causes that civilization can and tion, that a large percentage of crime results should control, are the active sources of dis- from the use of intoxicants. Every drunken ease and death; so active that they make the man labors under a temporary hallucination declaration that all men are endowed with the and delirium directly consequent upon the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pur-condition of his nervous system, the pathosuit of happiness seem "as sounding brass logical condition continued, that which was at and a tinkling cymbal." We are a fast peo- first transient often becomes permanent. In ple; anxious to annihilate time and space, vino veritas is an old faith. With an alcoholand to acquire fame and fortune in a day. ized brain both the perception of the proWhoever can solve the problems that tend to prieties of life and the power of control being success in this direction is deemed a greater weakened, the desires of the soul reach their benefactor than he who gives health and pro- ultimatum. Hence the villain, however hardened, when he meditates crime, hebetizes con- in reason! so infinite in faculties ! in form and science by anæsthetizing his body with al- moving so express and admirable! in action cohol.

so like an angel! in apprehension so like a In America a very large proportion of the god! the beauty of the world, the paragon of insane are of foreign birth. A foreign syndi- animals !” “Fearfully and wonderfully made.” cate controls our breweries, foreigners run Whatever the relation of the spirit to the our saloons and joints, foreigners do a large body, whatever its possibilities and however proportion of our drinking. While we recog- indestructible, it is not less difficult to meanize in the surroundings of the saloon and the sure the value of the physical than the inteldrunkard conditions that tend to mental alien- lectual and moral life and health. We cannot ation, the alcoholized tissues are the import comprehend a mind diseased without prediant factor.

cating a diseased body. These are not maThose who take this position in Kansas are terialistic theories and speculations. The laws sometimes called cranks, and their deductions of nature are the paths of God, and it is by ignored. Such suspicion can hardly attaint, walking therein, physically and spiritually, the citizens, especially the scientists of Hol- that we reach the grandest possibilities of life. land, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Italy and "Mens sana in corpore sano." England, where alcohol, in some form, is often Suppose the mind could attain its highest a part of the daily dietary. Last August the possibilities with an infirm and broken physthird international congress for the study of ical life. Ihysical health is necessary to the alcoholism was held in Paris. While French execution of its behests. If not the instruideas predominated, the congress was Euro- ment through which it labors, it is that by pean, and it was shown by the reports of Eu- which its labors are made manifest. Instead ropean governments that in the last twenty of being a productive factor in the state, with years insanity had increased nearly fifty per a disabled body, man becomes an incubus. cent., and that the consumption of alcohol When several members of a family are sick, it had increased in the same ratio.

cannot attain the degree of prosperity and Among the members of the congress there happiness possible when all are well. So a was great unanimity of thought, and the fol- community or state can only reach its greatest lowing opinion and resolution was adopted : prosperity when its citizens possess the vigor

* The increased consumption of alcohol is of health. The citizen is the primary source one of the principal causes of the increased of wealth and growth, and the influence and development of crime and insanity.”

power of a state is in inverse proportion with

its disease and death. It is not our purpose to consider the duty of the state in protecting the citizen against

The great need of the age is an educational crime, nor to demonstrate the pathological system that will impress upon the rising genconditions consequent upon the use of alco- eration the value of human life, and the means holics, but merely to refer to a patent illustra- whereby disease may be prevented, health tion of the action of the physical upon intel- preserved and life prolonged; a knowledge lectual and moral life.

the student shall carry to the various positions Whether the human race came from the of honor and trust he may be called upon to hands of the Creator by a fiat of Omnipo- fill, and thus be enabled to afford protection tence, physically, intellectually and morally to the community in which he may reside. perfect, and has since retrograded, or whether

Individuals and nations have everywhere, evolved through unnumbered ages from mo- and through all time, recognized the importnad, bivalve, quadruped and simian, there ex- ance of a study of the laws of vegetable and ists between mind and matter the same inter- animal life. They have established agriculdependence and influence, and the duty of the tural colleges, appointed and paid state veterieducator is not to develop mind and soul, but narians. Vast intelligence, skill, patience and the whole man. The whole man.

emoluments have been expended upon all the

lower forms of life, and nature has most muni"What a piece of work is man! So noble ficently responded.


The scientific agriculturist has made two of health should be obeyed and illustrated. grains grow where there was but one; the Every pupil in our public schools should be pomologists and horticulturists, disregarding given at least a practical knowledge of physiing seed, have converted all into pulp and ology and hygiene, whilst those who attend husk, and their monstrous peaches, apples the academy, the college and the university, and pears, grapes, melons and pumpkins, are and who are to become leaders in society, often well-nigh seedless; and the fair flora- rulers in the state, and instructors in its culturist, eliminating pistil, stamen and ovary, schools, should be taught all that is known has transformed all into petals- beautiful of preventive and state medicine. Every such petals.

institution should have professorships of PhyThe horse has been changed at will into the siology and Preventive Medicine. Then, and fleet-footed, tireless and docile Arabian; the not till then, there will be such an appreciastrong-limbed, heavy muscled Norman; or the tion of the principles of sanitary science, and beautiful Shetland, fit play-fellow for our child- such an application of preventive medicine as

Cattle have been bred into the idea of will make health the rule and disease the rare the breeder, meeting the demand for beef, exception, and prevent our Ingersolls, in their butter, cheese or milk. The Arkansaw sun- sneer at Providence, from asking “why is not fish has been changed into the Berkshire, the good health catching?” Such professorships Chester-white and the Poland-China; and even will prevent from being practically a dead letdogs and cats have been cultivated into form ter the law which provides that "no certificate and purpose as varied as the thought of both shall be granted to any person to teach in any man and woman. Only the highest type of life of the public schools of the state, after the has been deemed unworthy our fostering care. first of January, 1886, who has not passed a Only schools of preventive medicine and pub- satisfactory examination in the elements of lic hygiene are neglected. Man has transmit-physiology and hygiene, with special referted generation after generation diseased and ence to the effects of alcoholic stimulants and broken lives. He has surrounded himself narcotics upon the human system, and a prowith active sources of disease. He has need- vision shall be made by the proper officers, lessly suffered and died; yet is it not true that committees and boards of education for inhe is “of more value than many sparrows?” structing all pupils in each public school sup

One hundred years' ago that grand Ameri- ported by the public, and under state control, can, Dr. Benjamin Rush, patriot, statesman, upon the aforesaid topics." physician and sanitarian, said “the legislator It does not require any large amount of inshould be held responsible for every death oc- telligence to comprehend, that to understand curring from fever.” And would not the same the therapeutic action and pathological effects logic make the educator responsible for the of alcoholics and narcotics, and to teach the legislator?

principles of physiology and hygiene, with In a recent report upon the subject of phys- special reference to their action more than an ical culture in our schools, Dr. Hutchinson of elementary knowledge of these important Rhode Island said, “the strain upon public branches of education is demanded; nor does school children and upon the teachers is such, it require great prescience to understand that that for the last year in the city of Providence, great as is their destruction of human life, alit has thrown upon their backs prostrate with coholics are not responsible for all preventable nervous exhaustion, over ten per cent. of the disease and death; nor does it require any teachers.” And we know of a school not so very extended observation to know that in far away as Rhode Island, where the worry many of the public schools the sanitary knowof crowded rooms, and the hectoring of the ledge imparted is so exceedingly elementary, principal, leaves the teachers at the close of that it might be eliminated without material the school year well-nigh threadbare. Thus loss. How shall teachers teach unless they teachers and pupils are annually sacrificed in are taught, and how shall they be taught the house of their friends, and where the laws without a teacher? When proper instruction

is imparted in the college to those who are to est you with the more general considerations become teachers, and is carried by them to of Errors of Refraction and the practical the public school, the world will learn that points concerning their relationship to systhe filth accumulations that infect the air we temic affections. breathe, pollute the water we drink and con- The prevalence of errors of refraction justaminate the food we eat, engendering and in- tifies the subject. With the advance of civiltensifying the whole family of zymotic dis- ization and the development of educational ease, undermining the constitution and mak- institutions, refractive errors arise among our ing every type of disease and injury more student children and occasion much suffering. formidable, can and must be prevented by Competition in those callings which demand legislative enactments, and that those who eye-work becomes greater and greater, and make and execute the laws must be held as now in Kansas those who would gain a liveliresponsible for preventive disease and death, hood, and much more those who would asas for injury and death arising from neglect cend to mountaifi tops in their profession, to protect against pitfalls and powder maga- must endanger their eyes. zines in public places, arson and murder. But These facts call for accurate, scientific work never until the people comprehend its import- in the general medical profession, and in ophance will legislation for the prevention of dis- thalmology in particular. The demand for ease he enacted and executed. The legislator such work is so great that at present instead reflects the sentiment of the people, and how- of noted oculists in large cities with crowded ever intelligent, he is usually too much of a practices absorbing everything in their immepolitician to move faster than the people. diate vicinage and leaving the vast territory

If the legislator should be held for prevent- remote from cities unprovided for, oculists of able disease in the state by a purity of reas- thorough education and good skill are taking oning, the boards of education and teachers pains with the practices in towns of twenty, who consent to overcrowding, defective venti- thirty, and sixty thousand inhabitants; so lation, heating and drainage, impure water that in the United States it is almost as true supply, the contaminations of illy constructed as of Holland, that there is almost no city or and cared for privies, uncomfortable and in-town which cannot boast of a well educated jurious seats, the communication, through ig- ophthalmologist. norance and carelessness, of infectious and

It is required that the eyes of communities contagious diseases, morbid stimulants to be more carefully examined for refractive erstudy and conduct, or other preventable rors, and the scientific general practitioner sources of injury to the body, mind, or soul requires the assistance of the specialist to of the pupil, should be held as far as it is pos- help in the location of many so-called “head sible to hold, for consequent dwarfed mirds, troubles.” depraved morals, sickness, suffering and death.

Not alone in cities and towns of considera(Continued in April No.)

ble size is there this necessity for careful ex

aminations, but in the country school are Errors of Refraction.

found ambitious girls and boys whose student

careers are cut short by overtaxing the eyes, Read before the Northern Kansas Medical or by neglect of refractive errors. Society, November 14, 1889.

The difficulties arising from excessive eye

work with the existence of errors of refracBY GRANT CULLIMORE, M. D., ATCHISON, KAs. tion are not in every instance appreciated as

due to eye strain. Biliousness and dyspepsia Gentlemen: In the presentation of this may be called upon to account for annoying paper the plan is not to take up the elements headaches, vertigo, and even nausea, when, in of optics and give the laws which govern the fact, a slight myopia, hypermetropia, or asdifficulties arising from deviations from the tigmatism is often the source of trouble. normal refractive condition, but it is to inter- A systematic examination of school children

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