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qualified to vote. The judges are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the council. Those of the Supreme Court hold their office for life, or during good behavior. Judges of the Circuit Courts hold their office for eight years.
This State has a peculiar history of its own. It was first visited by Ponce de Leon, the Spaniard. He had been to America repeatedly, and was at one time governor of Hispaniola. In 1512 he was an old man, and had heard that somewhere in the islands of the newly discovered America there was a fountain which could restore youth and strength and beauty. Age had not subdued his spirit of adventure; and he sailed at the head of an expedition, fitted out at his own expense, in search of this fountain. He visited island after island, but sought for it in vain. In the course of his voyage he discovered Florida, on Easter Day, which is called in the Spanish language Pascua Florida (flowery passover]. From this circumstance, aided perhaps by the beautiful vegetation around him, he gave to the country the name of Florida. The next year, arriving in Spain and reporting his discovery, he was appointed governor of Florida, and required to colonize the country. Not, however, until 1521 did he go with two ships to take possession of his province. The natives resisted him with the most resolute hostility, and drove the Spaniards to their ships; and in the battle Ponce de Leon was mortally wounded, receiving his death-blow in the country where he had hoped to find the fountain of immortality. The Indians continued to resist the further efforts of the Spaniards to colonize the country; but its settlement made considerable progress.
In the middle of the sixteenth century many French Protestants, persecnted at home, fled to Florida, only to find themselves still worse treated.
The Spaniards attacked them, and hung many on trees, with an inscription to the effect that they were put to death not as Frenchmen, but as heretics. A French party attacked and took the Spanish fort, and hung the Spanish soldiers on the same trees, with an inscription that they were put to death not as Spaniards, but as cut-throats and murderers. The Spaniards, however, persisted in their efforts to gain possession of the country. The English claimed it, and captured the Spanish fort of St. Augustine in 1586. But little is known of what happened there for the next century. In 1696 the French settled in Pensacola. In 1702 English colonists from Carolina and Georgia attacked the Spanish settlers. In 1763 Great Britain relinquished to Spain, Cuba, which it had recently taken, and received Florida in exchange. In 1783 Florida was ceded by England to Spain, and in 1819 Spain ceded the whole province, which had been divided into two by the British, to the United States, and possession was taken in 1821. The Territory of Florida was organized in 1823. There was then a considerable immigration into the country; but in 1835 the Seminole war broke out, and it raged with great violence for some years, until in 1812 a treaty was made, by which most of the Indians consented to their removal west of the Mississippi. The State was admitted into the Union in 1845, and in 1858 all the remaining Indians were removed from the State.
There is a considerable immigration into this State, both from the Northern States and from Europe. There are some manu. factures, and a valuable coasting trade; but the State is essentially agricultural. Cottun, sugar, rice, and corn are largely raised, and, with vegetables and fruits for the northern markets, bring large returns into the State. The warm climate and favorable soil permit kinds of cultivation scarcely known in any other part of the United States. Not only do oranges, lemons, and citrons grow well everywhere, but in the southern regions pineapples, bananas, and dates are raised easily, and ripen perfectly. A third part of the acreage consists of public lands not yet sold, and remaining to be disposed of to immigrants.
This State is bounded north by New Mexico, Arkansas, and the Indian Territory, east by Louisiana and Arkansas, south-west and west by Mexico, and south and south-east by the Gulf of Mexico. It is the largest State in the Union, and contains 274,356 square miles, or 175,587,840 acres.
The governor, lieutenant-governor, comptroller, treasurer, commissioner of the general land office, and attorney-general, are elected by the people, biennially, and hold office for two years. The secretary of state is appointed by the governor, and holds office during the term of that governor. Senators hold office for four years; they must be citizens resident within the State for five years next before their election, the last year thereof in their district. They are thirty-one in number, divided by lot into two classes, one of which is chosen at each biennial election. The representatives must be citizens resident within the State two years, and in their district one year, and are chosen for two years. They must not be in number more than one hundred and fifty. Salaried off. 's under the government of the United States, and collectors of t: es who have not obtained a discharge from their collections, are eligible to the State legislature or to State offices. Thole, avure cannot grant divorces by a special act, and must prohibit the establishment of lotteries in the State, and the sale of tickets in lotteries or other evasions involving the lottery principle existing in other States. The judges of the Supreme and District Courts are elected by the people; the former for six years, and the latter for four years.
The Territory of Texas was first visited by the French, who endeavored to settle there; but they were driven off by the Spaniards, and a second attempt of the French was equally ineffectual. Texas attained no prosperity under its Spanish rulers. In fact, while it remained under the Spanish government, and afterwards
part of Mexico, its history is one of perpetual conflict. Still, the population grew considerably, mainly by immigration from the United States. In 1835 the people of the territory declared their independence, and succeeded in driving out the Mexicans for a time. But they returned under Santa Anna, and war was renewed and raged with much violence, and with alternate success.
At length the Mexican forces were defeated, and Santa Anna taken prisoner. In 1836 the independent republic of Texas was established. In 1837 it was acknowledged by the government of the United States, and in 1840 by England, France, and Belgium. The Mexican government did not cease its efforts to recover Texas, and sent, not so much armies as marauding expeditions into the republic. In 1843 President Tyler made to the President of Texas propositions looking to the annexation of the republic to the United States. They were favorably received, and a treaty made in 1844, which was rejected by the senate. In the next year, however, joint resolutions for the annexation of Texas passed the house of representatives and the senate, by small majorities, and were approved by President Tyler the same day. After the admission of the State, Congress voted to pay to her ten millions of dollars in compensation for her relinquishment of a part of her territory, and of all her claims against the United States. By the resolutions of annexation, it was provided that four new States might hereafter be formed out of the territory thereof. But no such States have as yet been formed, and Texas remains quite unequalled in point of magnitude.
This State has great facilities for internal and foreign commerce. Railroads are numerous, and all inducements are held out to immigrants, by the healthiness of the State, the cheapness of the land, and its extreme fertility. It has already a considerable commerce; and the production of cotton, corn, and wheat is large: and though the State at present is but thinly peopled, the promise it holds out of ultimate, rosperity is very great. As a stock-raising State, it is now one the first in the Union.
This State is bounded north by Minnesota, south by Missouri, cast by Wisconsin and Illinois, and west by Nebraska and Dakota. It contains 55,045 square miles, or 35,228,800 acres.
The governor, lieutenant-governor, and superintendent of publio instruction are chosen by the people for two years, the election taking place every odd year. The secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, and registrar of the land-office, are also chosen for two years, and are elected in every even year. The senate shall not consist of more than fifty members, and are chosen for four years, one-half being chosen every two years. The house of representatives shall not consist of more than one hundred members, who are chosen for two years; and the sessions of the legislature are biennial. The number of senators cannot be less than one-third nor more than one-half that of the representatives. The judges are elected by the people; those of the Supreme Court for six years, and those of the Circuit Court for four years. The constitution provides that State debts shall not be contracted except to repel invasion or to suppreis insurrection: but money may be borrowed to supply defects in the revenue; not, however, more than $250,000 at any one time. Suspension of specie payment shall never be permitted. The legislature cannot grant divorces nor permit lotteries; and no lease of agricultural lands shall be for more than twenty years.
Iowa was a part of the Louisiana purchase already describe L The first settlement within its limits was made at the close of the last century by Canadian Frenchmen. In 1838 Iowa was organized as a separate territory, and in 1846 was admitted into the Union as a State.
The climate and soil of Iowa are, on the whole, favorable to agricultural operations, although its winters are made severe by the northern winds which sweep over its level prairies. Its coalfields are very large and productive, and of great value. It has also large deposits of lead, and iron ore of the best quality is found in many places. This State is classed among the most healthy countries of the world, which is owing in great part to its excellent natural drainage.
This State is bounded north by Oregon, south by Mexico, east by Utah and New Mexico, and west by the Pacific Ocean. It containe 188,986 square miles, or 120,947,840 acres.
The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, comptroller, treasurer, attorney-general, superintendent of public instruction, and surveyor-general, are chosen by the people for four years. The senators, who are forty in number, are chosen for four years, one-half being chosen every second year. After the State numbers one hundred thousand inhabitants, the number of representatives shall never be less than thirty, nor more than eighty, and they are elected for two years. The judges of the Supreme Court are elected by the people for ten years, and the district judges for six years, and the County Court judges for four years. The supreme judges are chosen by the people of the whole State; the district judges and the county judges by the people of their respective districts and counties. By the constitution, no public debt can be created exceeding at any time the sum of three hundred thousand dollars. The legislature cannot grant divorces nor permit lotteries. The circulation of paper money of any kind is prohibited.
The history of this state is most remarkable. It was discovered in 1534 by a Spanish explorer, and settlements were made in 1683 by Jesuit missionaries. This was in Old California, so called, or Lower California, as now called. The first mission in Upper California was founded almost a century later; and the government of the country, temporal as well as spiritual, was given to monks of the order of St. Francis, who gave their name to the bay of San Francisco, discovered in 1770, and a few years after established a mission there. The territory was then considered a part of Mexico; and when the independence of Mexico was established in 1822, the monks of St. Francis were deprived of their power and their possessions. In 1846 war was declared between Mexico and the United States; but the immigration from the latter into California had already been great, and the American settlers declared the independence of the country. Soon afterwards United States officers arrived there by sea, took possession of the country as a territory of the United States, and after some conflicts succeeded in establishing their power. In the treaty of peace between Mexico and the United States in 1847, California, with some other territory, was ceded to the United States for fifteen millions of dollars. Early in 1848 gold was discovered; and it is most remarkable, considering the abundance of the metal, the numerous settlements in the State, the large number of inhabitants, and the length of time which had elapsed since it was first peopled, that this discovery had been delayed so long.
Similar ignorance or mistake existed in regard to what are now known to be the remarkable agricultural facilities and resources of the State. Alike by its mineral treasures and by the results of its agricnltire, this State is already rich and prosperous, and promises