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to stand high among the richest countries of the world. Its gold region extends over an estimated area of 15,000 square miles, or about a tenth of its whole surface. It is useless to attempt erumerating its agricultural productions. It may rather be said that every thing of value which is grown elsewhere is raised there, excepting only the spices and some other products of the tropics. Already its wheat is largely exported, and its production of wine is very great, and rapidly increasing. The city of San Francisco, is situated on a bay which affords not only one of the best harbors in the world, but the only good harbor on that coast till you reach the British dominions. Its commerce is very great, not only with the other United States and with Europe, but with Japan, China, the East Indies, and Australia. It is subject to earthquakes, none of which as yet have done much damage. It is possible they may have checked its growth somewhat, and may do so in time to come; but they must be far more destructive than they have ever been to prevent that city from becoming one of the greatest commercial ports in the world.


Wisconsin is bounded north by the British possessions, south by Illinois, east by Michigan, and west by Iowa and Minnesota. It contains 53,924 square miles, or 31,511,360 acres.

The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer, and attorney-general, are chosen by the people for two years. The number of members of the house of representatives shall never be less than fifty-four, nor more than one hundred. The senate shall not be more than one-third, nor less than one-fourth of the number of the representatives. The representatives are elected annually, and the senators hold office two years. The judges are elected by the people, for a term of six years.

The territory of which this State is composed was first settled at Green Bay, two hundred years ago, by the French; and the country remained in the possession of France until surrendered to Great Britain in 1763. In 1796 the Americans obtained possession of it, and extended the Ordinance for the government of the North-west Territory over the whole region. Although so long known, and in some places settled, the population of the State may be said to have begun when, in 1827, discoveries of large deposits of lead within it attracted the attention of immigrants.

In 1836 it was organized as a territory, and admitted into the Union in 1848. Very few of the States have so rapidly increased in population as this. In the ten years following 1840 it was multi

plied pearly tenfold, and in the following ten years much more than doubled. For soine reason, the immigrants from Norway and Germany, especially the former, have gone to this State, not exclusively certainly, but in very large proportion.

The State is a vast rolling prairie, with no mountains, and few hills of any magnitude. It is eminently agricultural, the surplus wheat exported bringing into the State heavy returns. Other staple crops are grown, especially hops, and yield abundantly. A very large lumbering business is carried on in the northern and western counties, where there are large pineries which cannot be exhausted for many years. The mineral deposits are various, extensive, and valuable. The region where lead is found covers more than two thousand miles in this State. There are large deposits of iron of great excellence, and some copper deposits. The manufacturing industry of the State is now large, and is growing rapidly.


This State is bounded north by British America, east by Lake Superior and Wisconsin, west by Dakota, and south by Iowa. It contains 83,531 square miles, or 53,459,840 acres.

The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, state treasurer, and attorney-general, are chosen by the people for two years, the auditor for three years. The number of members who shall compose the senate and house of representatives shall be prescribed by law; but the representation in the senate shall never exceed one member for every five thousand inhabitants, and in the house of representatives one member for every two thousand inhabitants. The senators are chosen for two years, one-half each year. The representatives are elected annually. The judges of the Supreme and District Courts are elected by the people for seven years, and the other judges for two years.

About one-third part of this State was included within the Louisiana purchase, and about two-thirds of it within the North-west Territory. Two hundred years ago French explorers penetrated the territory. It was for a long time the seat of much missionary enterprise, and of a valuable trade with the Indians. The Territory of Minnesota was organized in 1847, extending on its western border much beyond its present limits. In 1850 its population was only about five thousand; the year after, the Sioux Indians ceded to the United States all their lands in the territory west of the Mississippi. The population then increased so rapidly that the State with its present limits was admitted in 1958.

Although so far to the north, and with a climate of great severity in winter, the uncommon healthiness of the territory, and the adaptation of the soil to the cultivation of all the productions of the temperate zone, attract a large immigration. The winters, while cold, are clear and dry, with but little snow. It has been supposed to be singularly favorable for persons who have consumptive tendencies; and many invalids from the Eastern States have sought cure or relief from the salubrity of its climate; and a number of them, finding that relief, have become permanent inhabitants.


This State is bounded north by Washington Territory, east by Idaho, south by Nevada and California, and west by the Pacific. It contains 95,274 square miles, or 60,975,360 acres.

The governor, secretary of state, and treasurer, are chosen by a plurality of votes, for a period of four years. The senate consists of sixteen members, who are elected for four years, and the house of representatives of thirty-four members, who are elected for two years. Their numbers may be enlarged, but may not be over thirty senators and sixty representatives. The legislature meets biennially. The judges are chosen in districts by the people for six years; the attorney for each district is chosen for two years.

The Columbia River, separating this State from Washington Territory, was discovered in 1792, by Robert Gray, a ship-master from Boston, who gave to it the name of his vessel. His report of the country induced Jefferson to send an exploring expedition, under Captains Lewis and Clark, across the continent, in 1804 and 1805. This expedition was the earliest of the many useful exploring exreditions which have been sent by the government into its western territories. Besides acquiring much valuable information, it was regarded as giving to this country a stronger title to the river and adjacent territory. In 1811 John Jacob Astor's fur company was established at the mouth of the Columbia River, at Astoria. The war with England breaking out next year, the establishment was sold to the British North-west Fur Company, to save it from capture. In 1846 the treaty with Great Britain secured to the United States the whole of Oregon. It was organized as a territory in 1848, including what is now the Territory of Washington. It was admitted to Congress in 1857. Indians are numerous there, and from the first settlement have been troublesome. No great battle took place, although it could hardly be said that the settlers from any part of the territory were at any time quite safe; but the savages may be said to be now effectually subdued.

Gold deposits have been discovered, and worked to some advantage, though as yet they are not very productive. The population of the State is steadily increasing. The region lying west of the Cascade Mountains is well adapted for stock-raising, and for agriculture generally; for although the climate is too moist and cool for Indian corn, other crops, as wheat, oats, and potatoes, grow well, and on the rich soil of the bottom-lands give great returns. The region east of the Cascade Mountains is, for the most part, too mountainous for tillage, but offers great facilities for stock-raising. Its extensive forests abound in valuable timber. Its fisheries of salmon are exceedingly productive, and large quantities are exported.


This State is bounded north by Nebraska, east by Missouri, south by the Indian Territory, and west by New Mexico and Utah. It contains 81,318 square miles, or 52,143,520 acres.

The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, superintendent of public instruction, and attorney-general, are chosen by the people for a term of two years. The senators are never more than thirty-three, and are elected for two years. The representatives, never more than one hundred, are elected for oue year. The constitution was adopted in 1859, and was amended in 1867; the present constitution was adopted in 1875. The judges are elected by the people: those of the Supreme Court for six years, and those of the District Courts for four years; justices of the peaco for two years.

The State formed a part of the Louisiana purchase, heretofore frequently referred to, and in May, 1854, was organized as a separate territory. The peculiar feature in the history of this State was the violent conflict which took place on the question whether it should be a free State or a slave State. In our account of Missouri, what was termed the Missouri Compromise was referred to, by which it was enacted that in all the territories ceded by France to the United States under the name of Louisiana, which lie north of latitude 36° 30', excepting only “such part thereof as is included within the limits of the State contemplated by this act [Missourij, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crine, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall be and is for ever hereby prohibited.” But by the act of Congress in 1854, which organized the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, it was declared that the constitution and all the laws of the United States should be in force in those territories, except the Missouri Compromise Act of 1820,“ which is hereby declared inoperative and void.” Thereupon the antislavery party of New England, aided

by charters granted by Massachusetts and Connecticut to emigrant aid companies, made great efforts to fill the territory with emigrants from the free States opposed to slavery. These efforts were met by counter efforts, mainly from the State of Missouri. At length the conflict grew into actual war. Fights occurred between the parties, in which many persons were killed on each side. At length, however, the free State men prevailed, and the State was admitted as a free State.

In the middle of this State a considerable extent of desert and uncultivable land reaches far to the southward. Elsewhere the soil is generally rich, and in many places exceedingly fertile. The climate is mild, and the winters short. Thus far there is reason to regaard the State as remarkably healthy. The coal-fields of Missouri extend into it, and there are other valuable minerals. Prairies prevail over the State, but much timber is found in the bottomlands near the rivers. The western part of the State is still occupied by many Indian tribes, some of whom have reservations within it. The soil and climate hold out attractive invitations to immigrants. By the census of 1850 the whole territory was a wil. derness, with but a few small white settlements. But since that time the population has increased with great rapidity. Within the last few years many railroads have been constructed, a branch of the Pacific Railroad passing through the entire length of the State; and railroads running north and south provide the means of intercourse and trade with the other States.


This State is bounded north by Pennsylvania, north-west by Ohio, west by Kentucky, east by Virginia and Pennsylvania, and south by Virginia. It contains 24,000 square miles, or 15,360,000 acres.

The executive department consists of the governor, state superintendent of free schools, auditor, treasurer, and attorney-general. These are elected by the people, and hold office four years. The senate consists of twenty-four members, and the house of delegates of sixty-five members. The senators are chosen for four years, and the delegates for two years. The judges are elected by the peo ple; those of the Supreme Court of Appeals for twelve years, and those of the Circuit Court for eight years.

This State may be regarded as one of the results of the recent civil war.

It consists of the western counties of the old State of Virginia, and arose from a difference of sentiment from the people of the eastern half of Virginia in regard to secession. In 1861

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