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that the climate, soil, abundance of public land, and the promise of rich mineral deposits, will before long cause a rapid increase of population.


This territory is bounded north by Utah, east by New Mexico, south by Mexico, and west by Nevada and California. It contains 114,000 square miles, or 72,960,000 acres.

This territory was contained in the region obtained from Mexico in 1854. It was organized as a territory in 1863. Its executive and judicial officers are appointed by the President.

It contains a large extent of the Colorado River and valley; and early in the last century many flourishing settlements were made within it. The ruins of their buildings, some of which, the cathedrals especially, were large and costly, and the remains of an excellent system of irrigating canals, all show the numbers, skill, and industry of the population then existing in that region. Since it has been in our possession, the depredations of the savages have prevented settlements, except in the southern part, and along the Colorado or near to it, upon its principal tributaries. Its northern part is still unexplored by the whites, and remains in the almost undisturbed possession of the Indians. There are extensive valleys of remarkable fertility, and adapted to various kinds of agriculture; and in the southern part of the territory it is believed that the climate permits the profitable cultivation of sugar and cotton. The Colorado River is navigable for over six hundred miles from the ocean, this navigable portion reaching into and beyond Arizona. There are strong indications of extensive and various mineral deposits of the greatest value, and in some places these are ascertained and are now worked.


This territory is triangular in shape, bounded on the north-east by Montana, east by Wyoming, south by Utah and Nevada, and west by Oregon and Washington. It contains 91,000 square miles, or 58,240,000 acres.

This territory was organized in 1863, and its executive and judi. cial officers are appointed by the President. It consists in large part of table-lands and mountainous country, which cause the winters to be cold; they are, however, dry and healthy. In the valleys much soil is found suited to tillage, and large crops of cereals are raised with great profit; and, upon the whole, the agricultural population of the country is now well established and increasing. Mineral deposits of great variety and high promise are found extensively, and some of them have been profitably worked. Further improvement in the method of producing and working the ores, and a greater facility of transportation, will no doubt invite a large immigration.


This extensive territory is bounded north by the British Possessions, east by Dakota, south by Wyoming, and south-west by Idaho. It contains 144,000 square miles, or 92,160,000 acres. This territory was organized in 1864. The executive and judicial officers are appointed by the President.

This territory is very mountainous; but the valleys are extensive, and the land in them is exceedingly fertile. Grazing lands, well adapted to stock-raising, are scattered through the territory. Irrigation is necessary over a large part of the cultivated land; but the mountain streams supply water in abundance. Timber, stone, and brick-clay for building abound everywhere. It is, however, its mineral deposits which promise great prosperity to the territory, when they are fully developed and worked. Some very rich silver lodes have been ascertained, and expensive machinery is now working them with great success. Indications lead those who are acquainted with the subject to the belief that this territory will become one of the most productive mining regions in the country. Coal is also found, but not to any very great extent, or of any special value. Copper and lead deposits are numerous, but have not yet been largely worked. When railroad facilities for trade and intercourse are increased, this territory may well be expected to attain to great prosperity.


This territory is bounded on the north by Montana, east by Dakota and Nebraska, south by Colorado and Utah, and west by Utah and Idaho. It contains 87,000 square miles, or 55,680,000 acres.

This territory was organized in 1868. The executive and judicial officers are appointed by the President: the governor, judges, and attorney for a term of four years. The council consists of nine members, chosen for two years, and their number may be increased to thirteen. The house of representatives has thirteen members, chosen for one year, and their numbers may be increased to twentyseven. The Rocky Mountains, the Big-Horn and Rattlesnake Mountains, and the Black Hills pass through this territory, and cause a larger part of it than of almost any other territory to be mountainous; but numerous valleys and some plains are well adapted to cultivation. The Pacific Railroad crosses the territory. Deposits of gold have been discovered in various parts of it, which are considered of great promise; but they have not yet been largely worked.


This territory consists of the Russian possessions in North America which were ceded by Russia to the United States in 1867 for $7,200,000. It is bounded south by latitude 54° 40', and east by longitude 141°, west by the Pacific and Behring Straits, and extends as far north as the continent.

It has not yet been organized as a territory; but in 1868 a collection district was established, and the laws of the United States which relate to customs, navigation, and commerce were extended over the territory. It embraces the Aleutian Islands, which extend more than one thousand miles towards Asia. The climate is very much milder than in the same latitudes on the Atlantic coast, and the richness of soil is proved by the heavy growth of timber, which covers a large part of the territory. But it has too much rain and too little sunshine to admit of much profitable cultivation. The river Yukon is one of the largest that flows into the Pacific, and is navigable for most of its length. Among its mountains are some, as Mount St. Elias and Mount Fairweather, which are believed to be among the highest in North America. It has some active volcanoes.

This territory can never be largely peopled nor widely culti. vated; but its fisheries, and the furs from the seals which resort to the islands, and from the wild animals on the continent, are immensely valuable.

There is a small group of islands in Behring Sea, upon which are the only important “rookeries” of the fur-seals now known in the world. In the Falkland Islands and elsewhere in the Antarctic seas, where they were once immensely numerous, they bave been almost exterminated by a merciless and improvident destruc tion. But the Russians have always protected and preserved the rookeries on their islands; and there is every reason to believe that these animals come there now in their breeding seasons as numer. ously as ever. As Congress has adopted similar means of preserving them, it may be hoped that this important source of wealth will remain undiminished.

In 1870 these seal islands were leased for a term of twenty years to the Alaska Commercial Company of San Francisco. The provisions of the lease are well adapted to the purpose of preserving the number of seals unimpaired. The islands are placed under the

exclusive possession of the company, and constant and watchful care is taken to keep off intruders. The company is permitted to kill one hundred thousand seals in each year, which is but a small part of what might be killed, for a time, if there were no systematic preservation. For these seals the company pay to the natives who take them forty cents each, and to the government $2.50 each, which, with an annual bonus of $50,000, gives a net revenue of $300,000. The seal-skins are sent to London in an undressed state, and there sold in that condition for about $8.00 each.


This territory is bounded north by Kansas, east by Missouri and Arkansas, and south and west by Texas. It contains about 70,000 square miles, or 44,800,000 acres.

This territory has been set apart by the United States as a permanent home for the Indians who are native to the territory, and also for those who have been removed thither from other regions. It has never been organized as a territory, and is all that remains of the Louisiana purchase not admitted as States or organized as territories. Each tribe of Indians owns the portion allotted to it by the United States. They are allowed to make their own laws, and live after their own habits and pleasure in all respects. If crimes are committed by them against white men, the Indians may be tried and punished by the United States courts sitting in the districts of the adjoining States of Arkansas and Missouri. A vast tract of country, commonly known as the great American Desert, most of which, as is now believed, can never be brought under profitable cultivation, extends over the northern and western portion of the territory; but in the remainder extensive plains, with the hills and valleys, offer abundance of cultivable land for the support of the Indians, should they become civilized and industrious. Some of the tribes have already become so to a considerable extent. They have churches, schools, and a form of government resembling those of the adjoining States. The rest of them, who adhere to their wild life as hunters, still find in the territory abundance of wild animals, although these are fewer than they were. Most of the Indians, and all in some circumstances, receive assistance from the United States.


This district is bounded north-east and south by Maryland, and west by Virginia. Its area is now 55 square miles, or 35,200 acres.

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During the revolutionary war, and from that time until the constitution was adopted, Congress met at Philadelphia, Annapolis, Princeton, Trenton, and New York. When the government was organized under the constitution, an earnest discussion, exhibiting much strong feeling, took place in Congress as to where the national capital should be located. Each of the principal cities in the Middle States had its advocates. Perhaps it was desired to avoid giving any one of them an advantage which others claimed; and for this and other reasons it was determined to locate the capital in some new place, and then the undoubted wishes and opinions of Washton had influence in fixing the place. In 1790 an act was passed, providing, “ That a district of territory on the river Potomac, at some place between the mouths of the eastern branch and the Connogacheague be, and the same is hereby accepted for the permanent seat of the government of the United States;” and that Congress should sit in Philadelphia until November, 1800, and then should remove to the selected district. It was agreed that this district should be a square of ten miles, or one hundred square miles. Of this one hundred miles, about fifty-five miles lying to the north-east of the Potomac was ceded to the United States by Maryland, in 1788; and the next year Virginia ceded about fortyfive square miles lying on the other side of the Potomac. So the district remained nearly sixty years, when, in 1846, that part of it which lay on the Virginia side of the Potomac was ceded back to that State.

The Constitution of the United States gives to Congress exclu. sively control over the district, which has one delegate in Congress. The judges, four in number, are appointed by the President, and hold their office for life, or during good behavior. Within the district are the cities of Washington and Georgetown, each of which has its own municipal government, that can lay taxes for municipal purposes.

The city of Washington lies at the head of the navigable por. tion of the Potomac, and is about three hundred miles from the ocean, by that river and Chesapeake Bay. It was believed at the time of this selection that its position on the Potomac would give it eventually an extensive commerce; but that hope has not as yet been verified. The climate is warm and damp, and parts of the district are subject to summer and autumnal fevers, and other effects of local miasma.

The city of Washington is the capital of the nation, where large expenditures are made, not only by members of Congress, but by all the officers of government residing there. It has already grown to be a considerable city, and is growing, if not rapidly, yet at a rate

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