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Revived ; advice on the Use of Fruit; an Essay on the advantages of Fresh Air in promoting health and comfort; another on Clothing; and Facts concerning Intemperance.
The Fourth Part embraces a selection of statistical matters relating to foreign countries, and particularly a curious and full table of the Statistics of the World. In compiling this part, as well as the others, regard has been had not only to the temporary but permanent value of the facts selected. There will be found tables of the Population, Families, Houses, Land, Canals, and Roads of Great Britain ; an essay on the Increase of the Inhabitants of Europe ; on the comparative force of France and England; the number of books printed in France; the value of money in different countries in Europe, reduced to American currency; the Revenues, Expenditures, Trade, Finance, Commerce, Currency, and Manufactures of Great Britain. All these statements are brought down to the latest dates.
The Fiftu Part occupies a much larger portion of the work, than any of the others, and has the same design in regard to the United States, which the fourth part has in reference to foreign countries. As introductory to the main subjects, a short view is taken of the Colonial Statistics, which is followed by a selection of particulars illustrating the Statistics of the Revolution, such as the Expense of the War, amount of Continental Money issued, Loans in France, Troops employed, Presidents of the Old Congress, Adoption of the State Constitutions, and Signers of the Declaration of Independence. Then follow statistical tables and statements respecting the United States since the foundation of the government, and at present; such as a record of the elections of Presidents; lists of civil officers, Heads of Departments, American Ministers abroad, Foreign Ministers in this country, Judges, Representatives; also the Receipts and Expenditures of the Government, the Public Debt, the Bank of the United States, Commerce, Public Lands, Indians, Post Office, Coinage, Patents, Military Posts, Vessels of War, Navy Yards, Militia, Internal Improvements, Population, Colleges, Religious Denominations, Meieorology. After this come the statistics of each State, as far as the facts could be collected, comprising an account of the public revenues, banks, schools, civil officers and their salaries, internal improvements, militia, modes of taxation, prisons, and whatever else relates to the practical administration of government, the organization of local communities, and the moral and physical progress of society. At the close is a Chronicle of the Events of the past year.
Such is the outline of our plan, as executed in the present attempt. We confess that our wishes have been but partially realized, especially in regard to the individual states. As little pains are taken in several of the states to collect statistical facts, and less to arrange and present them to the public in a tangible form, it is extreinely difficult to carry this head to any degree of completeness. Our enterprise was undertaken, also, at too late a period in the year to enable us to procure intelligence from remote states. In some instances, however, the deficiency must be ascribed rather to the remissness of our correspondents, than to any want of effort on our part. What we have published, will be enough to indicate the extent of our plan, and the manner in which it may be filled out. It is presumed, that the states, for their own convenience, will gradually adopt regulations for collecting and embodying particulars of this sort, and then the task of condensing and combining them into a single work will be comparatively easy.
Should the success of the present volume warrant the continuance of an annual series, we may venture to promise essential improvements as we proceed. It will be seen, that a great deal of matter in this volume is of a permanent character, suited for reference at any future day, as well as for use in the passing year. Facts are unchangeable in their nature, and, when once recorded, their value is never lost. The method of tabular views, for communicating certain kinds of knowledge, has immense advantages over any other, in presenting, at a single glance of the eye, a mass of information, that would be expanded over many pages if exhibited in any other form. In every part of the volume, our chief aim has been to condense the information into as small a space possible, and at the same time to convey it in so methodical and clear a manner, that it might be easily received by all classes of readers.
The purpose of this work will allow the admission of many facts besides those of a strictly statistical character. The permanent features of geography may be here exhibited from time to time in tabular and compressed forms; such as the extent of different territories and divisions of the earth, the length of rivers, height of mountains, magnitude of seas, lakes, and islands, and all other particulars naturally embraced in comparative geography. The same may be said of chronological records, not merely as denoting the order of a series of events, but as grouping those of a similar kind under particular heads. In this way may be presented the dates at which the sovereigns of different countries were crowned, and the length of their
reigns; the dates and places of memorable battles, the number of men engaged, and loss on each side ; the dates of the treaties between nations; and other incidents analogous in their character. These remarks may even be extended to the regions of history and biography. A mass of facts thus collected from year to year, not only will have some interest at the moment, but will at length become a useful storehouse for future recur
A brief outline of our political progress may also be easily introduced, such as a summary of the proceedings of Congress and of the legislature of the several states for each year, so far as they give rise to any new results either in the promulgation of laws, or the establishment of institutions, or aiding schemes of improvement. All the particulars of this sort, when divested of their extraneous accompaniments, may be brought together within a narrow compass. Notice may also be taken of charitable and religious societies, and associations for promoting the objects of humanity, morals, knowledge, and social order. A comparison of the extent of such efforts might communicate correct views of their effects, and serve as a guide in future undertakings of a like nature.
But in all this we have again to confess, that we are only hinting at what may be done, within the scope of our plan, and what we hope will be done, but not what we have actually accomplished or attempted in the present volume.
The astronomical part, we believe, will be found more full and accurate, than any thing of a similar kind which has appeared in the United States. It is intended to answer all the essential purposes of a nautical almanac, in addition to the usual calculations of an almanac and ephemeris. Should the work be continued, great care will be devoted to this part, and new matter will annually be given illustrating in a simple manner the practical topics in the science of astronomy.
We have to acknowledge our obligation to the Companion to the British Almanac for many of the particulars, contained in the fourth part of the present work, relating to foreign countries.
EXPLANATION OF THE CALENDAR.
The rising and setting of the Sun and Moon are given for five places in the United States, situated in different latitudes; the Almanac is thus adapted to the inhabitants of every part of the country, as these particulars depend simply on the latitude, and are wholly independent of the longitude.
The column headed Boston, &c. will answer for all places north of latitude 41° 32', that is, British Continental North America, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Michigan; all but the southern extremity of New York and Rhode Island, the northern half of Connecti. cut, the northern third of Pennsylvania, the Connecticut Reserve in Ohio, and the northern extremities of Mlinois and Indiana.
The column headed New York, &c. is intended for places situated between latitude 41° 32' and 39° 48', that is, the southern extremities of New York and Rhode Island, all but the northern third of Pennsylvania, all but the southern extremity of New Jersey, the central parts of Ohio, Illinois, and Iudiana, and the northern third of Missouri.
The column headed Washington, &c. may be used between latitude 390 48' and 35° 52', that is, throughout Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, the District of Columbia, and Kentucky, the northern half of Tennessee, the southern extremity of New Jersey, the southern third of Ohio and Indiana; the southern half of Illinois, all but the northern third of Missouri, and the northern third of North Carolina and Arkansas.
The column headed Charleston, &c. is suited to places between latitude 55° 52' and 31° 24', namely, South Carolina, all but the southern extremity of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, all but the northern third of North Carolina and Arkansas ; the southern half of Tennessee; the northern half of Louisiana.
The column headed New Orleans, 8c. is adapted to places south of lati. tude 31° 24', that is, all Florida and Texas, the southern half of Louisiana, and the southern extremities of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.
The setting of the Moon is given from new moon to full, and the rising from full moon to new; the letters M. A. m. a., to be found in these columns and in other parts of the Almanac, are used to denote Morning and Afternoon.
The time of the Phases of the Moon is computed for the meridian of Washington, but may be readily reduced to that for any other meridian, by adding or subtracting the difference of the longitude according as the same is east or west of that city. The time of the moon's southing is computed for the same meridian. The variation, however, even in a remote part of the United States, will be inconsiderable.
The time of High Water is corrected for the difference of the Right Ascension of the Sun and Moon, and the distance of the Moon from the Earth. The small corrections depending on their declinations and our distance from the Sun, have been neglected as unimportant; indeed it has beon ascertained from a series of several hundred observations, that the corrections we have introduced will, ia calm weather, give the time of high water within fifteen minutes, and, generally, much nearer. The difference between the time of high water at New York, Charleston, and Boston, was derived from the best authorities ; but perhaps it has not been ascer. tained with the degree of accuracy that is to be desired. If our authorities Are correct, the time of high water along the coast of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, as far as Nantucket, is nearly the same as at Bos. ton. Moreover, when it is high water in New York, it is nearly so in Long
Island Sound, along the coast of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina, as far as Cape Lookout, (with the exception of Sandy Hook and the entrance of Chesapeake Bay ;) whilst along the coast of the southern part of North Carolina, of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, at Sandy Hook and the entrance
of the Chesapeake, the time agrees very nearly with that in the column for Charleston ; when greater accuracy is desired, reference should be had to the Tide Table on the 15th page. The time of the tide immediately preceding the southing of the moon, only, having been given, it should be corrected by the addition of half the difference when the time of the other tide is required.
The Planets are placed in the order in which they pass the meridian on the first day of each month, and their declinations are computed for the moment of their passage over the meridian of Washington.
The places of the four new planets are not given, we believe, in any English or French Almanac.
All the calculations in this Almanac, with the exception of the Occultations and the eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, are expressed in apparent time; but in our large cities the mean time is more generally used. Apparent time, however, is readily converted into mean, by applying the equation of time, according to the direction at the head of the column; and mean into apparent, by applying the same equation with the contrary sign.
The longitude, latitude, declination, semidiameter, and horizontal parallax of the Sun and Moon, the Moon's distance from the Sun, the equation of time, and the obliquity of the Ecliptic, being intended rather for the navigator and astronomer than the public generally, are adapted to apparent time for the meridian of Greenwich, whence we reckon our longitude.
By comparing the Sun's longitude and his distance from the Moon az here given, with that in the Nautical Almanac, they will be found to differ, by a quantity varying from two to eleven seconds. This difference, accord. ing to Bessel, is the error of Delambre's tables of the Sun, used in the computation of the Nautical Almanac.
The lunar distances are placed in a manner, which, it is hoped, will be found convenient for the formation of differences.
The Sun's declination, being copied from the Nautical Almanac, is not strictly correct; but the error never exceeds three seconds, and is, for the most part, less than half that quantity; if greater accuracy is desired, the declination, as well as the right ascension can be readily computed from bis longitude and latitude and the obliquity of the ecliptic.
The longitude and latitude of the Moon being given for intervals of twenty-four hours, the proportional of their variation in that term, for any intermediate time, will not be strictly accurate; but must be corrected for the differences of the second, third, and fourth orders, when great accuracy is required. These corrections may be computed by the following formulæ, R being the 2d, 3d, or 4th difference, and x the time from the first interval.
X 2 X
X 24 - 6 x3 + 11 32 - 6x.
24 In these formulæ, it will be noticed, that when the second or fourth difterences are positive, the correction is negative, and vice versa; but that the correction for the third difference has the sign of that difference. If, for example, the longitude of the moon at midnight on the first of January were required, it will be found that the above formulæ give as the correc.