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members, to be elected annually. The senate consists of not less than twenty, nor more than thirty-one members, elected at the same time and for the same term as the representatives. The judges are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the councii, and hold office for a term of seven years from their respective appointments.

The history of this state is identified with that of Massachusetts for many years. The Plymouth Company of England, in 1607, obtained a grant which included this territory, and sent out to it a colony, which remained only one year. In 1613 a number of French persons landed at Mount Desert, for the purpose of forming a settlement there, from which missionary operations might be conducted. This, however, was soon dispersed by the magistrates of Virginia, who destroyed the settlement.

After various unsuccessful attempts to plant colonies, Sir Ferdinando Gorges obtained from James I. a grant to the Plymouth Company of all the country between latitude 40 and 48 degrees, which grant included the land on which the Pilgrims landed in December of the same year. Gorges endeavored, but without success, to expel both the Plymouth and the Massachusetts colonists. About 1629 the Plymouth Company of England granted out their territory in parcels, as applicants required them; and in a few years the whole coast had been disposed of, and much land on the west, lying between the Merrimack and Piscataqua Rivers. In 1635 the Plymouth Company divided the territory among its members, Gorges receiving the territory between the Piscataqua and the Kennebeck Rivers, of which, four years later, Charles I. gave him a charter, giving to the territory the title of the province of Maine, the origin of which name is unknown. At the death of Gorges, Maine descended to his heirs, and was held under different jurisdictions, in various portions. Massachusetts then put in a claim for the whole province, which was practically allowed. After the restoration of the Stuarts, Charles II. in 1664 sent royal commissioners, with orders to restore the property and authority of the heirs of Gorges. Massachusetts, of course, resisted, and troubles ensued, which Massachusetts ended in 1677 by buying the interests of the claimants for a large sum. It cannot be said that the province, as a whole, pros. pered. The Indians, aided by the Canada tribes, were continually disturbing the country; many towns were plundered and burned, and many of the settlers slain, or made captives, or driven away to distant places. After the savages were finally subdued, about the middle of the sixteenth century, the province made steady progress in population and in wealth. It was less affected than Massachusetts by the war of the Revolution, but her northern and eastern portions suffered much in the war of 1812. Maine was finally sena. rated from Massachusetts in 1820, and admitted as a State into the Union.

A controversy between the governments of the United States and Great Britain in regard to the boundary between Maine and the British territories at length caused so much excitement and hostility among the population near the disputed territory, that it threatened to produce war between the two countries. But it was finally settled in a satisfactory manner in 1842, by the treaty of Washington.

Agriculture is prosecuted in this State with sufficient success in many parts, but its climate is too severe to permit the State to compete in its agriculture with those more favored in this respect, But its immense forests, and numerous and excellent harbors, bavo given to it peculiar facilities for the business of lumbering and for ship-building, both of which have been carried on very extensively. The exhaustion of the most accessible forests, and the penetration of the railroads into those of the Western States, have diminished its lumber business; and its ship-building has suffered from the general depression of that business. But its manufacture of lumber is still very considerable, and its ship-building is reviving. It has many manufacturing establishments, some of which are very large; and they appear to be increasing rapidly. The commerce of the State is large and growing.

MISSOURI,

This State is bounded north by Iowa, east by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, south by Arkansas, and west by Kansas and Nebraska and the Indian Territory. It contains 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres.

The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney-general, and superintendent of public schools, are chosen by the people, by a plurality vote, for four years. The senators, in number thirty-four, are chosen from senatorial districts for four years, one-half biennially. The number of representatives is ascertained by dividing the whole number of permanent inhabitants of the State by two hundred. They are chosen for two years. The judges are elected by the people: the judges of the Supreme Court by the State, for ten years; and the judges of the Circuit Court by their districts, for six years.

The State was included in the Louisiana purchase, and for a long time was commonly called Upper Louisiana. The favorable conditions offered to immigrants by the Spanish government had attracted a considerable number of colonists. When the territory was purchased from France in 1803, the lower part of it was organized as the Territory of Orleans, and in 1805 the upper part was organized as the Territory of Louisiana, St. Louis being its capital. In 1812, when the State of Louisiana was admitted into the Unioni, the came of the territory was changed to Missouri. Purchases were made from the Indians, which extended its western limits. In 1817 its population had grown beyond the number then deemed necessary for a State, and the people of the territory applied to Congress for admission. Thereupon arose a struggle, which continued for three years, and was at one time very violent, upon the question whether slavery should be admitted into the new State. This was settled in 1820, by what is popularly known as the Missouri compromise, the purpose of which was that Missouri should he admitted, with the right of holding slaves; but that no slave States should be thereafter formed from territories lying north of latitude 36° 30'. The State was admitted into the Union in 1821.

In agriculture, in manufactures, in mining, and in commerce, this State is almost equally distinguished. Its soil has great variety and excellence. In its southern portion cotton is produced, though not so advantageously as farther south. All the productions of the temperate zone are raised in abundance, and fruits reach great size and excellence. The culture of the grape, and the manufacture of wine, already great, are growing rapidly. The manufactures are principally flour and iron, both very large; her iron deposits being unsurpassed in the world. Silver, copper, manganese, iron, lead, cobalt, nickel, are all found, and a large part of the State is underlaid with excellent and accessible coal St. Louis, which was founded in 1775 as a depot for the fur trade, is now one of the largest cities of the West, and has a very extensive commerce, both water-borne and by railroad, and this is rapidly increasing.

ARKANSAS.

This State is bounded north by Missouri, south by Louisiana and Texas, east by Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee, and west by Texas and the Indian Territory. It contains 52,198 square miles, or 33,406,720 acres.

The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, attorney-general, and superintendent of public schools, are chosen by the people for four years. The senate consists of twenty-six members, chosen for the same period. The house of representatives has eighty-two members, chosen for two years. The

judges of the Supreme Court hold office eight years, and those of the inferior courts six years. They are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate. The present constitution of this State was adopted in 1868, and contained a provision that the paramount allegiance of every citizen is due to the federal government, in the exercise of all its constitutional powers, as these may be defined by the Supreme Court of the United States; and that neither the people of this State, nor of any other of the United States, has the power to dissolve their connection therewith, or do

any

act tending to impair, subvert, or resist the supreme authority of the United States. This State was a portion of the Territory of Louisiana, purchased under the administration of Thomas Jefferson. It remained a part of this territory until 1812, when Louisiana was admitted as a State, and the remainder was organized as the Missouri Territory. This continued until 1821, when Missouri was admitted as a State, and Arkansas was made a territory under that name. This territory was admitted as a State in 1836.

This State has some manufactures, but not many, and is essentially agricultural. Its soil is very various; but most of it is ferti e, and the river bottoms exceedingly so. There are large tracts of land which might be brought under culture by drainage, and would then be of inexhaustible fertility. The climate is too cold for the culi.ivation of sugar; but both soil and climate are well adapted for cctie ton, of which the production is very large. The State is rich in minerals; iron, coal, zinc, and lead abound in many parts of it, and it is said to contain more of manganese and gypsum, the lattur especially, than any other State.

MICHIGAN.

This State is bounded north by Lake Superior, east by Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake St. Clair, south by Ohio and Indiana, and west by Lake Michigan. It contains 56,243 square miles, or 35,995,520 acres.

By its constitution the governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney-general, commissioner of the land-office, and superintendent of public instruction, are chosen for two years. The senate consists of thirty-two members, and the house of representatives of not less than sixty-four, nor more than one hundred members; both are chosen for two years.

Judges of the Supreme Court hold office eight years, and those of the Circuit Courts for six years. The judges are chosen by the people.

French missionaries and fur traders were the first discoverers and settlers of this territory. But it was not largely colonized. It was transferred to Great Britain with other French possessions in 1763, and afterwards it underwent its full share of those Indian troubles which involved almost all the English settlements in this country. It was a part of the north-western territory, for which was made the ordinance of 1787, before referred to. It was organized as territory in 1805; and in 1818 the public lands were surveyed and offered for sale. A large immigration began, and has continued to the present time. In 1835 a controversy arose with Ohio concerning land claimed by the territory and also by the State; but in 1836 Congress passed an act of conditional admission of Michigan into the Union, requiring her to renounce her claim to the disputed territory, the upper peninsula being given to her by way of compensation. In accordance therewith, in 1837 the territory was admitted as a State. This State has large agricultural, manufacturing, mining, and commercial industries. Of these the agricultural are most important, for this is one of the great grain States of the West. Its manufactures are chiefly flouring-mills, breweries, distilleries, and oilmills. Its fisheries are very large. Of its mining products, copper is much the most valuable; and in the northern peninsula there is found, in the remains of ancient mines and tools, evidence that the country was once occupied by a race of which the Indians found there had no tradition whatever.

The commerce of Michigan is extensive, and is mainly with Canada, although there has been some effort to establish a direct foreign commerce, by ships sailing from Detroit. The home trade by the many railroads in the State is very large, and rapidly growing

FLORIDA.

This State, situated at the southern extremity of the Union, 18 bounded north by Alabama and Georgia, south by the Gulf of Mexico, west by the same and Alabama, and east by the Atlantic Ocean. It contains 59,268 square miles, or 37,931,520 acres.

The governor and lieutenant-governor are chosen by the people for four years.

The secretary of state, treasurer, comptroller, attorney-general, superintendent of public instruction, adjutant-general, and commissioners of immigration, are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, for four years. The senators number twenty-four, and are chosen for a term of four years, onehalf thereof being elected biennially. The members of the assembly, fifty-three in number, are elected for two years. The Seminole Indians send one member to each branch of the legislature; he must be a member of the tribe, and be elected by Indians

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