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delegates from forty counties met at Wheeling, and protested against secession. This convention organized a provisional govern. ment. This was early in the summer. Late in the autumn of the same year a convention at the same place formed a constitution for a new State, which was accepted by the people the next year; and in that year, 1862, Congress passed an act admitting the State, on condition of certain amendments to the constitution. These being adopted by the people, the President in 1863 proclaimed the admission of the State.
This State is generally well adapted to agriculture, and it is very rich in minerals. Excellent coal is found in great abundance, and iron, salt, and petroleum are also met with in many parts of the State. Its commerce and manufactures are inconsiderable; but the territory is traversed by railroads, which give great facilities for the transport of its mineral and agricultural productions.
This State is bounded north by Oregon and Idaho Territory, east by Utah and Arizona, and south and south-west by California. It contains 81,539 square miles, or 52,084,920 acres.
The governor, lieutenant-governor, attorney-general, secretary of state, treasurer, surveyor-general, and comptroller, are chosen by the people for four years. The number of senators shall not be less than one-third nor more than one-half of that of the representatives The representatives hold office two years, and senators four years. The judges are chosen by the people; those of the Supreme Court hold office six years, and those of the District Courts four years.
The territory from which this State was formed was a part of that ceded by Mexico, under the treaty which in 1848 closed the war with that country; having previously belonged to Upper California. The settlement of the State was slow at first, and until the discovery of silver attracted immigration ; since that it has been rapid. It was organized as a territory in 1861, and admitted as a State in 1864. The State may be regarded as a mountain tableland. Some of the mountains are heavily timbered; many of the valleys, especially where irrigation has been applied, are fertile; and a great variety of vegetable products has been raised in different parts of the State. But the wealth of the State rests upon the vast extent and variety of the mineral deposits. The Comstock and other lodes are exceedingly profitable, and recent discoveries indicate that the gold and silver mines in this State are not surpassed by any in the world. Other valuable minerals are found; and salt is especially abundant and accessible, large quantities lying on or near the surface. It is used in the reduction of silver ores, and its abundance causes the deposits of that metal to he mined with great profit.
NEBRASLA. This State is bounded north by Dakota, east by Iowa and Missouri, south by Kansas, and west by Colorado and Wyoming Territory. It contains 76,000 square miles, or 48,640,000 acres.
It is a part of the Louisiana purchase, and was organized as a territory in 1854, and in 1867 was admitted as a State. This act of admission contained a condition that there should never be a denial of the elective franchise, or any other rights, to any person by reason of race or color, except Indians not taxed. It was vetoed by President Lincoln, but passed by both Houses of Congress over the veto.
The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor of accounts, and treasurer, are chosen by the people for two years, by a plurality vote. The senators are not more than thirty-three in number, and the representatives not more than one hundred; and are chosen for two years. The judges are elected by the people: those of the Supreme Court for six years; district judges for four years; and county judges for two years.
Immigration into this State has been rapid and constant. It is a prairie State, and the soil, especially of the eastern portion, is very fertile. The heavy and closely matted sward requires much force to break it, but subsequent culture is easy. Coal-beds are found in many places, and worked with some profit. But the deposits of this mineral are not so great as in many of the States. Some part of the territory contains valuable timber; and foresttrees have been largely planted : and thus far experiments have shown that the soil and climate are very favorable for the cultivation of fruit.
We next give the territories of the United States, in the order in which they were organized, closing with the District of Columbia.
This territory is bounded north by Colorado, east by the Indian Territory, south by Texas and Mexico, and west by Arizona. It contains 121,000 square miles, or 77,444,000 acres.
Its executive and judicial officers are appointed by the Presi. dent. The judges hold office for a period of four years. The council consists of thirteen members, chosen by the people for two years;
and the house of representatives of twenty-six members, elected annually.
This territory was settled a long time ago by the Spaniards, and continued to be a part of Mexico until it was ceded to the United States by the treaty of 1848. The white population, which is quite large, is mainly Spanish and Catholic; the Spanish language being used by the people, and also in the proceedings of the legislature. Much of the soil is suited to agriculture or grazing, although irrigation is necessary for a large part of it. The mineral deposits are large and various, and it is believed they are not yet fully discovered. Gold, silver, and copper mines are already worked with much profit, and present indications lead to the conclusion that the production of silver will be the most profitable of the mining industries of the State. Lead, iron, and coal are also found in considerable abundance, and a large amount of salt is procured from the salt lakes.
This territory is bounded north by Wyoming and Idaho, east by Wyoming and Colorado, south by Arizona, and west by Nevada. It contains 88,000 square miles, or 56,320,000 acres.
Its executive and judicial officers are appointed by the President. The council consists of thirteen members, who are elected for two years; and the house of representatives of twenty-six members, elected annually.
This is the great Mormon territory. This people was first established in Ohio, then in Missouri, and afterwards at Nauvoo, in Illinois. When driven from that place in 1845, after some wandering they settled at the Great Salt Lake in Utah in the autumn of 1848. They were not very numerous; but a most energetic and effectual system of conversion and immigration brought to them great numbers from Great Britain, Norway, and Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, and France. In 1849 they organized a State, under the name of Deseret, and framed a constitution, which they sent to Washington; but Congress would not recognize the new State, but organized the Territory of Utah under the common territorial laws, and President Fillmore appointed Brigham Young governor. His violence in the following year, and his defiance of the laws of the United States, caused the removal of Young as governor, and the appointment of Colonel Steptoe of the army. This gentleman arrived in Utah in 1854, but concluded that it would not be well to assume the office of governor; and after a short time he resigned the office, and removed to California, with the soldiers he had brought with him. The outrages and usurpations of the Mormons continued, and in 1857 President Buchanan appointed Alfred Cumming Governor of Utah, and Judge Eckels chief justice, and sent them with a force of 2,500 men, who were to sustain them in the discharge of their duties Difficulties still continued; but a kind of peace was patched up in 1858, the President offering pardon to Mormons who would submit to the federal authority, and the heads of the church accepting the offer. Since that time there has been no open and violent rebellion, but constant difficulties have been recurring, sometimes of a threatening character. Brigham Young is no longer governor, but, as president of the Mormon church, holds, in fact, the supreme authority. As is well known, polygamy is practised here, not merely as a permitted thing, but as in itself good and desirable.
The industry and skilful cultivation of the Mormons are quite remarkable; and the soil and climate are upon the whole favorable to agriculture, although artificial irrigation is very generally necessary. This territory does not invite a large accession of people, except of those who become Mormons; but they have a very large number of converts in Europe, who come over to Utah as means are provided for them.
This territory is bounded north by the British Possessions, east by Idaho, south by Oregon, and west by the Pacific. It contains 70,000 square miles, or 44,800,000 acres. Formerly the northern part of Oregon, it was organized as a territory in 1853.
The executive and judicial officers are appointed by the President. The council consists of nine members, elected for three years; and the house of representatives of thirty members, elected for one year. The territory is divided into three districts for judicial purposes, and in each of them a prosecuting attorney is chosen by the people for two years.
Although so far north, the climate is very mild; and it is not uncommon for the grass to be growing through the winter. It is said to resemble England in point of climate; and, like that, while well adapted to wheat and fruits of many kinds, does not permit the profitable culture of Indian corn. Its forests abound in lumber of great variety and of the greatest excellence. The manufacturing of this is now very large and rapidly increasing, and great quantities are already exported to various countries in the world. Gold has been found and worked, but not as yet to great profit. Coal is supposed to be abundant. Probably the fishing interests are likely to be, in coming ages, the principal industry of the country. Salmon, halibut, and cod are taken in the greatest abundance. Hereafter, when the country fills up with people, its commercial facilities will doubtless be taken advantage of. The coast has many excellent harbors, and the Columbia River is navigable through a great part of its course. Public lands open to immigrants are still abundant.
This territory is bounded north by Nebraska and Idaho, east by Nebraska and Kansas, south by the Indian Territory and Mexico, and west by Utah. It contains 104,000 square miles, or 66,560,000
The executive and judicial officers are appointed by the President. The legislature is composed of a council of thirteen members, and the house of representatives of twenty-six members, who are elected annually.
It was formed from parts of the surrounding territories, and organized as a territory by itself in 1861. In 1865 a constitution was formed, and adopted by the people. A bill to admit Colorado as a State passed Congress in the next year, but was vetoed by the President. In the following year, 1867, another bill of admission passed through Congress, and this also was vetoed by the President, and Colorado remains a territory.
Much of this territory is well adapted to agriculture and stockraising, both of which pursuits are now carried on extensively and profitably; but mining will probably continue to be the principal industry of the territory. The deposits of gold and silver appear to have no limit in their supply, excepting the cost of working them; and the progress of science and mechanical invention are every year making this work easier and less costly.
This territory is bounded north by the British Possessions, east by Minnesota and Iowa, south by Iowa and Nebraska, west by Montana and Wyoming. It contains 152,000 square miles, or 97,280,000 acres.
The executive and judicial officers are appointed by the President. A very large proportion of the territory is still unoccupied, except by Indians. While sufficiently well adapted to agriculture, and with valuable and various mineral deposits, discovered or indicated, it does not invite immigration by that abundance of the precious metals which characterizes some of the western and southwestern States; and the numbers and hostility of the Indian tribes living within the territory constitute a hinderance to immigration. But this hinderance will before long pass away; and it is believed