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VIRGINIA.

This State is bounded north by Maryland, east by Maryland and the Atlantic, south by North Carolina and Tennessee, and west by Kentucky and West Virginia. It contains about 38,352 square miles, or 24,545,280 acres.

By its constitution, a governor, lieutenant-governor, and attorneygeneral are elected by the people for four years; and the governor cannot be elected for two consecutive terms. No person of foreign birth is eligible to the office of governor, unless he has been a citizen of the United States for ten years next preceding his election. The governor must be thirty years of age, and have been a resident of the State for three years next preceding his election. He is chosen by a plurality vote, the person having the highest number being declared elected; but if two or more have the highest and an equal number of votes, one of them is chosen by the joint vote of the General Assembly. The Secretary of the Commonwealth, Treasurer, and Auditor, constitute the board of Public Works, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law. The Senators are elected biennially for four years, half of them going out of office every two years; the delegates are also elected biennially. The sessions of the Assembly are biennial. No session can continue more than ninety days, unless three-fifths of all the members vote therefor; in which case the session may be extended for a further period, not exceeding thirty days added to the ninety. The judges are chosen by the General Assembly; those of the Court of Appeals for twelve years; of the Circuit Courts for eight years; and of the County Courts for

six years.

Virginia was the first colony settled by the English in America. Jamestown, on the northern bank of James River, was founded in 1607, by about one hundred colonists, sent out by a London company. At this time almost the whole sea-coast of North America was called Virginia; and to this company James I. granted South Virginia, and the territory north of it was called North Virginia. These colonists were not all of good character; but a bright spot in the story comes from the courage, ability, and energy of the celebrated Captain John Smith, who is regarded as the founder of Virginia. This man had passed through the most romantic experiences in Europe; and all are familiar with the still more romantic story of Pocahontas, the Indian princess, who saved his life, at the peril of her own, when threatened by her angry father, King Powhatan. Unfortunately the criticism of modern times has reduced this story within very narrow limits. Powhatan was the chief

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of a powerful tribe possessing the country, and his daughter, Pocahontas, informed Smith of a plot of her father to destroy him. She often visited the English; and an English captain of a vessel held her as a hostage, while he treated with Powhatan for peace. While on shipboard, an attachment grew up between her and an Englishman named John Rolfe. She was baptized, and they were married in 1613; and peace between the English and the Indians was caused by this marriage, and continued for many years.

There were many successive efforts to people Virginia, which were but imperfectly successful for a considerable time, in part from dissensions among the colonists, and in part from the attacks from the Indians after the death of Powhatan. In 1622 the number of the colonists was reduced from four thousand to two thousand five hundred, by sickness, famine, and Indian murders. pecuniary loss, the Virginia Company was dissolved in 1624, and thereafter the colony was in the hands of the king.

A more prosperous condition soon began. In 1671 the population amounted to forty thousand, the Indians were completely subdued, and tho cultivation of tobacco was found to be extremely profitable. In the matter of education, the colony stood in strange contrast to the New England colonies. There, about the first thing done was to establish schools as soon as possible. But the royal governor of Virginia, writing in 1761, says: “I thank God there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope we shall not have any these hundred years; for learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and printing has divulged them and libels against the best government. God keep us from both.”

The colony continued to prosper, the royal governors being, for the most part, men of high rank. A war with the French broke out in 1754; and George Washington entered the service, accompanied Braddock in his disastrous campaign, and, after that general's defeat in 1755, was placed at the head of the Virginian army. The assumption by the British parliament called forth an opposition in Virginia, as in Massachusetts. At that time the commerce of that colony with Great Britain was larger than that of any other colony. But she did not hesitate to sacrifice it in her determination to resist the oppression of England, and afterwards to maintain the independence of these colonies. This State was, in fact, the earliest to urge an organized confederacy of the States which had been colonies. For many years after the federal constitution Virginia maintained her predominant influence. Four out of the first five presidents were natives of that State, and resided therein; and each of them was re-elected for a second term. Since that time her commerce has mainly consisted of the exports of her agricultural productions, the most important of which is tobacco. The culti. vation of this article has exhausted a large part of her best soils; but not so far that their fertility cannot be restored, as experiments have proved. The cereals are also largely grown, especially in the valleys in the middle and western portions of the State. There are manufactories of cotton and of iron, as well as of flour. A large amount of coal is also produced, and an almost equal value of salt. The oyster-beds in the Chesapeake Bay are exceedingly productive and valuable.

NORTH CAROLINA.

This State is bounded north by Virginia, west by Tennessee, south by Georgia, South Carolina, and the Atlantic, and east by the Atlantic. It contains about 50,000 square miles or, 32,000,000 acres.

The constitution now in force was adopted in 1868. The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney-general, superintendent of public instruction, and superintendent of public works, are elected by the people, and hold office for four years. The senate consists of fifty members, and, with the representatives, one hundred and twenty in number, are chosen biennially; and are apportioned from among the counties, according to population. The judges are elected by the people, those of the Supreme Court and the Superior Courts for eight years. A solicitor is chosen by the people for each judicial district, and holds office for four years. In each county a sheriff and coroner are elected by the people, each for two years.

There was an attempt at a settlement on an island between Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds as early as in 1585, by a party sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, which returned the next year. Other colonies sent out by Raleigh disappeared, and were supposed to have been slain by the Indians. It was not until the middle of the next century that a successful colonization was effected. The famous John Locke prepared a plan of government for the whole province, which then included what is now South Carolina. This plan was no doubt extremely philosophical; but a few years' experience proved that it was so complicated and unpractical that it could not be carried into effect. But the population grew, though not very rapidly. The colony passed through divers vicissitudes and conflicts, arising in part from dissensions among the colonists, and in part from the attacks of the savages, which have to be mentioned in the history of most of the original States.

Not long before the Revolution its population gained a considerable accession from a colony of Presbyterians from the north of

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Ireland, from a company of Moravians, and from a party of Highlanders. In the years immediately preceding the War of Independence the patriots were much embarrassed and impeded by the loyalists, who were numerous and earnest; but they prevailed at length, and the State joined the confederacy. The Constitution of the United States was rejected by this State in 1788, but was adopted the next year.

The climate, the soil, and the products of this State are exceedingly varied; nor can it be said that commerce, manufactures, and mining are extensive, although all are carried on to some extent, and are now said to give indications of growth and prosperity. A most important branch of the manufacture of the State is that of turpentine, tar, and rosin, of which immense quantities are exported, a very large extent of territory in the State being covered by the species of pine which yield these products.

SOUTH CAROLINA.

This State is bounded north by North Carolina, east and southeast by the Atlantic, west and south-west by Georgia. It contains 34,000 square miles, or 21,760,000 acres.

The constitution now in force was adopted in 1868. The governor and lieutenant-governor are elected biennially by the people, by a plurality vote, and must have resided in the State two years. The comptroller-general, treasurer, and secretary of state, are elected for four years. The senate consists of thirty-one persons, one member from each county or district, except the county of Charleston, which sends two. The house of representatives consists of one hundred and twenty-four members, who are apportioned among the counties according to population. Senators must be twentyfive years old, and hold office for four years, one-half being chosen every second year. Representatives must be twenty-one years of age, and hold office for two years. The judges of the Supreme Court and of the Circuit Courts are elected by the general assembly, the former holding office for six years and the latter four years. The probate judges are elected by the people in each county, for two years.

This constitution declares that every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance to the constitution and government of the United States, and no law or ordinance of this State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding force. It also provides that no person shall be eligible for the office of governor who denies the existence of the Supreme Being.

The first attempt at peaceful colonization in South Carolina was made by French Huguenots, in 1562; but it failed, the colonists returning to France; nor was there a permanent settlement made until English colonists settled at Port Royal, in 1670. They removed in 1680 to Charleston. Not long after, a large number of French Huguenots, followed by Swiss, Irish, and German emigrants, settled in the colony. It suffered heavily from the Indians, and from some conflicts with the Spanish settlements in Florida. During the revolutionary war many important battles were fought within this State, with varying success; and during 1780, and most of 1781, the British held the territory.

There are some successful manufacturing establishments in the State, but it is essentially agricultural. Very little of its soil is waste land, both land and climate being excellently adapted to cotton, rice, and tobacco, while wheat is very little grown. All the other products proper to a warm climate are raised in great quantities. This State suffered more perhaps than any other from the late war, and from the changes resulting therefrom. Nor can it be said to be now in a prosperous condition. The commerce of Charleston was very large before the war, and appears to be now reviving. Cotton and rice were the most important productions of the State, and are so now.

GEORGIA.

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This State is bounded north by Tennessee and North Carolina, west by Alabama and Florida, south by Florida, east by the Atlantic, and north-east by the Savannah River, by which this State is separated from South Carolina. It contains 58,000 square miles, or 37,120,000 acres.

The constitution now in force was adopted in 1868. ernor is elected by the people; the secretary of state, treasurer, comptrol. ler-general, and attorney general, are elected by the general assembly; all for four years. The senate consists of forty-four members, who hold office for four years, one-half of whom are elected every two years. The house of representatives consists of one hundred and seventy-five inembers, who hold office for two years. The judges of the Supreme and Superior Courts, and of the District Courts, the attorney-general, the solicitor-general, and the district attorneys, are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate. Justices of the peace are elected by the people in their respective districts. The judges of the Supreme Court hold office for twelve years, of the Superior Court eight years, and of the District Courts four years. The Court of Ordinary (or Probate) consists of an ordinary from each county, chosen by the people, and holding office four years.

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